梁实秋《请客》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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请客

梁实秋

 

常听人说:“若要一天不得安,请客;若要一年不得安,盖房;若要一辈子不得安,娶姨太太。”请客只有一天不得安,为害不算太大,所以人人都觉得不妨偶一为之。

 

所谓请客,是指自己家里邀集朋友便餐小酌,至于在酒楼饭店“铺宴席,陈尊俎”,呼朋引类,飞觞醉月,享用的是金樽清酒,玉盘珍羞,最后一哄而散,由经手人员造帐报销,那种宴会只能算是一种病狂或是罪孽,不提也罢。

 

妇主中馈,所以要请客必须先归而谋诸妇。这一谋,有分教,非十天半月不能获致结论,因为问题牵涉太广,不能一言而决。

 

首先要考虑的是请什么人。主客当然早已内定,陪客的甄选大费酌量。眼睛生在眉毛上边的宦场中人,吃不饱饿不死的教书匠,一身铜臭的大腹贾,小头锐面的浮华少年……若是聚在一个桌上吃饭,便有些像是鸡兔同笼,非常勉强。把素未谋面的人拘在一起,要他们有说有笑,同时食物都能顺利的从咽门下去,也未免强人所难。主人从中调处,殷勤了这一位,怠慢了那一位,想找一些大家都有兴趣的话题亦非易事。所以客人需要分类,不能鱼龙混杂。客的数目视设备而定,若是能把所有该请的客人一网打尽,自然是经济算盘,但是算盘亦不可打得太精。再大的圆桌面也不过能坐十三四个体态中型的人。说来奇怪,客人单身者少,大概都有宝眷,一请就是一对,一桌只好当半桌用。有人请客发宽笺帖,心想总有几位心领谢谢,万想不到人人惠然肯来,而且还有一位特别要好带来一个七八岁的小宝宝!主人慌忙添座,客人谦让“孩子坐我腿上!”大家挤挤攘攘,其中还不乏中年发福之士,把圆桌围得密不透风,上菜需飞越人头,斟酒要从耳边下注,前排客满,主人在二排敬陪。

 

拟菜单也不简单。任何家庭都有它的招牌菜,可惜很少人肯用其所长,大概是以平素见过的饭馆酒席的局面作为蓝图。家里有厨师厨娘,自然一声吩咐,不再劳心,否则主妇势必亲自下厨操动刀俎。主人多半是擅长理论,真让他切葱剥蒜都未必能够胜任。所以拟定菜单,需要自知之明,临时“钻锅”翻看食谱未必有济于事。四冷荤,四热炒,四压桌,外加两道点心,似乎是无可再减,大鱼大肉,水陆杂陈,若不能使客人连串的打饱嗝,不能算是尽兴。

 

菜单拟定的原则是把客人一个个的填的嘴角冒油。而客人所希冀的也往往是一场牙祭。有人以水饺宴客,馅子是猪肉菠菜,客人咬了一口,大叫:“哟,里面怎么净是青菜!”一般人还是欣赏肥肉厚酒,管它是不是烂肠之食!

 

宴客的吉日近了,主妇忙着上菜市,挑挑捡捡,捡捡挑挑,又要物美又要价廉,装满两个篮子,半途休息好几次才能气喘汗流的回到家。泡的,洗的,剥的,切的,闹哄一两天,然后丑媳妇怕见公婆也不行,吉日到了。客人早已折简相邀,难道还会不肯枉驾?不,守时不是我们的传统。准时到达,岂不像是“头如穹庐咽细如针”的饿鬼?要让主人干着急,等他一催请再催请,然后徐徐命驾,跚跚来迟,这才像是大家风范。当然朋友也有特别性急而提早莅临的,那也使得主人措手不及慌成一团。客人的性格不一样,有人进门就选一个比较最好的座位,两脚高架案上,真是宾至如归;也有人寒喧两句就一头扎进厨房,声称要给主妇帮忙,系着围裙伸着两手的主妇连忙谦谢不迭。等到客人到齐,无不饥肠辘辘。

 

落座之前还少不了你推我让的一幕。主人指定坐位,时常无效,除非事先摆好名牌,而且写上官衔,分层排列,秩序井然。敬酒按说是主人的责任,但是也时常有热心人士代为执壶,而且见杯即斟,每斟必满。不喝酒的也要把汽水杯子高高举起,虚应故事,喝酒的也多半是狞眉皱眼的抿那么一小口。一大盘热糊糊的东西端上来了,像翅羹,又像浆糊,一人一勺子,盘底花纹隐约可见,上面撒着的一层芫荽不知被哪一位像芟除毒草似的拨到了盘下,又不知被哪一位从盘下夹到嘴里吃了。还有人坚持海味非蘸醋不可,高呼要醋,等到一碟“忌讳”送上台面,海味早已不见了。菜是一道道的上,上一道客人喊一次“太丰富,太丰富”,然后埋头大嚼,不敢后人。主人照例谦称:“不成敬意,家常便饭。”心直口快的客人就许提出疑问:“这样的家常便饭,怕不要吃穷了?”主人也只好卟嘛一笑而罢。将近尾声的时候,大概总有一位要先走一步,因为还有好几处应酬。这时主妇踱了进来,红头涨脸,额角上还有几颗没揩干净的汗珠,客人举起空杯向她表示慰劳之意,她坐下胡乱吃一些残羹剩炙。

