​​《论语·第十六章》季氏篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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季氏将伐颛臾,冉有、季路见于孔子,曰:“季氏将有事于颛臾。”孔子曰:“求,无乃尔是过与?夫颛臾,昔者先王以为东蒙主,且在邦域之中矣,是社稷之臣也。何以伐为?”冉有曰:“夫子欲之,吾二臣者皆不欲也。”孔子曰:“求,周任有言曰:‘陈力就列,不能者止。’危而不持,颠而不扶,则将焉用彼相矣?且尔言过矣,虎兕出于柙,龟玉毁于椟中,是谁之过与?”冉有曰:“今夫颛臾固而近于费,今不取,后世必为子孙忧。”孔子曰:“求,君子疾夫舍曰欲之而必为之辞。丘也闻,有国有家者,不患寡而患不均,不患贫而患不安。盖均无贫,和无寡,安无倾。夫如是,故远人不服则修文德以来之,既来之,则安之。今由与求也相夫子,远人不服而不能来也,邦分崩离析而不能守也,而谋动干戈于邦内。吾恐季孙之忧不在颛臾,而在萧墙之内也。”

The head of the Ji family was going to attack Zhuanyu. Ran You and Zi Lu came to see Confucius and said, “Our chief is going to attack Zhuanyu.” Confucius said, “Ran You, is it not your fault? Long ago Zhuanyu was appointed by former kings to preside over the sacrifice to the Eastern Meng. Moreover, it lies within the boundaries of our state, and it is a vassal state to safeguard our land. How can such an attack be justified?” Ran Yu said, “It is our chief who wishes the attack. Neither of us wishes it, but we are only his officials.” Confucius said to Ran You, “The historian Zhou Ren said, ‘Take the office if you can display your ability, or decline it if you cannot!’ What is the use of a minister if he cannot support a state in stake or prop up a tottering state? Moreover, what you say is wrong. If a tiger or wild bull should escape from its cag, or a tortoise shell or gem be broken in its box, whose fault is it if not the keeper’s?” Ran You said, “At present Zhuanyu is a vassal state strongly fortified near the chief fief of Fei. If our chief does not take it now, it would become a pest to his posterity.” Confucius said, “Ran You, a cultured man dislikes those who try to find a pretext for taking what they want. I have heard that the chief of a state or of a family need not care for scarcity but for inequality, nor for poverty but for security. There would be no poverty if wealth is equally shared, no scarcity if people live in harmony, no danger if people live in security. If people do not pay homage from afar, then culture must be enhanced to attract them. When won over, they must be comfortably installed. Now, Ran You and Zi Lu, advisors as you are to your chief, you cannot help him to subdue nor attract people from afar, nor restore the state to order out of chaos, but plan hostile activities within the state. I am afraid the trouble with the Ji family may not arise from Zhuanyu but from the sovereign behind the scene.”

🎈无乃尔是过与?反问句,is it not…?

🎈夫颛臾,昔者先王以为东蒙主。即:昔者先王以颛臾为东蒙主。许译转换为被动语态,以“颛臾”为主语。

🎈吾二臣者皆不欲也。这句话在翻译时进行了拆译,将“二臣”拆出来单独翻译为but we are only his officials,体现了无能为力的语气,贴合语境。

🎈陈力就列,不能者止。Take the office if you can display your ability, or decline it if you cannot (display your ability). 这句话中后半句省略了display your ability,避免与前文重复。

🎈焉用……矣?可处理为what is the use of…?

🎈均无贫,和无寡,安无倾。“均”是“无贫”的条件,“和”是“无寡”的条件,“安”是“无倾”的条件,因此翻译时均用if引导的条件从句引出,即There would be no poverty if wealth is equally shared, no scarcity if people live in harmony, no danger if people live in security.

孔子曰:“天下有道,则礼乐征伐自天子出;天下无道,则礼乐征伐自诸侯出。自诸侯出,盖十世希不失矣;自大夫出,五世希不失矣;陪臣执国命,三世希不失矣。天下有道,则政不在大夫;天下有道,则庶人不议。”

Confucius said,“When the world goes the right way, the orders on ritual and music and military expeditions are issued by the sovereign of the state. When it goes the wrong way, they are issued by feudal princes, but few princes could maintain their rule for ten generations. If such orders are issued by ministers, few ministers could maintain their rule for five generations. If they are issued by officials, few officials could maintain theirs for three generations. When the world goes the right way, the state will not be governed by officials, When the world goes the right way, the people will not dispute with the government.”

