《论语·第二章》为政篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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子曰:“为政以德,譬如北辰,居其所而众星共之。”

A prince, said the Master, should rule his state by virtue as the polar star which keeps its place among the stars turning around it.

🎈中文原文无主语,译文添加主语a prince

🎈「居其所而众星共之」译为定语从句which keeps its place among the stars turning around it,修饰「北辰」,其中,「众星共之」为主谓结构,转化为偏正结构,即「共之的众星」,译为the stars turning around it,turning around it非谓语作后置定语。

子曰:“《诗》三百,一言以蔽之,曰:‘思无邪’。”

There are three hundred poems in the Book of Poetry , said the Master. In a word, there is nothing improper.

🎈《诗经》,the Book of Poetry。可以复习一下第一章解析中提到的四书(《论语》、《孟子》、《大学》、《中庸》)的译名。

🎈一言以蔽之,in a word

🎈「思无邪」用there be结构引出,即「没有邪的思想」,故译为there is nothing improper。

子曰:“道之以政,齐之以刑,民免而无耻。道之以德,齐之以礼,有耻且格。”

If the people are governed by laws, said the Master, and order is kept by punishment, they would be obedient but not conscientious. If they are led by virtue and order is kept by the rites, they would be conscientious and act in agreement with what is right.

🎈代词「之」指代的是什么?根据上下文可知是人民(the people)。在翻译时,常常需要厘清原文代词具体指代什么。

🎈道之以政,齐之以刑。这个句子没有主语,翻译时可以考虑增加主语或转化为被动语态。这里许使用被动语态翻译。

🎈道之以政,齐之以刑,民免而无耻。这句话中,「道之以政,齐之以刑」是「民免而无耻」的条件,故用if引出从句。汉英翻译时需要先厘清句子中的逻辑关系,从而选取适当的连接词。这是因为中文是意合语言(paratactic language),英文是形合语言(hypotactic language),所以中文常常省略连接词,而是将这种连接关系暗含在句意中,相反,英文则常常会直接通过连接词衔接。我们在进行中英转换时需要注意这一差异。

🎈齐之以刑、齐之以礼,「齐之」指约束、制约百姓,以保持秩序,都转译为order is kept

🎈in agreement with指符合,类似的表达有in accordance with

子曰:“吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。”

At fifteen, said the Master, I was fond of learning. At thirty, I was established. At forty, I did not waver. At fifty, I knew my sacred mission. At sixty, I had a discerning ear. At seventy, I could do what I would without going beyond what is right.

🎈十有五、三十、四十等都处理为时间状语,在每句句首先译出来。这启发我们在做汉英翻译时,特别是当句子本身较复杂时,若时间地点糅合在主句中,可以先将其提取翻译,一步步handle。

🎈三十而立,「立」译为established,即(of a person) recognized and accepted in a particular capacity,如an established artist知名作家。established还常用来表示「老牌的、建立已久的」,如an established company,老牌公司。其反义词为startup,新兴公司。

🎈耳顺(主谓结构)转化为a discerning ear(偏正结构)

孟懿子问孝,子曰:“无违。”樊迟御,子告之曰:“孟孙问孝于我,我对曰‘无违’。”樊迟曰:“何谓也?”子曰:“生,事之以礼;死,葬之以礼,祭之以礼。”

When Meng Yi Zi asked about filial duty, the Master said,“Do nothing in disagreement with the rites.” When Fan Chi was driving his carriage for him, the Master told him how he answered the question of Meng Yi Zi. When Fan Chi asked for an explanation, the Master said, “Parents should be served in agreement with the rites while alive; when dead, they should be buried and the sacrifice be offered in agreement with the rites.”

🎈孝,filial duty

🎈in disagreement with,违背,与上文出现的in agreement with反义。

🎈中文原文「无违」前后重复两次,英文只译了第一次(Do nothing in disagreement with the rites),第二次直接用how he answered the question来代替,避免重复。这涉及到中英语言的一个差异,即中文不避重复,英文避免重复,所以我们经常会看到英文使用代词、省略、同义替换来减少前后重复。

例如

Reading exercises one’s eyes; Speaking, one’s tongue; while writing, one’s mind.

阅读训练人的眼睛,说话训练人的口齿,写作训练人的思维。

其中,英文版本谓语动词exercises只出现了一次,后面两处为了避免重复省略了谓语动词;而中文版本里「训练」一词则重复了三次。

🎈子告之曰:“孟孙问孝于我,我对曰‘无违’。”樊迟曰:“何谓也?”注意这两个直接引语译文都没有保留引号,而是根据意思进行转译。如果引语表达的不是文中的关键信息的话,为了使译文更加简洁可读,有时可以去掉引号根据意思进行转译,如:樊迟曰:“何谓也?”转译为Fan Chi asked for an explanation。又如:在联合国纪念北京世界妇女大会的讲话中,有这样一段。记者问她:“你还是个孩子,还需要别人帮助。”她回答说:“穿上防护服,我就不是孩子了。”译为Answering a reporter’s question of whether she was too young to help others, she said, “The moment I put on the protective suit, I am not a kid anymore.”

