《论语·第十九章》子张篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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子张曰:“士见危致命,见得思义,祭思敬,丧思哀,其可已矣。”

Zi Zhang said,“An intellectual is not afraid of giving up his life in face of danger. He thinks of what is right in face of a gain, of reverence in sacrifice and of grief in mourning. Such may be said to be an intellectual.

🎈见危、见得,这里「见」是动词,许译将其处理为介词短语in face of…

🎈He thinks of what is right in face of a gain, (thinks) of reverence in sacrifice and (thinks) of grief in mourning. 这里后面两个分句都省略了动词thinks,避免与前面重复,这样使译文更精简。汉英翻译时可以善用这种省略手法。

子张曰:“执德不弘,信道不笃,焉能为有?焉能为亡?”

Zi Zhang said,“If a man holds what is right only in a narrow sense and believes in right principles but not firmly, could he be said to hold and believe in what is right? Or could he not?”

🎈原文无主语,翻译时需补出泛指主语a man

🎈德,what is right。我们前面也提到过,汉英翻译可以用what引导的名词性从句来译出一些抽象概念。

子夏之门人问交于子张,子张曰:“子夏云何?”对曰:“子夏曰:‘可者与之,其不可者拒之。’”子张曰:“异乎吾所闻。君子尊贤而容众,嘉善而矜不能。我之大贤与,于人何所不容?我之不贤与,人将拒我,如之何其拒人也?”

A disciple of Zi Xia asked Zi Zhang how to make friends. Zi Zhang said,“What did Zi Xia tell you? The disciple said, “Zi Xia told us to make friends with those who are worthy and refuse those who are unworthy.” Zi Zhang said, “This is different from what I have learned. A cultured man should respect the good man and bear with others, praise the capable and help the incapable. Am I so good as not to bear with others? If I am not good enough, others will refuse to make friends with me. How could I refuse them?”

🎈可者与之,其不可者拒之。这里「可者」译为those who are worthy;「不可者」译为those who are unworthy。也可以处理为the+adj.,即the worthy/unworthy。这个表达十分常见,如「嘉善而矜不能」,其中,善,the capable;不能,the incapable

🎈(如果)我之大贤与,(那么)于人何所不容?(如果)我之不贤与,(那么)人将拒我,如之何其拒人也?这句话在理解原文是可以加上关联词「如果……那么……」,我们之前讲解时也提到过在理解原文时,有时可以通过关联词厘清原文句内的逻辑关系。

子夏曰:“日知其所亡,月无忘其所能,可谓好学也已矣。”

Zi Xia said,“If a man knows what he has not yet learned everyday and does not forget what he has learned every month, he may be said to be a lover of knowledge.”

🎈原文无主语,翻译时补出主语a man

🎈所亡,what he has not yet learned;所能,what he has learned。所+动词=名词,翻译时可用用what引导的名词性结构译出

🎈可谓……,somebody may be said to be…

🎈好学,“好”在这里是动词,许译处理为名词结构(lover),即a lover of knowledge。这个转换方式我们在前面讲解中已经多次提及,类似:她唱歌很好(She is a good singer)

子夏曰:“博学而笃志,切问而近思,仁在其中矣。”

Zi Xia said,“If a man studies in a wide range and with an unswerving aim, if he asks questions earnestly and reflects on closely related problems, he may be said to have good qualities in him.”

🎈无主语,翻译时补出泛指主语a man。

🎈博学而笃志,切问而近思,仁在其中矣。“博学而笃志,切问而近思”是“仁”的条件,因此用if引导的条件状语从句译出。

子夏曰:“小人之过也必文。”

Zi Xia said,“An uncultured man would certainly gloss his faults.”

🎈小人之过也必文。原文换个表达结构(换为主谓宾结构)即为:小人必文其过。因此许译为an uncultured man would…

子夏曰:“君子有三变:望之俨然,即之也温,听其言也厉。”

Zi Xia said,“An intelligentleman has three different aspects: when seen from afar, he looks grave; when approached, he looks affable; when listened to, he looks dignified.”

