《中国传统文化关键字》大体、小体 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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大体、小体

The Major Organ and the Minor Organs

孟子对心与感觉器官的称谓,用于对大人与小人的区分。耳、目等感觉器官为“小体”,耳目之官不具备思考与辨别的能力,因此在与外物的接触中易受外物牵引。人如果仅仅依循于“小体”,则会陷于物欲,是为小人。心为“大体”, 心天生具有思考与辨别的能力。人如果能够确立“大体”的主导性,则可以通过心的作用,发现并不断扩充心中固有的善端,不为物欲所蒙蔽,是为大人。

Referring to the heart and the sensory organs, this term was used by Mencius to differentiate between men of virtue and petty men. Sensory organs such as the ears and eyes are calle “minor organs” because they lack a capacity for thought and for cognition, and are hence easily directed by externalities when they come into contact with the latter. If a man were to only rely on his“minor organs”,he would be a captive of material desires and therefore become a petty man. The heart is the “major organ” which is naturally endowed with the capacity for thought and cognition. If a man is able to establish a dominant role for his“major organ”,then through the actions of his heart, he will be able to continually increase its inherent goodness and not have his judgment clouded by material desires, and thereby become a man of virtue.

🎈在翻译“孟子对心与感觉器官的称谓,用于对大人与小人的区分”一句时,译文将“对心与感觉器官的称谓”译为一个动宾结构并作为一个状语出现“Referring to the heart and the sensory organs”;此外,译文将原文的主动语序转换为被动,将“孟子用于对大人与小人的区分”译为“被孟子所使用…”(used by Mencius to differentiate between men of virtue and petty men),符合英文行文习惯。

🎈在处理“大人”与“小人”的翻译时,原文的“大和小”并非指的是生理上的大和小,而是指的品格道德上的高与低,所以大人指的是品格高尚的的人(men of virtue),而小人指的是狭隘之人,故而译为“petty men”。

🎈在翻译“易受外物牵引”这一表达时,原文所想要表达的意思是“容易被外物所引导;跟着外物走”,所以译为“easily directed by externalities”。

🎈在翻译“陷于物欲,是为小人”一句时,译文将其译为“be a captive of material desires”,意思是“成为了物质欲望的奴隶”,形象贴切;而在处理“是为小人”的翻译时,译文译为了“therefore become a petty man”,“therefore”表达出了“陷于物欲”和“成为小人”之间的暗含的因果关系。

🎈在翻译“不为物欲所蒙蔽,是为大人”一句时,译文使用了“thereby”,意为“因此;由此”,既表达了上下句之间的因果关系,又与上一句的“therefore”采用了不同的表达方式,遵从了英文的行文习惯。

🎈重点表达

大体、小体 the major organ and the minor organs

大人与小人 men of virtue and petty men

感觉器官 sensory organs

…的能力 a capacity for

思考与辨别 thought and cognition

与…接触 come into contact with

依赖于 rely on

陷于物欲 be a captive of material desires

天生具有 be endowed with

主导性 dominant role

被…蒙蔽 beclouded by

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《中国传统文化关键字》大体、小体 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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