《许渊冲译长生殿》第一本第三出 贿权 -《长生殿》英译-《长生殿》中英双语赏析

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第三出 贿权[1]

【正宫引子】【破阵子】(净扮安禄山箭衣、毡帽上)

失意空悲头角[2],

伤心更陷罗罝[3]。

异志十分难屈伏,

悍气千寻[4]怎蔽遮?

权时[5]宁耐些。

“腹垂过膝力千钧,

足智多谋胆绝伦。

谁道孽龙甘蠖屈[6],

翻江搅海便惊人。”

自家安禄山,营州柳城人也。俺母亲阿史德,求子轧荦山中,归家生俺,因名禄山。那时光满帐房,鸟兽尽都鸣窜。后随母改嫁安廷偃[7],遂冒姓安氏。在节度使张守珪帐下投军。他道我生有异相,养为义子。授我讨击使之职,去征讨奚契丹。一时恃勇轻进,杀得大败逃回。幸得张节度宽恩不杀,解京请旨。昨日到京,吉凶未保。且喜有个结义兄弟,唤作张千,原是杨丞相府中干办。昨已买嘱解官,暂时松放。寻他通个关节[8],把礼物收去了。着我今日到彼候覆,不免前去走遭。

(行介)唉,俺安禄山,也是个好汉,难道便这般结果了么?想起来好恨也!

【正宫过曲】【锦缠道】

莽龙蛇,

本待将河翻海决,

反做了失水瓮中鳖,

恨樊笼霎时困了豪杰。

早知道失军机要遭斧钺,

倒不如丧沙场免受缧绁,

蓦地里脚双跌。

全凭仗金投暮夜[9],

把一身离阱穴。

算有意天生吾也,

不争[10]待半路枉摧折。

来此已是相府门首,且待张兄弟出来。

(丑扮张千上)

“君王舅子三公位,宰相家人七品官。”

(见介)安大哥来了。丞相爷已将礼物全收,着你进府相见。

(净揖介)多谢兄弟周旋。

(丑)丞相爷尚未出堂,且到班房少待。

“全凭内阁调元[11]手,

(净)救取边关失利人。”(同下)

【仙吕引子】【鹊桥仙】(副净扮杨国忠引祗从上)

荣夸帝里,

恩连戚畹[12],

兄妹都承天眷。

中书[13]独坐揽朝权,

看炙手[14]威风赫烜。

“国政归吾掌握中,三台八座[15]极尊崇。退朝日晏归私第,无数官僚拜下风。”下官杨国忠,乃西宫贵妃之兄也。

官居右相,秩晋司空。分日月之光华,掌风雷之号令。

(冷笑介)

穷奢极欲,无非行乐及时;纳贿招权,真个回天有力。左右回避。

(从应下)

(副净)适才张千禀说,有个边将安禄山,为因临阵失机,解京正法。特献礼物到府,要求免死发落。我想胜败乃兵家常事,临阵偶然失利,情有可原。

(笑介)就将他免死,也是为朝廷爱惜人才。已曾分付令他进见,再作道理。

(丑暗上,见介)张千禀事:安禄山在外伺候。

(副净)着他进来。

(丑)领钧旨。

(虚下,引净青衣、小帽上,丑)

这里来。

(净膝行进见介)犯弁[16]安禄山,叩见丞相爷。

(副净)起来。

(净)犯弁是应死囚徒,理当跪禀。

(副净)你的来意,张千已讲过了。且把犯罪情由,细说一番。

(净)丞相爷听禀:犯弁遵奉军令,去征讨奚契丹呵,

(副净)起来讲。(净起介)

【仙吕过曲】【解三酲】

恃勇锐冲锋出战,

指征途所向无前。

不提防番兵夜来围合转,

临白刃剩空弮[17]。

(副净)后来怎生得脱?

(净)那时犯弁杀条血路,奔出重围。

单枪匹马身幸免,

只指望鉴录微功折罪愆。

谁想今日呵,

当刑宪!

(叩首介)望高抬贵手,曲赐矜怜。

【前腔】【换头】(副净起介)

论失律丧师关巨典,

我虽总朝纲敢擅专?

况刑书已定难更变,

恐无力可回天。

(净跪哭介)丞相爷若肯救援,犯弁就得生了。

(副净笑介)便道我言从计听微有权,这就里机关不易言。

(净叩头介)全仗丞相爷做主!