🎈望之俨然,即之也温,听其言也厉。这句话没有主语,但「望」「即」「听」都有宾语,因此翻译时转换为被动语态,如:望之俨然,译为when (he is) seen from afar, he looks grave,省略了he is

子夏曰:“君子信而后劳其民,未信,则以为厉己也;信而后谏,未信,则以为谤己也。”

Zi Xia said,“An intelligentleman will not order the people to toil until he is trusted, or they will think they are exploited. He will not criticize the sovereign till he wins his confidence, or the sovereign will think himself vilified.”

🎈A而后B,not do B until do A,注意学习一下译文not…until的用法

子夏曰:“大德不逾闲,小德出入可也。”

Zi Xia said,“In regard to a serious matter of virtue, a man should not go beyond the limit; but in regard to a trifling matter, he may not keep within limit.”

🎈原文两个分句,主语看似是「大德」「小德」,但仔细思考,则发现其实这里指的是「在大德上」「在小德上」,即表示两个方面,许译用in regard to…引出。同时,原文无主语,翻译时需补出泛指主语a man

子游曰:“子夏之门人小子,当洒扫应对进退则可矣。抑末也,本之则无,如之何?”子夏闻之,曰:“噫,言游过矣!君子之道,孰先传焉?孰后倦焉?譬诸草木,区以别矣。君子之道焉可诬也?有始有卒者,其惟圣人乎!”

Zi You said,“The disciples and followers of Zi Xia are good at sprinkling water and sweeping floors, answering questions, coming forward and withdrawing, but all these are minor matters. I am afraid they are not so good in dealing with important things, Am I not right?” Hearing of this remark, Zi Xia said, “Alas! Zi You is mistaken. In regard to an intelligentleman’s ways, which should be learned first? and which may be learned later? Disciples may be compared to plants and trees; they may be classified. How can an intelligentleman’s ways not be learned in order? Who could be one from the beginning to the end? Is it not the sage alone?”

🎈子夏闻之,曰:……,这里有两个谓语,许译将“闻之”处理为非谓语作伴随状语(Hearing of this remark),将“曰”处理为主句谓语(said),这样处理更加主次分明。

🎈有始有卒者,其惟圣人乎!这句话译文中,许译通过一个设问句(Who could be one from the beginning to the end? )和一个反问句(Is it not the sage alone?)译出,语气到位。

子夏曰:“仕而优则学,学而优则仕。”

Zi Xia said,“An official versed in state affairs should amplify his knowledge; an intellectual well equipped with knowledge should serve the state.”

🎈原文无主语,翻译时根据语境补出主语。如前半句根据「仕而优」可以推出主语是an official;后半句根据「学而优」可以推出主语是an intellectual

🎈补出主语后,注意观察许译如何处理「仕而优则学」,这个小分句中,「仕而优」是「学」的条件,许译处理为versed in state affairs,做主语an official的后置定语;同理,“学而优则仕”,其中,“学而优”是“仕”的条件,许译处理为well equipped with knowledge,做主语an intellectual的后置定语。

子游曰:“丧致乎哀而止。”

Zi You said,“Mourning should not exceed grief.”

🎈许译采用反译法,即丧不应超过哀(=丧致乎哀而止)

子游曰:“吾友张也为难能也,然而未仁。”

Zi You said,“It is difficult to get a friend as good as Zi Zhang, still he cannot be said to be a benevolent man.”

🎈吾友张也为难能也。这句话翻译时可以体现中文先事实后评价,英文先评价后事实这一差异。

曾子曰:“吾闻诸夫子,人未有自致者也,必也亲丧乎!”

Master Zeng said,“I have heard from our Master that no man should show his feeling to the full unless he is mourning the death of his parents.”