🎈天下有道,则礼乐征伐自天子出。这句话中,“天下有道”指的是某种情形,即“当天下有道时”,因此翻译时可以用when引出。

🎈天下无道,则礼乐征伐自诸侯出。这句话在翻译时“礼乐征伐”处理为代词they,通过代词避免与前文重复

孔子曰:“禄之去公室五世矣,政逮于大夫四世矣,故夫三桓之子孙微矣。”

Confucius said,“The ducal house of Lu has lost power for five generations, and government has been in the hands of the ministers for four generations. No wonder the descendants of the three Lu families are fast losing their power.”

🎈禄之去公室五世矣。改变主语换个说法为:公室失禄五世矣。许译即以“公室”the ducal house做主语。

孔子曰:“益者三友,损者三友。友直、友谅、友多闻,益矣;友便辟、友善柔、友便佞,损矣。”

Three kinds of friend will do you good, said Confucius, and other three will do you harm. To make friends with the upright, the faithful and the well-informed will do you good; to make friends with the prejudicial, the insidious and the hypocritical will do you harm.

🎈直,the upright;谅,the faithful;多闻the well-informed。the+adj.表一类人

🎈益者三友,这里的“益”是形容词,但许译将其处理为动词短语do you good;同理,损者三友,这里的“损”是形容词,但许译将其转换为动词短语do you harm。翻译时可以根据需要转换词性。

孔子曰:“益者三乐,损者三乐。乐节礼乐、乐道人之善、乐多贤友,益矣;乐骄乐、乐佚游、乐宴乐,损矣。”

Three delightful things, said Confucius, will do you good: delight in ritual and music, in speaking well of others and in making good friends. Three pleasures will do you harm: extravagant pleasure, lascivious pleasure and sumptuous pleasure.

🎈这句话在翻译时调整了语序,进行重新整合,将“益者”归为一处译,将“损者”归为一处译。

🎈益者三乐。这个小分句中,“益”为形容词,而许在翻译时将其转换为动词短语do you good。同理,损者三乐,“损”在这里是形容词,许译将其转换为动词短语do you harm。注意翻译时有时不必拘泥于原文结构和词性,可以根据需要转换词性。

孔子曰:“侍于君子有三愆:言未及之而言谓之躁,言及之而不言谓之隐,未见颜色而言谓之瞽。”

In the presence of a cultured man, said Confucius, three mistakes should be avoided: to speak before called on to speak is rash; not to speak when called on to is unfrank; to speak without observing the expression of his face is blind.

🎈侍于君子有三愆。「侍于君子」描述的是某种情境,即「当侍于君子时」,可以用when引出,也可以像许一样译为介词短语In the presence of a cultured man

🎈未见颜色而言,to speak without observing the expression of his face,在汉英翻译时要学会善用without+doing

孔子曰:“君子有三戒:少之时,血气未定,戒之在色;及其壮也,血气方刚,戒之在斗;及其老也,血气既衰,戒之在得。”

A cultured man, said Confucius, should beware of three things. He should beware of lust in youth when his vigor is uncouth, of strife in his prime when he is full of vigor, and of greed in old age when his vigor is on the decline.

🎈He should beware of lust in youth when his vigor is uncouth, (should beware) of strife in his prime when he is full of vigor, and (should beware) of greed in old age when his vigor is on the decline. 后两个分句省略了should beware,避免跟前文重复,也使句子更精简。

🎈少之时,血气未定,戒之在色。无主语句,翻译时增加主语,从上文“君子有三戒”,可推出这里主语是君子。同时,这句话在翻译时,要特别注意断句和结构的处理。“少之时,血气未定”是阐述时间、情境,因此翻译时处理为状语,许译为in youth when his vigor is uncouth,“戒之在色”是主干成分。

孔子曰:“生而知之者上也,学而知之者次也;困而学之又其次也。困而不学,民斯为下矣。”

Highest are those born wise, said Confucius, next come those who become wise by learning, still next those who strive to learn, and last come those people who will not strive at all.