孟武伯问孝。子曰:“父母唯其疾之忧。”

When the son of Meng Yi Zi asked about filial duty, the Master said, “Do not let your parents worry about their health!”

🎈父母唯其疾之忧,即做爹娘的只是为孝子的疾病发愁。译文运用反译法,处理为Do not let your parents worry about their health!更加直白地译出原文意思。

子游问孝,子曰:“今之孝者,是谓能养。至于犬马,皆能有养。不敬,何以别乎?”

When Zi You asked about filial duty, the Master said,“Filial sons of today only take care their parents are well fed. But even dogs and horses are well fed now. What is the difference if their parents are fed without reverence?”

🎈今之孝者,filial sons of today,积累一下of today作后置定语这一常见表达,表示今天的xx。如今天的年轻人the youth of today。

🎈take care+that+宾语从句,其中that可省略。如在《福尔摩斯探案》中有We must take care that he does not now bring us to the place where the creosote-barrel came from

🎈能养、有养,译为be well fed,英文中有很多「well+过去分词」构成的形容词,如well educated、well established、well planned。

🎈至于犬马,皆能有养,But even dogs and horses are well fed now. 这里增译了逻辑连接词but。就像前面提到的,中文常常省略连接词,而是将这种连接关系暗含在句意中,相反,英文则常常会直接通过连接词衔接。在汉英翻译时我们需要注意句间的逻辑关系,增译出合理的逻辑连接词。

🎈「不敬,何以有别?」译文用if引出「不敬」,表假设。

🎈reverence,great respect and admiration,表敬意、尊崇,搭配介词for,常见表达有reverence for tradition, reverence for Nature, reverence for God

子夏问孝。子曰:“色难。有事,弟子服其劳;有酒食,先生馔,曾是以为孝乎?”

When Zi Xia asked about filial duty, the Master said,“It is difficult to appear happy in trouble. If the young serve the old and feed them with wine and food before themselves, but with troubled looks, could they be called filial sons?”

🎈色难,即保持和颜悦色很难。译为It is difficult to appear happy in trouble,中文中「难」位于句末,英文中It is difficult位于句首,这涉及到中英语言差异,中文通常是先事实后评价,故评价词「难」位于句末,英文则通常是先评价后事实,故评价词difficult位于句首。

🎈色难,It is difficult to appear happy in trouble. 根据句意增译出in trouble

🎈「有事,弟子服其劳;有酒食,先生馔」,这两个小分句主语不同,一是弟子,一是先生,而译文则选择「弟子」做统一主语,选用动词serve和feed。当遇到不同主语要统一为同一主语时,选用恰当的动词是关键。

🎈联系上文,增译了but with troubled looks,与「色难」相呼应。

子曰:“吾与回言终日,不违,如愚。退而省其私,亦足以发,回也不愚。”

When I talked with Yan Hui all day long, said the Master, he never disagreed with me as if he were stupid. When he retired to do his work all by himself, I found nothing in disagreement with my teaching. Hui is not stupid at all.

🎈disagree with somebody about/over/on something,注意介词搭配。

🎈「如愚」译为as if he were stupid,虚拟语气,表从句内容并非现实。

🎈「不违」「退而省其私」的主语是颜回,增译主语。

🎈retire这里不是指退休,而是retire的另一个释义,指离开(尤指去僻静处),即to leave a place, especially to go somewhere quieter or more private,例如:After dinner he likes to retire to his study. 晚饭后,他喜欢躲到书房里去。

🎈退而省其私,这里代词「其」指什么?朱熹的《集注》以为孔子退而省颜回的私,许取此意。在汉英翻译中,搞清楚代词指代的是什么,可以帮助我们在语言转换时厘清描述对象,避免混乱。

子曰:“视其所以,观其所由,察其所安,人焉廋哉?人焉廋哉?”

See what a man does, said the Master, examine why he has done so, and observe whether he is content. Can his character remain hidden? Can it remain hidden?

🎈所以、所由、所安,所+动词,表名词结构,因此英译均处理为名词从句结构。

🎈末尾 Can it remain hidden? his character用it指代,印证了上面解析提到的「英文常常使用代词避免重复」

子曰:“温故而知新,可以为师矣。”

One who can learn something new while reviewing what he has learned, said the Master, is fit to be a teacher.