🎈人未有自致者也,即人不会自动地充分表露感情,换个说法即为:没有人会……,因此许译处理为no man should…

🎈人未有自致者也,必也亲丧乎。这两个分句通过unless连接起来,即:人不会自致,除非亲丧时。

曾子曰:“吾闻诸夫子,孟庄子之孝也,其他可能也;其不改父之臣与父之政,是难能也。”

Master Zeng said,“I have heard from our Master that it is possible to be as good a son as Meng Zhuang Zi, but it is difficult to be as good an official as he in employing his father’s subordinates and following his father’s policy.”

🎈孟庄子之孝也,其他可能也;其不改父之臣与父之政,是难能也。中文先事实(孟庄子之孝也;其不改父之臣与父之政)后评价(其他可能也;是难能也),英文先评价(it is possible;it is difficult)后事实(be as good a son as Meng Zhuang Zi;be as good an official as he in employing his father’s subordinates and following his father’s policy)

孟氏使阳肤为士师,问于曾子。曾子曰:“上失其道,民散久矣。如得其情,则哀矜而勿喜!”

The chief of the Meng family appointed Yang Fu as criminal judge, and Yang Fu consulted Master Zeng. Master Zeng said, “Those above have not followed the right way for a long time, and the people do not support them. If you can find out the reason why the criminals are accused, you should feel sympathy for them instead of joy for yourself.”

🎈「其情」指代的是什么?根据上文的「孟氏使阳肤为士师(担任掌管刑罚的官)」,可以推断出“其情”指的是犯罪的情况。在汉英翻译中,理解中文原文是第一步,而这时我们常常需要根据上下文语境理清楚代词真正指代的是什么。

子贡曰:“纣之不善,不如是之甚也。是以君子恶居下流,天下之恶皆归焉。”

Master Zeng said,“King Zhou of Yin might not be so tyrannical as it was reported. That is the reason why an intelligentleman would not stay in a low place, where one would be accused of all the evils of the world.”

🎈是以君子恶居下流,天下之恶皆归焉。通过where引导的定语从句译出「天下之恶皆归焉」,修饰「下流」(a low place)。如此便将两个分句巧妙连接为一句。注意学习体会汉英翻译中定语从句起到的整合分句的作用。

子贡曰:“君子之过也,如日月之食焉。过也人皆见之,更也人皆仰之。”

Master Zeng said,“The faults of an intelligentleman are like eclipses of the sun or the moon. When he does something wrong, all men can see it. When he has amended his fault, all men look up to him.”

🎈过也人皆见之。这句话中,「过」没有主语,根据前文可以推断出主语是「君子」,翻译时需补出来。且这个分句中,「过也」描述的是一个情境、一种情况,因此用when引导的从句译出。

卫公孙朝问于子贡曰:“仲尼焉学?”子贡曰:“文武之道未坠于地,在人。贤者识其大者,不贤者识其小者,莫不有文武之道焉,夫子焉不学?而亦何常师之有?”

Gongsun Chao of the State of Wei asked Zi Gong,“From whom has Confucius acquired his knowledge?” Zi Gong said, “What the Literary and Martial Kings had taught the people has not been lost on earth. Cultured men have learned to settle main matters and uncultured men to settle minor matters. There is none but has learned something from the Literary and Martial Kings. How could my Master have learned nothing? Why should he have learned from one particular master?”

🎈文武之道,即周文王和周武王之道,许处理为what引导的名词性从句what the Literary and Martial Kings had taught the people

🎈Cultured men have learned to settle main matters and uncultured men (have learned) to settle minor matters. 后半句省略了have learned,避免与前半句重复,这种省略方法可以使译文更加精简。我们在前面几章的讲解中也多次提及,大家注意学习内化。

叔孙武叔语大夫于朝曰:“子贡贤于仲尼。”子服景伯以告子贡,子贡曰:“譬之宫墙,赐之墙也及肩,窥见室家之好;夫子之墙数仞,不得其门而入,不见宗庙之美、百官之富。得其门者或寡矣,夫子之云不亦宜乎!”

