《论语·第五章》公冶长篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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子谓公冶长:“可妻也,虽在缧绁之中,非其罪也!”以其子妻之。

The Master said,“Gongye Chang might be a good husband, though he was once put in jail, but it was not through his fault.” And the Master married his daughter to him.

🎈可妻也,许译换了个说法,即公冶长是个好丈夫(Gongye Chang might be a good husband)。这样转换是合理的,一是符合「可妻也」表达的含义;二是这句话的主题就是评价公冶长(子谓公冶长)

🎈虽在缧绁之中,无主语句,联系上文,可推断这里的主语指的是公冶长,翻译时需补出主语。

子谓南容:“邦有道不废;邦无道免于刑戮。”以其兄之子妻之。

The Master said, “Nan Rong would not be unemployed in a well governed country, nor would he be punished in an ill governed one.” And the Master married his niece to him.

🎈邦有道(主谓结构),转化为状语,即在有道的邦(偏正结构),译为in a well governed country;同理,邦无道,译为in an ill governed one。

🎈邦有道不废;邦无道免于刑戮。无主语句,由「子谓南容」可以推断出主语是「南容」翻译时应补出主语。

子谓子贱:“君子哉若人!鲁无君子者,斯焉取斯?”

Zi jian, said the Master, is a cultured man. If there were no cultured men in the state of Lu, how could he have learned to be one?

🎈鲁无君子者,斯焉取斯? 「鲁无君子者」实际上是假设,即:如果鲁国没有君子,他从哪里获得这种好品德的呢?因此译文处理为If there were no cultured men in the state of Lu,是虚拟语气,表示与现实相反。

🎈斯焉取斯?大意是:他从哪里获得这种好品德的呢?换个说法,即:他又是如何成为一个君子的呢?因此译文处理为how could he have learned to be one? 这里运用了我们在第一章讲解中提到过的C-C-E,即先对中文原文进行说法转换,然后再译为英文。

子贡问曰:“赐也何如?”子曰:“女,器也。”曰:“何器也?”曰:“瑚琏也。”

Zi Gong asked the Master,“What do you think of me, sir?” The Master said, “You are a vessel.” Zi Gong said, “What sort of vessel?” The Master said, “The best jade vessel for food, used in ancestral sacrifice.”

🎈瑚、琏,皆宗庙礼器。即古代宗庙盛放黍稷的祭器。了解了这一层知识背景,我们就可以理解为什么译文增译used in ancestral sacrifice

或曰:“雍也仁而不佞。”子曰:“焉用佞?御人以口给,屡憎于人。不知其仁,焉用佞?”

Someone said,“Yong is virtuous, but he is not eloquent.” The Master said, “What is the use of eloquence? Eloquence to the point of imposition would often cause disgust. I do not know whether Yong is virtuous. But what is use of his being eloquent?”

🎈御人以口给。给,足也。「口给」犹如后来所说「言词不穷」、「辩才无碍」,故译作eloquence

🎈御人以口给,屡憎于人。我们可能译为:If one is eloquent to the point of imposition, he may be hated by others. 这样翻译也把句子大意翻译出来了。但对比许译 Eloquence to the point of imposition would often cause disgust. 有何不同呢?实际上,「御人以口给」和「屡憎于人」是因果关系,前者是因,后者是果,所以我们可以先把这句话转化成英语思维:御人以口给会导致屡憎于人,即Eloquence to the point of imposition would often cause/incur/lead to disgust. 并且,英文习惯用物作主语(无灵主语),因此许译也更加地道。

子使漆雕开仕,对曰:“吾斯之未能信。”子说。

The Master asked Qidiao Kai to serve as an officer. Qidiao Kai replied, “I am not sure how I can fulfill an office.” The Master was pleased.

🎈做官,serve as an officer;fulfill an office回顾我们在前几章学到的 为政,be occupied with state affairs。平时积累表达时可以把类似的同义表达放在一起,这样在汉英翻译时可以有效调动自己储备的同义表达避免重复。

子曰:“道不行,乘桴浮于海,从我者其由与?”子路闻之喜,子曰:“由也好勇过我,无所取材。”

The Master said,“If the truth I preach were not followed, I would float on the sea by a raft, who would then follow me but Zi Lu?” On hearing of this, Zi Lu was glad. Then the Master said, “Zi Lu is more courageous than I, but I am afraid his courage is reckless.”

🎈子路闻之喜。调换语序为:闻之,子路喜。故译为On hearing of this, Zi Lu was glad.