 

席终,香茗水果伺候,客人靠在椅子上剔牙,这时节应该是客去主人安了。但是不,大家雅兴不浅,谈锋尚健,饭后磕牙,海阔天空,谁也不愿首先言辞,致败人意。最后大概是主人打了一个哈欠而忘了掩口,这才有人提议散会。天下无不散之宴席,奈何奈何?不要以为席终人散,立即功德园满,地上有无数的瓜子皮,纸烟灰,桌上杯盘狼籍,厨房里有堆成山的盘杯锅勺,等着你办理善后!

 

请客

梁实秋

Entertaining Guests

—By Liang Shiqiu

🎈招待,款待某人entertain sb

用某物招待某人entertained sb with sth

例句

萧乾《斯诺精神》

他和海伦都极好客,他们时常举行茶会或便餐,

He and his wife Helen were very hospitable and often entertained us with tea or potluck.


 

常听人说:“若要一天不得安,请客;若要一年不得安,盖房;若要一辈子不得安,娶姨太太。” 请客只有一天不得安,为害不算太大,所以人人都觉得不妨偶一为之。

As the old saying goes, “For a day’s discomfort, entertain a guest; for a year’s discomfort, build a house; for a life’s discomfort, take a concubine.” Since entertaining involves only a day’s unease and does no real harm, we might as well entertain every now and then.

🎈concubine妾,姨太太,小老婆

🎈(对……)有害,不利 do harm (to…)

例句

《不要伤害蜘蛛》

Unlike some of the other insect eaters, spiders never do the least harm to us or our belongings.

蜘蛛不同于其他食虫动物,它们丝毫不危害我们和我们的财物。

🎈有时,偶尔,时常every now and then/again

例句

Every now and again she checked to see if he was still asleep.

她隔一会儿就看看他是否还在睡觉。


 

所谓请客,是指自己家里邀集朋友便餐小酌,至于在酒楼饭店“铺宴席,陈尊俎”,呼朋引类,飞觞醉月,享用的是金樽清酒,玉盘珍羞,最后一哄而散,由经手人员造帐报销,

By entertaining, I mean inviting friends over for a drink and a simple meal at home. I do not mean inviting one’s cronies for a business dinner in a restaurant, complete with wine in golden goblets and exquisite foods on jade plates.

🎈邀请某人到家中 invite sb over/round/around

🎈crony n. 好友,密友a person that sb spends a lot of time with

[usually pl.] cronies (often disapproving贬义)

例句

He was playing cards with his cronies.

他当时正与他那些狐朋狗友玩牌。


 

那种宴会只能算是一种病狂或是罪孽,不提也罢。

This kind of banquet, which often breaks up in chaos before the steward settles the account, can be considered morbid or sinful, and is certainly not pleasurable.

🎈结账 settle account


 

妇主中馈,所以要请客必须先归而谋诸妇。

For a simple home meal, the wife is usually the cook, so a consultation with her is essential before you decide on the particular dinner.

🎈中馈:指家中供膳诸事。

 


这一谋,有分教,非十天半月不能获致结论,因为问题牵涉太广,不能一言而决。

These consultations generally take ten or fifteen days before any consensus can be achieved, because too many factors need to be considered. Neither husband nor wife alone can make this decision.

🎈consensus n.一致看法,共识

an opinion that all members of a group agree with

(就……)达成共识 reach consensus /reach a consensus (about/on sth)


 

首先要考虑的是请什么人。主客当然早已内定,陪客的甄选大费酌量。

The first thing you need to consider is who to invite. The guest of honor is selected first, and then other candidates are vetted for compatibility.

🎈主宾,贵宾guest of honor

🎈vet v. 审查

to find out about a person’s past life and career in order to decide if they are suitable for a particular job

道德审查positive vetting(对申请从事保密工作者的背景和品行进行检查)

例句

All candidates are carefully vetted for security reasons.

由于安全的缘故,所有的求职申请人都要经过严格的审查。

 


眼睛生在眉毛上边的宦场中人,吃不饱饿不死的教书匠,一身铜臭的大腹贾,小头锐面的浮华少年……若是聚在一个桌上吃饭,便有些像是鸡兔同笼,非常勉强。

Stuffed shirts from the bureaucracy, wretched pedagogues struggling against starvation, potbellied merchants stinking of copper coins, and pompous dandies who specialize in currying favor… if they find themselves at the same table they may feel as out of place as chickens caged with rabbits.

🎈自命不凡的人,爱摆架子的人 a stuffed shirt

🎈pedagogue n. 教师,好为人师的人

a teacher; a person who likes to teach people things, especially because they think they know more than other people

🎈potbellied adj.大腹便便的having a large stomach that sticks out

🎈有臭味,有难闻的气味stink of…

例句

Her breath stank of garlic.

