《中国传统文化关键字》崇本举末 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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崇本举末

Revere the Fundamental and Keep the Specific Unchanged

尊崇“本”以成就、保全“末”,是对待“本”“末”关系的一种方式。王弼在解释老子思想时提出了“崇本举末”的思想,与“崇本息末”相对。这里的“本”指无形、无名者,即“道”;“末”指自然之形、名。“崇本举末”即是要充分发挥“道”或“无”的作用,以使万物自然生成并得以保全。在政治领域,“崇本”特指君主以“道”为依据,施行无为之治。君主通过“崇本”,使百姓依自然本性而生活。

This concept, as opposed to “revere the fundamental and dismiss the specific”, originates in Wang Bi’s interpretation of Laozi. The fundamental, namely, Dao, is shapeless and nameless, while the specific refers to natural shapes and names. The term “revere the fundamental and keep the specific unchanged” means giving full rein to Dao and void so that the nature emerges and stays active. Politically, this term means a sovereign should govern on the basis of Dao and do nothing that goes against nature. He should revere the fundamental to ensure that the people can lead their lives as dictated by their inherent nature.

🎈译文略去了中文原文第一句的翻译。“崇本举末”在中文原文中虽然只有四字,但是经过深层挖掘信息和涵义后,再翻译到英文便会使得句子增长很多。因此,在题目已经译出“崇本举末”的含义(Revere the Fundamental and Keep the Specific Unchanged)的情况下,译文第一句没有再赘述一遍,使得译文简洁不啰嗦。

🎈在翻译“王弼在解释老子思想时提出了“崇本举末”的思想,与“崇本息末”相对”一句时,译文根据英文行文习惯,将“as opposed to “revere the fundamental and dismiss the specific””作为一个插入语出现,而本句译文的主谓宾结构则是“This concept originates in Wang Bi’s interpretation of Laozi”。

🎈在翻译“这里的“本”指无形、无名者,即“道”;“末”指自然之形、名”时,译文在两个短句之间使用了“while”,表示一种对立或者对比关系。

🎈在处理“以使万物自然生成并得以保全”一句的翻译时,译文没有拘泥于原文的文字表层结构,而是根据原文所想要表达的意思进行翻译。本句话的意思是“让万物能够发生出现并且保持这种生长的态势”,故译为“the nature emerges and stays active”。

🎈在翻译“在政治领域”时,译文直接采用了一个副词“Politically”而非生硬的译为“In the political field”,简洁明了。

🎈在翻译“施行无为之治”一句时,译文译为了“do nothing that goes against nature”。“无为之治”不是真的什么事情也不做,而指的是不做违反自然法则的事情,所以译文增译出了“ goes against nature”。

🎈在译文最后一句之中,主语是代词he,代指上句的“sovereign”,“君主”之意。这样翻译使得译文简洁明了,且遵从英文忌讳重复的行文习惯。

🎈重点表达

崇本举末:revere the fundamental and keep the specific unchanged

崇本息末:revere the fundamental and dismiss the specific

与…相对:as opposed to

无形无名:shapeless and nameless

充分发挥:give full rein

无(虚无;无为):void

统治:govern on

无为而治:do nothing that goes against nature

自然本性:inherent nature

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