《论语·第二十章》尧曰篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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本篇主要记录古代圣贤的言论和孔子对于为政的论述

尧曰:“咨!尔舜!天之历数在尔躬,允执其中。四海困穷,天禄永终。”舜亦以命禹。曰:“予小子履,敢用玄牡,敢昭告于皇皇后帝:有罪不敢赦,帝臣不蔽,简在帝心。朕躬有罪,无以万方;万方有罪,罪在朕躬。”周有大赉,善人是富。“虽有周亲,不如仁人。百姓有过,在予一人。”谨权量,审法度,修废官,四方之政行焉。兴灭国,继绝世,举逸民,天下之民归心焉。所重:民、食、丧、祭。宽则得众,信则民任焉,敏则有功,公则说。

Yao said to Shun who succeeded him as emperor,“Oh, Shun! Heaven lays the divine duty on you. You should follow the right way without deviation. If the people in the world suffer poverty and misery, Heaven would no longer bestow favor on you.” Shun said the same thing to Yu who succeeded him as emperor. Tang who founded the Yin dynasty said, “I, your humble servant, venture to sacrifice a black ox and declare to my Supreme Sovereign in Heaven that I dare not pardon any sinner nor conceal any guilt of my ministers which is of course clear in your mind. If I myself am guilty, do not lay blame on my people. If my people have done wrong, you may lay blame on me.” Zhou had ennobled its lords and enriched its good men. King Wu of Zhou said“I have bestowed favor on my kinsmen, but less than on good men. If my people are guilty, lay blame on me alone!”When attention was paid to weights and measures, statute and laws were reviewed and disused offices were restored, the government would go on the right way. When fallen states were re-established, descendants of extinguished families were found out, and unemployed good people were employed, the heart of the people would turn to the government. Emphasis should be laid on people, food, mourning and sacrifice. Lenience will win the people, faithfulness will win trust, diligence will win success, and justice will win happiness for the people.

🎈首句中,「尧曰」处理为Yao said to Shun who succeeded him as emperor,增译了who succeeded him as emperor,交代背景。

🎈四海困穷,天禄永终。即(如果)四海困穷,(那么)天禄永终。因此用if引导的条件状语从句译出「四海困穷」

🎈……,简在帝心。处理为定语从句which is clear in your mind,与前面的阐述连接起来。在汉英翻译时学会善用定语从句起到连接的作用。

🎈谨权量,审法度,修废官,这三个小分句都没有主语,翻译时转换为被动语态。

子张问于孔子曰:“何如斯可以从政矣?”子曰:“尊五美,屏四恶,斯可以从政矣。”子张曰:“何谓五美?”子曰:“君子惠而不费,劳而不怨,欲而不贪,泰而不骄,威而不猛。”子张曰:“何谓惠而不费?”子曰:“因民之所利而利之,斯不亦惠而不费乎?择可劳而劳之,又谁怨?欲仁而得仁,又焉贪?君子无众寡,无小大,无敢慢,斯不亦泰而不骄乎?君子正其衣冠,尊其瞻视,俨然人望而畏之,斯不亦威而不猛乎?”子张曰:“何谓四恶?”子曰:“不教而杀谓之虐;不戒视成谓之暴;慢令致期谓之贼;犹之与人也,出纳之吝谓之有司。”

Zi Zhang asked Confucius,“How could a man become a good ruler?” The Master said, “A man good in five aspects and free from four evils may become a good ruler.” Zi Zhang asked, “May I know in which five aspects?” The Master said, “An intelligentleman should do good without waste, make people work without complaint, have desire without greed, uphold justice without pride and inspire respect without awe.” Zi Zhang asked, “How could a man do good without waste?” The Master said, “If a ruler only does what will profit the people, is it not doing good without waste? If he orders people to do what they can, how could they complain? If he desires only to do good, how could he become greedy? If he treats all equally, whether there are many people or few, in great matter or small, is it not justice without pride? If he adjusts his clothes and hat and looks dignified, would he not inspire respect without awe?” Zi Zhang asked, “May I ask about the four evils?” The Master said, “To put people to death without reason is called tyranny. To expect success without due warning is called exaction. To demand timely completion without giving timely orders is called irresponsibility. To reward people in a stingy way is called miserliness.”

🎈从政,become a good ruler。我们在前面也多次提到「从政」的译法,大家可以放在一起积累,这样在做汉英翻译时便于同义替换。

🎈尊五美,屏四恶,斯可以从政矣。这句话原文没有主语,翻译时补出主语a man,将“尊五美,屏四恶”处理为形容词结构做后置定语,将“可以从政”处理为主句谓语。

🎈斯不亦惠而不费乎?反问句,is it not…?

🎈君子无众寡,无小大,无敢慢。这个句子在翻译时先提取出主干,即君子无敢慢。而“无众寡,无小大”则表示无论众寡、小大,都是如此,由whether引出状语从句译出。因此译为he treats all equally, whether there are many people or few, in great matter or small

孔子曰:“不知命,无以为君子也;不知礼,无以立也;不知言,无以知人也。”

孔子说:“不懂得天命,就没有可能成为君子,不懂得礼,就没有办法宣身处世,不知道分辨别人的言语,便不能了解别人。”

Confucius said,“One who does not understand the divine law cannot be called an intelligentleman. One who does not understand the social order cannot stand in society. One who does not understand what words imply cannot understand men.”

🎈原文没有主语,翻译时补出泛指主语one。同时注意学习译文的句型,都是one+(who引导的定语从句)+主句谓语

🎈重点表达

执其中,走正道follow the right way without deviation

天禄永终Heaven would no longer bestow the favor on you

责怪lay blame on somebody

重视Emphasis should be laid on…

宽则得众Lenience will win the people

尊五美be good in five aspects

屏四恶be free from four evils

为政become a good ruler

惠而不费do good without waste

欲而不贪have desire without greed

泰而不骄uphold justice without pride

威而不猛inspire respect without awe

出纳之吝reward someboday in a stingy way

命divine law

立stand in society

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《论语·第二十章》尧曰篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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