孟武伯问:“子路仁乎?”子曰:“不知也。”又问,子曰:“由也,千乘之国,可使治其赋也,不知其仁也。”“求也何如?”子曰:“求也,千室之邑、百乘之家,可使为之宰也,不知其仁也。”“赤也何如?”子曰:“赤也,束带立于朝,可使与宾客言也,不知其仁也。”

Meng Wu asked whether Zi Lu was a man of men. The Master said, “I do not know.” When asked again, he said, “In a country of a thousand chariots, Zi Lu might serve in the military field, but I do not know how he could be a man of men. “When asked about Ran Qiu, the Master said, “In a city of a thousand families or a baronial house of a hundred chariots, Qiu might serve as an administrator, but I do not know how he could be a man of men.” When asked about Gongxi Chi, the Master said, “Standing at court with a sash around the waist, Chi might serve in the intercourse with honorable guests, but I do not know how he could be a man of men.”

🎈孟武伯问:“子路仁乎?”译文没有保留这个直接引语,而是将其糅合进句子中,对于后面孔子的回答(这才是重点部分),则保留直接引语。

🎈千乘之国、千室之邑、百乘之家都作地点状语,注意译法都为in a country/city of…

🎈许渊冲将「仁」译为A man of men(有杰出才华和很大权力的人)

🎈「赤也,束带立于朝,可使与宾客言也」,这句话中有两个动词(立、言),我们在前几章的解析中提到,如果中文原文一个句子中有多个动词,这时我们需要把其中重要的一个作为谓语,其余的作为非谓语。这句话中,「立」是状态,因此处理为非谓语作伴随状语(standing),而「言」才是这句话中重要的动词,因此处理为谓语(serve in the intercourse)

宰予昼寝,子曰:“朽木不可雕也,粪土之墙不可杇也,于予与何诛?”子曰:“始吾于人也,听其言而信其行;今吾于人也,听其言而观其行。于予与改是。”

Zai Yu often slept by day. The Master said,“Rotten wood cannot be carved; a wall of dried dung cannot be whitewashed. What is the use of my blaming him?” Again the Master said, “At first when I dealt with people, I listened to what they said and believed they would do likewise. Now when I deal with people, I will not only listen to what they say but also see what they do. It is from Zai Yu that I have learned to make this change.”

🎈于予与改是。即从宰予的事件以后,我改变了态度。It is from Zai Yu that I have learned to make this change. 强调句句型,it is…that…

子曰:“吾未见刚者。”或对曰:“申枨。”子曰:“枨也欲,焉得刚。”

The Master said,“I have never seen a man steady and strong.” When Shen Chang was mentioned, the Master said, “Chang is at the mercy of his desires. How could he be steady and strong?”

🎈刚者,a man steady and strong。在第四章解析中我们提到,有两种方式表达某类人,一种是a man+后置定语(如这里的a man steady and strong,或我们之前学到的a man doing wrong),一种是the+adj.(如the worthy; the incompetent)

子贡曰:“我不欲人之加诸我也,吾亦欲无加诸人。”子曰:“赐也,非尔所及也。”

Zi Gong said,“What I would not have others do to me, I would not do to them.” The Master said, “Zi Gong, you have not yet attained to that.”

🎈子贡说:“我不愿别人把不合理的事加在我身上,我也不想把不合理的事加在别人身上。”孔子说:“赐呀,这不是你可以做得到的。”

子贡曰:“夫子之文章,可得而闻也;夫子之言性与天道,不可得而闻也。”

Zi Gong said,“We may have heard our Master’s views on culture, but not on human nature and divine law.”

🎈「不可得而闻也」为了避免与前文重复,只译为not

子路有闻,未之能行,唯恐有闻。

Zi Lu would put into practice what he had learned, otherwise, he would not learn anything more.

🎈这句话许译是在理解原文的意思上进行重新写作。原文意为:子路有所闻,还没有能够去做,只怕又有所闻。可理解为:子路会把所学到的东西付诸实践,否则就不会去学新的东西。因此译文处理为Zi Lu would put into practice what he had learned, otherwise, he would not learn anything more. 注意put into practice what he had learned可以与我们第一章学到的“学而时习之”(acquire knowledge and put it into practice)联系在一起记忆。

子贡问曰:“孔文子何以谓之‘文’也?”子曰:“敏而好学,不耻下问,是以谓之‘文’也。”

When Zi Gong asked why Kong Wen Zi was called a civilized man, the Master said, “He was curious and fond of learning and not ashamed to learn from his inferiors, so he was called a civilized man.”