(副净)也罢。待我明日进朝,相机而行便了。乘其便,便好开罗撤网,保汝生全。

(净叩头介)蒙丞相爷大恩,容犯弁犬马图报。就此告辞。

(副净)张千引他出去。

(丑应,同净出介)

“眼望捷旌旗,

耳听好消息[18]。”

(同下)

(副净想介)我想安禄山乃边方末弁,从未著有劳绩。今日犯了死罪,我若特地救他,必动圣上之疑。(笑介)哦,有了。前日张节度疏[19]内,曾说他通晓六番言语,精熟诸般武艺,可当边将之任。我就授意兵部,以此为辞,奏请圣上,召他御前试验。于中乘机取旨,却不是好。

专权意气本豪雄,卢照邻

万态千端一瞬中。吴融

多积黄金买刑戮,李咸用

不妨私荐也成公。杜荀鹤

注释:

[1] 幽州节度使张守珪,派他的部下平卢讨击使、左骁卫将军安禄山,去攻打奚契丹部落。安禄山由于轻敌,吃了败仗。他应该被处死。长官张守珪是他的义父,为了使他有从宽发落的可能,把他解到京师问罪。丞相张九龄主张把他杀了。李隆基宽赦了他,只解除他的官职,仍旧叫他带兵。这是唐玄宗开元二十四年(736)的事。据史实,这时,杨玉环还是李隆基的儿子寿王李瑁的妃子,杨国忠还没有在朝做官(据《通鉴》卷二一四)。

[2] 头角:指高贵的相貌。

[3] 罗罝:罗网。指解京问罪。为协韵,罝,读作jū。

[4] 千寻:八尺为一寻。千寻,千寻高,形容悍气之盛。

[5] 权时:暂时。

[6] 蠖屈:不得志。蠖,尺蠖,虫名,行动时一伸一缩(屈)。

[7] 安延偃:突厥族一个部落的酋长。

[8] 通个关节:买通官员,以求得包庇。

[9] 金投暮夜:东汉时昌邑令王密以金十斤送给东莱太守杨震。震不收。王密说:“收下不要紧,在这个晚上没有人会知道的。”杨震说:“天知地知,我知你知,怎么没有人知道呢?”

[10] 不争:不曾,不至于、哪见得。

[11] 调元:调和阴阳,指宰相治理国家。

[12] 戚畹:即戚里,外戚所居的地方。

[13] 中书:唐代中书省的长官叫中书令,是仅次于皇帝的最高执政。

[14] 炙手:炙手可热,形容气焰很盛,权势很大。

[15] 三台八座:封建皇朝的最高政权机关。汉代以尚书、御史、谒者为三台;唐代以左右仆射及左右相、六尚书为八座。

[16] 弁:下级武官。一般武官也自称弁,以表示对对方的尊重。

[17] 临白刃剩空弮:奋勇不屈,战到最后。空弮,箭射完了,只剩下一张弓。弮(quān),弓弦,指弓。

[18] 眼望捷旌旗,耳听好消息:等待好消息。

[19] 张节度疏:节度使张守珪的奏章。

Scene3 The Bribe

(Enter An Lushan in arrow-proof coat and felt hat.)

An sings to the tune of “Song of Cavalry”:

I grieve for my fellows in vain:

I fall into a trap again.

Can I subdue my aspiration high?

Hidden by clifs, can my ambition lie?

Be patient awhile and stand by!

My belly’s big and mighty I appear;

I’m full of wit and brave without a peer.

How can a fiery dragon conquered be?

The world would tremble when I stir the sea.

I am An Lushan from Liucheng. My mother prayed to the Lushan Mountain to give her a son, came back and gave birth to me whom she called Lushan. At my birth our tent was overflowed with light and all beasts and birds fled away. Then my mother married a second husband An Tingyan,chief of a tribe, so my surname became An. I enlisted under Military Governor Zhang Shougui. Struck by my uncommon appearance, he adopted me. I was then appointed as a lieutenant and sent to ifght the western tribesmen. Boasting of my courage, I advanced recklessly and was badly defeated and forced to take flight. Luckily Governor Zhang was too lenient to have me executed, but sent me to the capital for punishment. I arrived yesterday, uncertain of my fate. Fortunately I have a sworn brother named Zhang Qian, who is a steward in Prime Minister Yang’s office. Having bribed the escort to release me awhile, I have sought out my sworn brother and through him sent presents to the Prime Minister. Now I am going to learn the outcome. (Walking round the stage) Alas! An Lushan, you are a brave fellow. Can this be your end? Damn it!

An sings to the tune of “Way of Brocade”:

Like an unruly dragon, I

Would have stirred up the sea to brave the sky.

But out of water, like captured turtle or fish,

Brave as I am, I’m trapped and can’t do what I wish.