🎈原文没有主语,添加主语one。

🎈「温故而知新」译为定语从句,修饰主语one,这里定语从句有假设之意,即One who can learn something new while reviewing what he has learned, said the Master, is fit to be a teacher(译法1),大意相当于:

If one can learn something new while reviewing what he has learned, then he is fit to be a teacher(译法2)

这两种译法都把原文的意思传达出来了,达到了「信」,但是译法2在结构上不如译法1紧凑。所以在翻译时我们有时可以借助定语从句来传达出一层假设之意。

子曰:“君子不器。”

An intelligentleman, said the Master, is not a mere implement.

🎈implement,指a tool, especially one used for outdoor physical work,如farming implements

🎈译文增译了mere一词。实际上,「君子不器」指君子不能像器皿一样只有一个用途,孔子认为应该无所不通,因此增译mere一词能更准确表达原文含义。

子贡问君子。子曰:“先行其言而后从之。”

When Zi Gong asked about the intelligentleman, the Master said,“One whose deeds precede his words.”

🎈问君子,译为asked about the intelligentleman,注意不能译为asked the intelligentleman,即不能省略about。因为这里「子贡问君子」实际上是指「子贡问怎样才能做一个君子」,即「君子」是询问的话题,而不是对话的人。

先行其言而后从之,即「先行后言」,用precede连接deeds(先)和words(后)

子曰:“君子周而不比,小人比而不周。”

An intelligentleman, said the Master, cares for the whole more than for the parts, while an uncultured man cares for the parts rather than for the whole.

🎈注释:周、比——「周」是以当时所谓道义来团结人,「比」则是以暂时共同利害互相勾结。「比」旧读去声bì。

子曰:“学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。”

To learn without thinking, said the Master, risks to be blind, while to think without learning risks to be impractical.

🎈「学而不思」我们可能译为to learn but not think,但译文将「不思」用without+ing.译出,即to learn without thinking,借鉴一下这种译法。

子曰:“攻乎异端,斯害也已!”

To antagonize a different view, said the Master, would reveal one’s own weakness.

子曰:“由,诲汝,知之乎!知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也。”

Shall I teach you what knowledge is? said the Master to Zi Lu, to admit what you know and what you do not know, that is knowledge.

子张学干禄。子曰:“多闻阙疑,慎言其余,则寡尤;多见阙殆,慎行其余,则寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,禄在其中矣。”

When Zi Zhang asked about official emolument, the Master said,“Hear much and put aside what is doubtful, and be cautious in speaking of the rest, then you would be less to blame. See much and put aside what is risky, and be cautious in doing the rest, then you would regret the less. If your words are seldom blamed and your deeds seldom regretful, then you need not worry about official emolument.”

🎈寡尤,译为you would be less to blame,这里be to blame是主动形式表被动意义,如Economic hardship and the resulting despair, a sense of hopelessness, may be to blame, Woolf said.

🎈If your words are seldom blamed and your deeds (are) seldom regretful,后半句省略了are。英文并列句中,如果后面句子和前面句子有相同的成分,往往会省略,以避免重复。如To some smile is very easy, and to others (smile is) so hard.

🎈官职俸禄,official emolument

哀公问曰:“何为则民服?”孔子对曰:“举直错诸枉,则民服;举枉错诸直,则民不服。”

When Duke Ai asked how to win the support of the people, the Master replied, “If honest men are employed and dishonest ones discarded, then people will support you. If dishonest men replace the honest, you will lose the support of the people.”

🎈哀公问曰:“何为则民服?”Duke Ai asked how to win the support of the people,这里直接引语同样是根据意思进行转译。

🎈「举直错诸枉」中文原文没有主语,在汉译英中,对于没有主语的原文,一般有两种处理方式,一种是添加主语,一种是将句子改为被动语态。此句译为If honest men are employed and dishonest ones(are)discarded,就是将句子改为被动语态,并且后半句省略了are,避免与前面重复。

🎈「服」这里指赢得民心,即赢得人们的支持,故译为win the support of the people。「不服」为lose the support of the people。

季康子问:“使民敬、忠以劝,如之何?”子曰:“临之以庄,则敬;孝慈,则忠;举善而教不能,则劝。”

When Ji Kang Zi asked how the people could be induced to be respectful and faithful, the Master replied, “If you maintain dignity, people will respect you. If you are dutiful towards your parents and kind towards all, they will have faith in you. If the worthy are employed and the incompetent are trained, they will be induced to be respectful and faithful.”

🎈孝,be dutiful towards your parents。联系孝顺filial duty一起记忆。

🎈「则敬」「则忠」「则劝」主语都是people,需补出主语。

🎈善,贤能之士,the worthy

不能,能力低下的人,the incompetent

the+adj.表一类人,如the young年轻人

🎈举善而教不能,无主语句,这里译文同样转化为被动语态。

或谓孔子曰:“子奚不为政?”子曰:“《书》云:‘孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施于有政。’是亦为政,奚其为为政?”