子谓子产:“有君子之道四焉:其行己也恭,其事上也敬,其养民也惠,其使民也义。”

The Master said of Zi Chan,“He is a cultured man in four respects: modest in his conduct, respectful in serving his superiors, beneficial to the people and just in employing his inferiors.”

🎈「有君子之道四焉」,无主语句,联系上文“子谓子产”可以推断出主语是「子产」,翻译时需补出主语。

🎈其行己也恭,modest in his conduct, 中文先事实(行己)后评价(恭),英文先评价(modest)后事实(conduct)。「其事上也敬,其养民也惠,其使民也义」在翻译时也是同理。

子曰:“晏平仲善与人交,久而敬之。”

Yan Pingzhong, said the Master, knows how to make friends. The longer their friendship lasts, the more they respect him.

🎈久而敬之。相识时间久了,别人更加尊敬他。用The longer…, the more…结构译出。其中,「久」的主语是相识的时间/友情持续的时间,“敬”的主语是人们,翻译时需补出主语。

子曰:“臧文仲居蔡,山节藻棁,何如其知也?”

Zang Wenzhong, said the Master, kept a divine tortoise in a hall with hill patterns on its pillars and duckweed patterns on its beams. What did he know of the rites?

🎈注释:古代人把大乌龟叫作“蔡”。居,使动用法,使之居住。山节藻棁——节,柱上斗栱;“棁”音啄,zhuō,梁上短柱。

子张问曰:“令尹子文三仕为令尹,无喜色,三已之无愠色,旧令尹之政必以告新令尹,何如?”子曰:“忠矣。”曰:“仁矣乎?”曰:“未知,焉得仁?”“崔子弑齐君,陈文子有马十乘,弃而违之。至于他邦,则曰:‘犹吾大夫崔子也。’违之。之一邦,则又曰:‘犹吾大夫崔子也。’违之,何如?”子曰:“清矣。”曰:“仁矣乎?”曰:“未知,焉得仁?”

Zi Zhang asked what the Master would say of Zi Wen who was not overdelighted when thrice appointed minister, and not disappointed when thrice deposed, and who informed his successors how he had governed the state. The Master said, “He was loyal.” When asked whether he was a man of men, the Master said, “I do not know how he could be a man of men.” Zi Zhang said, “When Cui Zi murdered the prince of Qi, Chen Wen Zi who had a fief of ten chariots gave it up and left for another state. Arrived there, he said the ruler was as bad as Cui Zi, and left for a third. Arrived there, he said the same and left it again. What would you say of him?” The Master said, “He is free from blame.” When asked whether he was a man of men, the Master said, “I do not know how he could be a man of men.”

🎈子张问曰:“令尹子文三仕为令尹,无喜色,三已之无愠色,旧令尹之政必以告新令尹,何如?”Zi Zhang asked what the Master would say of Zi Wen who was not overdelighted when(he was) thrice appointed minister, and not disappointed when (he was) thrice deposed, and who informed his successors how he had governed the state. 注意这句话在翻译时,直接引语没有保留,而是将子张对尹子文的描述通过定语从句表达。其中,“令尹子文三仕为令尹”是“无喜色”的情境,“三已之”是“无愠色”的情境,因此均由when引出,且都省略了he was。

🎈令尹子文三仕为令尹。无主语句,译文处理为被动语态:when (he was) thrice appointed minister。

🎈陈文子有马十乘,弃而违之。这句话中有3个谓语动词(有、弃、违),显然,「有」较次要,「弃」和「违」才是这里的重要动词。因此译文将「有马十乘」处理为定语从句,将「弃而违之」处理为主句,这样译才更加主次分明,重点突出。

🎈之一邦,则又曰:‘犹吾大夫崔子也。’Arrived there, he said the same. 注意这句话译文将‘犹吾大夫崔子也。’处理为said the same。这是因为上文已经说过这句话了,这里再重复一遍,为了避免译文太过冗杂,直接通过the same进行指代。

季文子三思而后行,子闻之曰:“再斯可矣。”

Ji Wen Zi would not take action until he thought it over thrice. Hearing of this, the Master said, “Twice is enough.”

🎈季文子三思而后行。Ji Wen Zi would not take action until he thought it over thrice. 注意「三思而后行」的译法。可积累not…until… 例如,我完成作业后才会刷抖音。I would not browse TikTok until I finished my homework.

子曰:“宁武子,邦有道,则知;邦无道,则愚。其知可及也,其愚不可及也。”

Ning Wu Zi, said the Master, showed wisdom when the country was well governed, but pretended to be dull when it was ill governed. His wisdom may be equalled, but not his dullness.