Shu Sun Wu Shu said to an official at court,“Zi Gong is more capable than his master Confucius. Zi Fu Jing Bo told Zi Gong what he had heard. Zi Gong said, “Let us use the wall as a comparison. My wall is only as high as my shoulder, so the beauty of my house could be easily perceived from over the wall. But my Master’s wall rises many times a man’s height. If a man cannot find the door to enter the house, the beauty and magnificense of the temple and halls could not be perceived. But few could enter his house by the door. No wonder the official should have said that about my Master.”

🎈窥见室家之好,无主语,翻译时转换为被动语态

🎈不得其门而入,不见宗庙之美、百官之富。即:若不得其门而入,则不见宗庙之美、百官之富。因此用if引导的条件状语从句译出“不得其门而入”。且这两个分句都没有主语,“不得其门而入”翻译时补出主语a man;“不见宗庙之美、百官之富”翻译时转换为被动语态,以the beauty and magnificense of the temple and halls为主语

🎈得其门者或寡矣,换个说法,即很少有人能得其门,因此译为few could…

叔孙武叔毁仲尼,子贡曰:“无以为也,仲尼不可毁也。他人之贤者,丘陵也,犹可逾也;仲尼,日月也,无得而逾焉。人虽欲自绝,其何伤于日月乎?多见其不知量也。”

Shu Sun Wu Shu spoke ill of Confucius. Zi Gong said,“It is no use doing wrong to Confucius. Other good men may be vilified, for their height like hillocks or mounds may be surpassed. But Confucius is as high as the sun and the moon. How could he be surpassed? If a man should try to harm him, it would turn to harm himself. What harm could be done to the sun and the moon? It is beyond a man’s reach.”

🎈无得而逾焉,许译为疑问句How could he be surpassed? 语气更加凸显。

陈子禽谓子贡曰:“子为恭也,仲尼岂贤于子乎?”子贡曰:“君子一言以为知,一言以为不知,言不可不慎也。夫子之不可及也,犹天之不可阶而升也。夫子之得邦家者,所谓立之斯立,道之斯行,绥之斯来,动之斯和。其生也荣,其死也哀,如之何其可及也?”

Chen Zi Qin said to Zi Gong,“You are too modest. How could Confucius be superior to you?” Zi Gong said, “By one word an intelligentleman may reveal his wisdom or ignorance. So we should be careful about what we say. It is as hard to catch up with my Master as to ascend the sky by a ladder. If he were in control of a state or a great family, the people would stand when he raised them, they would follow him when he led them, they would come from afar when called on to, and they would work in harmony when taught to. Living, he was glorious; dead, he would be bewailed. How could he be equalled?”

🎈君子一言以为知,一言以为不知。这两句在翻译时可用合并,即君子一言以为知或不知。

🎈夫子之不可及也,犹天之不可阶而升也。这两个分句传达的意思都是「不可」,或「难以实现」,因此许先译出这层关键含义,即hard,通过It is as hard to do A as to do B这一句型译出。

🎈其生也荣,其死也哀。无主语,翻译时补出主语。「其生」「其死」分别处理为living, dead,做状语

🎈重点表达

见危致命give up his life in face of danger

执德hold what is right

尊贤而容众respect the good man and bear with others

嘉善而矜不能praise the capable and help the incapable

小道,小技艺a minor art

好学a lover of knowledge

博学而笃志study in a wide range and with an unswerving aim

切问而近思ask earnestly and reflect on closely related problems

致其道attain his ideal

文其过,掩饰过错gloss his faults

大德a serious matter of virtue

逾闲,超越界限go beyond the limit

学而优则仕an intellectual well equipped with knowledge may serve the state

日月之食the eclipses of the sun and the moon

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《论语·第十九章》子张篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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