When asked why he is not occupied with state affairs, Confucius answered, “It is said in the Book of History about filial duty that respect for parents and fraternity towards brothers are family affairs. If these are practised in the state towards the old and the young, it is state affair. Thus engaged in family affairs, am I not occupied with state affairs too?”

🎈或谓孔子,即有人问孔子,在汉译英中,有人(somebody)通常不需要直译出来,而是转化为被动语态,即当孔子被问及xx,译为When (he is) asked。例如,在《我和商务印书馆》,张培基先生将「如果有人问起我的职业,我就告诉他:… …,」译为If I am asked what profession I’ve been following, I say…

🎈再谈译文When (he is) asked…,这里省略了he is。在when, if, though, although, as, as if等连词引导的从句中,如果从句的主语和主句的主语一致,且从句谓语中有be动词,可将从句主语和动词be省略。如:He is good at dancing, though (he is) very old.

🎈为政,be occupied with state affairs。occupation:职业、工作

🎈respect for parents,fraternity towards brothers,注意介词搭配

🎈《书》,指《尚书》,the Book of History

🎈奚其为为政?即:为什么定要做官才算参与政治呢?译文根据上文语境转译为am I not occupied with state affairs too?(这样我不也为政了吗?)译文am I not…?意为难道我不也… …?学习一下反问句的译法。

子曰:“人而无信,不知其可也。大车无輗,小车无軏,其何以行之哉?”

How can an untrustworthy man be employed? said the Master. Could a large cart go without a yoke-bar or small cart without a cross-bar?

🎈「人而无信」是主谓结构,为短句;译文直接处理为 an untrustworthy man(偏正结构),为名词。注意翻译时主谓结构与偏正结构之间的转换。

🎈无信,untrustworthy。回顾一下上一章提到的仁义礼智信的译法。

🎈Could a large cart go without a yoke-bar or small cart (go) without a cross-bar?后半句省略了动词go,避免重复。如I guess Lisa will dance in the party but Jane won’t (dance in the party). 省略在上一章讲解中有多处提及,大家巩固一下。

🎈輗,古代大车车辕前端与车衡相衔接的部分;軏,古代车上置于辕前端与车横木衔接处的销钉。

子张问:“十世可知也?”子曰:“殷因于夏礼,所损益,可知也;周因于殷礼,所损益,可知也。其或继周者,虽百世,可知也。”

When Zi Zhang asked if the ritual systems of ten generations to come could be foreseen, the Master said, “The Yin dynasty followed and modified the ritual system of the Xia, and its modified system was known. The Zhou dynasty followed and altered the ritual system of the Yin, and its altered system is also known. So we may predict the system of the successors of the Zhou can be foreseen even a hundred generations later.”

🎈注释:十世可知也——从下文孔子的答语看来,便足以断定子张是问今后十代的礼仪制度,而不是泛问,所以译文增译了the ritual systems。这「也」字同「耶」,表疑问。

🎈朝代表达,the+朝代名+dynasty。殷,the Yin dynasty;周,the Zhou dynasty

🎈我们之前提到,英语避免重复,一大方法就是同义替换。这里的modify, alter就是通过同义替换避免重复。

子曰:“非其鬼而祭之,谄也;见义不为,无勇也。”

To worship other ancestors than one’s own, said the Master, reveals pretentions. Not to right the wrong shows the lack of courage.

🎈谄也,是谄媚,reveal pretentions;无勇也,是没有勇气,show the lack of courage。这里「是」没有直接用be动词,而是用reveal、show,有时也可以用illustrate。这启发我们在做翻译时不必局限于表意,而因揣摩其真正的意思,比如,当「是」表示的是「体现」之意时,我们就可以译为reveal/show/illustrate等词。

🎈right在这里是动词,right a wrong指to do something to prevent a bad situation from continuing,可理解为:看到不对的事要想办法改正,弥补过错。例如:He seems to think he can right all the wrongs of the world.

重点表达

一言以蔽之 in a word

《诗经》the Book of Poetry

《尚书》the Book of History

符合in agreement with

有违in disagreement with

知名作家an established writer

老牌公司an established company

孝be dutiful towards your parents/filial duty

今之孝者filial sons of today

能养、有养be well fed

对传统的尊崇reverence for traditions

面露难色with troubled looks

君子intelligentlemen

先行后言deeds precede words

官职俸禄official emolument

民(不)服win/lose the support of the people

贤能之士the worthy

无能之人the incompetent

为政be occupied with state affairs

尊敬父母respect for parents

兄弟友爱fraternity towards brothers

周the Zhou dynasty

看到不对的事要想办法改正,弥补过错right a wrong

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《论语·第二章》为政篇 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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