🎈其知可及也,其愚不可及也。我们可能会译为:His wisdom may be equalled, but his dullness cannot be equalled. 但许译更精简,后半句处理为but not his dullness。学习一下这种省略手法,使译文更精简,避免重复。

子在陈,曰:“归与!归与!吾党之小子狂简,斐然成章,不知所以裁之。”

Why not return? said the Master in the State of Chen, why not return? The youth in my own country are thoughtless and careless, but they write well. How can I leave them uneducated?

🎈注释:不知所以裁之——《史记·孔子世家》作「吾不知所以裁之」。译文也认为这一句的主语不是承上文「吾党之小子」而省略,而是省略了自称代词。「裁」,剪裁。布要剪裁才能成衣,人要教育才能成才,所以译为「指导」

子曰:“伯夷、叔齐不念旧恶,怨是用希。”

Bo Yi and Shu Qi, said the Master, who would not accede to the throne, bore no old grudge, so few bore a grudge against them.

🎈伯夷、叔齐是孤竹君的两个儿子,父亲死了,互相让位,而都逃到周文王那里。因此译文增译了who would not accede to the throne

子曰:“孰谓微生高直?或乞醯焉,乞诸其邻而与之。”

Who says Wei Shenggao is honest? said the Master. Someone asked him for vinegar, he begged it from his neighbor and then gave it as his own.

🎈结尾增译as his own,符合文意。

子曰:“巧言、令色、足恭,左丘明耻之,丘亦耻之。匿怨而友其人,左丘明耻之,丘亦耻之。”

Flowery words, hypocritical deeds, excessive respect, said the Master, are shameful in the eyes of Zuo Qiuming, so are they in mine. To befriend those whom one resents is shameful in the eyes of Zuo Qiuming, so is it in mine.

🎈「巧言、令色、足恭,左丘明耻之,丘亦耻之」,译文以「巧言、令色、足恭」为主语,因此谓语应选用be shameful,需要特别注意shameful(可耻的)和ashamed(感到惭愧的)的区别。

🎈「匿怨而友其人」,这一部分许译处理为非谓语(不定式)作句子的主语,即to befriend those whom one resents。其中,「怨」的对象是「其人」,因此在翻译时通过定语从句whom one resents来修饰「其人」(those)

颜渊、季路侍,子曰:“盍各言尔志?”子路曰:“愿车马、衣轻裘与朋友共,敝之而无憾。”颜渊曰:“愿无伐善,无施劳。”子路曰:“愿闻子之志。”子曰:“老者安之,朋友信之,少者怀之。”

The Master said to Yan Yuan and Zi Lu in attendance,“Will each of you tell me what you wish?” Zi Lu said, “I would have carriage and horses, clothes and fur dress to share with my friends till these things are outworn, and I would feel no regret.” Yan Hui said, “I would not show the good I have done nor the trouble I have taken for others.” Zi Lu asked what the Master’s wish was. The Master said, “I would comfort the old, be trusted by my friends and be loved by the young.”

🎈「颜渊、季路侍,子曰:… …」译文处理为The Master said to Yan Yuan and Zi Lu in attendance,即说话的对象是颜渊、季路,因此译为said to Yan Yuan and Zi Yu,而颜渊、季路是什么状态呢?「侍」,因此译为in attendance做后置定语修饰这两人。

子曰:“已矣乎!吾未见能见其过而内自讼者也。”

In vain, said the Master, have I looked for one who could find out his own faults and blame himself.

🎈译文中in vain表示否定含义。位于句首,要局部倒装。类似的例子有Never have I found him in such a good mood.

子曰:“十室之邑,必有忠信如丘者焉,不如丘之好学也。”

In a hamlet of ten houses, said the Master, there must be someone as faithful and as trustworthy as I am, but he may not be so fond of learning

重点表达

在缧绁之中somebody is put in jail

邦有道in a well-governed country

邦无道in an ill-governed country

佞,善辩eloquence

仁a man of men; virtuous

做官be occupied with state affairs; fulfill an office

千乘之国a country of a thousand chariots

千室之邑a city of a thousand families

与宾客言serve in the intercourse with honorable guests

比得上某人match with somebody

刚者a man steady and strong

受欲望控制at the mercy of desires

知行合一put into practice what he had learned

不耻下问be not ashamed to learn from one’s inferiors

好学be fond of learning/be eager to learn

文明人a civilized man

喜色be overdelighted

登基accede to the throne

巧言flowery words

足恭excessive respect

忠信faithful and trustworthy

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《论语·第五章》公冶长篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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