Had I known that defeat meant I must lose my head,

I’d have my blood in battle shed.

Now suddenly on air my chained feet tread

Can I rely on bribes given at dead of night

To make good my escape from the sad plight?

O since Heaven favored me with the day,

Should I allow myself to be killed in midway?

I see this is the prime minister’s court and I must wait for my

sworn brother here.

(Enter Zhang Qian.)

Zhang: The emperor’s kin’s prime minister of the state;

As his steward I’m as good as a magistrate.

(Greeting An): So you have come. His Grace has accepted your gifts, and will give you an Audience.

An (Bowing): I must thank you for your help.

Zhang: His Grace has not yet entered the court. Let us wait in the antechamber.

It is all in the prime minister’s hand.

An: To save one beaten on the borderland (Exeunt.)

(The prime minister, Yang Guozhong, enters with his retinue.)

Yang sings to the tune of “Immortals at the Magpie Bridge”:

Related as a kin

To our great sovereign,

Both my cousin and I

Have received favor high.

As prime minister I alone govern the state.

Beware! I am in power and splendor great.

The imperial government is now in my hand; My position’s most respectable of the land.After the audience when I leave the court with ease, All courtiers bow before me as if bent by breeze. I am Yang Guozhong, a cousin to Lady Yang. As prime minister, I share the glory of the sun and the moon, and give orders like wind and thunderbolt.

(Laughing sardonically)

Living in luxury, I believe a man should enjoy himself while he can. Accepting bribes, I have the power to shape the imperial decisions. Attendants, leave me!

(His retinue goes out.)

Zhang Qian reported a short time ago that a frontier lieutenant,An Lushan, who lost battles, has been brought to the capital for court martial. But he has sent me pre-sents, begging his life be spared. I think victory or defeat is a matter of common occurrence, and to be defeated occasionally is excusable.

(Laughing) If I spare him, I shall be saving a useful officer for the state. I have already sent for him and shall make up my mind when I see him.

(Zhang enters.)

Zhang: Your Grace, An Lushan is waiting outside.

Yang: Bring him in.

Zhang: Yes, Your Grace.

(He goes out, then leads in An Lushan in a blue coat and cap.) Come this way.

An (Advancing on his knees): The wretched An Lushan salutes Your Grace.

Yang: Rise.

An: A criminal who should be sentenced to death dare not.

Yang: Zhang Qian has reported to me your purpose in coming here.

Now give me your own account of your ofence.

An: Your Grace, I was ordered to attack the western tribe…

Yang: Rise and speak.

An (Rising) sings to the tune of “Thrice Awake from Wine”:

Relying on our strength, we charged the foes,

And overran all those on our way. But who knows

By surprise they surrounded our camp at night;

How could we pit our bare hands against their swords bright?

Yang: How did you escape?

An: I fought my way and broke through.

Alone I saved my life on a horse with a spear.

I hoped to be pardoned for past services done.

But now before a court martial I should appear.

(Kowtowing)I beg Your Grace for mercy on the beaten one.

Yang (Rising from his seat):

To lose an army is against the law.

Though I have power, how can I the verdict withdraw?

The sentence, when once passed, unaltered shall remain.

I fear I cannot change the wind and rain.

An (Shedding tears on his knees): Only if Your Grace take mercy on me can I be saved.

Yang (Laughing):

E’en if the court will follow what I say,

It is not easy to tell you the way.

An (Kowtowing): My life is in the hands of Your Grace.

Yang: Well, tomorrow when I go to the court, I’ll see what can be done.

I’ll try to save your life and set

You free from the law’s net.

An (Kowtowing): I owe Your Grace such gratitude that I can repay you only by serving as your dog or horse. Would Your Grace allow me to take my leave?

Yang: Zhang Qian, show him out!

Zhang: With hopeful flag in sight,

You’ll see good news alight.

(Zhang leads An out.)

Yang (Reflectively): This An Lushan is a junior officer at the frontier,who has by no means distinguished himself. Now he shall be sentenced to death. If I try to save him, it might arouse the emperor’s suspicion. (Laughing) Ah, I’ve got it. The other day Governor Zhang stated in his memorial to the throne that An’s knowledge of barbarian languanges and military skill qualified him for the post of a frontier general. I’ll drop a hint to the minister of war to propose to the emperor that An be summoned to court to be tested by His Majesty. That will give me the opening I need. Yes, that’s it.

Epilogue of the Scene

I know well how to use my power;

My face may change from hour to hour.

Gold can save one from punishment;

The premier is the government.

(Exit.)

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