🎈这里积累一个句型,「……上也,……次也,……又次也,……为下矣」,Highest are…, next come…, still next…,last come…

🎈……者,可以用those+后置定语译出。如生而知之者,those born wise

孔子曰:“君子有九思:视思明,听思聪,色思温,貌思恭,言思忠,事思敬,疑思问,忿思难,见得思义。”

An intelligentleman, said Confucius, should be considerate in nine respects: he should see clearly, hear distinctly, look mild, appear respectful, speak sincerely, act carefully, ask questions when in doubt, think of the consequences when in anger, and bear in mind what is right in sight of gain.

🎈九思,有九种思考,换个说法,在九个方面有所思,因此许处理为in nine respects

🎈视思明,听思聪,色思温,貌思恭,言思忠,这里视、听、色、貌、言都表示某种情境,即“……的时候”,如,看的时候、听的时候、待人接物的时候,等等。但许译直接将这层意思体现在动词之中,如see, hear, look, appear, speak

孔子曰:“见善如不及,见不善如探汤;吾见其人矣。吾闻其语矣。隐居以求其志,行义以达其道;吾闻其语矣,未见其人也。”

I have heard, said Confucius, of those who would lose no time to do what is good when they see it, and to shrink from what is harmful as from boiling water, and I have seen such men. I have heard of those who would retire so as not to go on the wrong way and then come out so as to go on the right way, but I have not seen such men.

🎈见善,what is good;见不善,what is harmful。我们前面也多次提到过,在汉英翻译时要学会善用what引导的名词性从句。

🎈末句中「吾闻其语矣」,和前文重复,因此直接省译。

齐景公有马千驷,死之日,民无德而称焉;伯夷、叔齐饿于首阳之下,民到于今称之。其斯之谓与?”

Duke Jing of the state of Qi had a thousand chariots with four steeds, but nobody praised him on the day of his death for he had done no good for the people. Bo Yi and Shu Qi, two loyal brothers, starved at the foot of the Sunny Mountain, but people praise them down to the present day. Is this not an illustration of what is said above?

🎈伯夷、叔齐,Bo Yi and Shu Qi, two loyal brothers,许翻译时增译了two loyal brothers,照顾到读者文化背景。大家注意在翻译时要揣摩原文及外国读者背景知识,考虑是否增译,增译能否贴切传达原文含义。切忌随心所欲地增译。

陈亢问于伯鱼曰:“子亦有异闻乎?”对曰:“未也。尝独立,鲤趋而过庭,曰:‘学《诗》乎?’对曰:‘未也。’‘不学《诗》,无以言。’鲤退而学《诗》。他日,又独立,鲤趋而过庭,曰:‘学《礼》乎?’对曰:‘未也。’‘不学《礼》,无以立。’鲤退而学《礼》。闻斯二者。”

Chen Kang asked Bo Yu, son of Confucius, whether he had heard from his father anything different from what the others had. Bo Yu said, “No. One day my father was standing alone in the hall when I passed by respectfully. He asked me whether I had studied Poetry. When I replied, ‘Not yet,’ he said, ‘You cannot speak well if you have not.’ Then I retired and studied Poetry. Another day he was again standing in the hall when I passed by respectfully. He asked me whether I had studied the rituals. When I replied, ‘Not yet,’ he said, ‘You cannot be established in society if you have not.’ Then I retired and studied rituals. These two things are what I have heard from him.” Delighted, Chen Kang came away and said, “Asking one thing, I have learned three. I have heard about poetry, rituals and impartiality of an intelligentleman towards his son.”

🎈伯鱼,Bo Yu, son of Confucius,许增译了身份

🎈尝独立。无主语,翻译时补出主语

🎈陈亢退而喜曰。许译将「喜」处理为形容词delighted做状语

🎈重点表达

社稷之臣a vassal state to safeguard our land

挽救岌岌可危的国家support a state in stake or prop up a tottering state

后世为子孙忧become a pest to posterity

天下有道when the state goes the right way

诸侯feudal princes

逮于大夫,落到大夫手中in the hands of the ministers

有益do you good

有害do you harm

直the upright

谅the faithful

多闻the well-informed

三戒beware of three things

血气未定the vigor is uncouth

衰on the decline

君子有三畏three things inspire a cultured man with awe

生而知之者those born wise

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » ​​《论语·第十六章》季氏篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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