她嘴里有股大蒜味。

🎈讨好,奉承,拍…的马屁 curry favor with…

例句

Politicians are eager to promote their ‘happy family’ image to curry favor with voters.

政客们极力宣传他们的“幸福家庭”形象以讨好选民。

🎈位置不当,不得体,不适当 out of place

例句

Some of these files seem to be out of place.

有些档案似乎没放对地方。

I felt completely out of place among all these successful people.

夹在这些事业有成的人中间我觉得自己格格不入。


 

把素未谋面的人拘在一起,要他们有说有笑,同时食物都能顺利的从咽门下去,也未免强人所难。

Collecting together guests who have never seen each other before and expecting them to laugh and talk and at the same time enjoy their meal—well, this may be too much to ask.

🎈要求太过分,要求太高,等等be too much to ask

例句

《绝望的主妇》

Would it be too much to ask you to keep your hands off my husband?

如果我叫你把手从我老公身上弄走是不是太过分了?


 

主人从中调处,殷勤了这一位,怠慢了那一位,想找一些大家都有兴趣的话题亦非易事。所以客人需要分类,不能鱼龙混杂。

Rather than leave it to chance, the host tries to facilitate these interactions between guests. Still, if he pleases this one, he may slight the other; and finding a topic of interest to all is also a formidable task. Therefore, guests should be judged by class. Dragons, so to speak, should not be mixed with fish.

🎈任其发展,听天由命,顺其自然 leave it to chance

🎈slight v. 侮慢,冷落,轻视

formidable adj. 可怕的,令人敬畏的,难对付的

棘手的任务 a formidable task

🎈像,仿佛,可谓是,可以说是so to speak =as it were

例句

丰子恺《车厢社会》

……而这车厢社会里的种种人间相倒是一部活的好书,会时时向我展出新颖的page来。

…yet the panorama of faces and behaviors I now observed were, so to speak, a wonderful living book, one that I could turn the pages on endlessly.


 

客的数目视设备而定,若是能把所有该请的客人一网打尽,自然是经济算盘,但是算盘亦不可打得太精。再大的圆桌面也不过能坐十三四个体态中型的人。

As for the number of guests to invite, it all depends on the utensils available. Of course it would be good if you could invite all the guests you feel obliged to invite, but that’s asking too much. Even the biggest round table can seat no more than thirteen or fourteen medium-sized guests.

🎈utensils available中的available一词大体上表示“可以满足他人在某一场合的例行需要”。例如打电话找某人,找得到就是available;要拜访某经理,秘书说他忙或者外出了,就是not available;市场上某种货物脱销,也是not available。

🎈utensil n. (家庭)用具,器皿,家什

a tool that is used in the house

cooking/kitchen utensils炊具,厨房用具


 

说来奇怪,客人单身者少,大概都有宝眷,一请就是一对,一桌只好当半桌用。

Oddly enough, few guests come alone; instead they bring their spouses. That is, invite one and you will get two. So a table is often half a table.


 

有人请客发宽笺帖,心想总有几位心领谢谢,万想不到人人惠然肯来,而且还有一位特别要好带来一个七八岁的小宝宝!主人慌忙添座,客人谦让“孩子坐我腿上!”

On one occasion, a host sent out as many invitations as he could, hoping some of his friends would be kind enough to come. Who would have thought that everyone would agree to come, and an especially close friend even brought his seven-year-old! Hurriedly, the host tried to squeeze in an extra chair, but the man politely declined and said, “Let the child sit on my lap!”

🎈谁能想到……?Who would have thought that…?

would have been通常用在虚拟语态中,表示将会做与过去事实相反的动作。

🎈squeeze in an extra chair指“缩短每个座位之间的距离,腾出空间塞把椅子进去”。


 

大家挤挤攘攘,其中还不乏中年发福之士,把圆桌围得密不透风,上菜需飞越人头,斟酒要从耳边下注,前排客满,主人在二排敬陪。

The guests jammed themselves close together, but with several stout, middle-aged men in their midst, the table was so tightly packed that the host had to pass food overhead and pour wine by their ears. After all were seated, the host stood behind, respectfully serving the guests.

🎈jam v. 塞入,塞进,挤进

to put sb/sth into a small space where there is very little room to move

例句

We were jammed together like sardines in a can.

我们像罐头里的沙丁鱼一般紧紧挤在一起。

🎈挤满了be packed with

例句

The attackers used a car packed with explosives.

袭击者使用了装满爆炸物的车。

 


拟菜单也不简单。任何家庭都有它的招牌菜,可惜很少人肯用其所长,大概是以平素见过的饭馆酒席的局面作为蓝图。

Deciding on the menu is by no means easy. Every family can cook special delicacies, but few will exploit their fortes on these occasions. Often, it seems as if the menu was planned for a restaurant banquet.

🎈决不,一点也不by no means

🎈招牌菜special delicacies

🎈译文中的fortes即指特色菜、招牌菜special delicacies

🎈forte n. 专长,特长

a thing that sb does particularly well

例句

Languages were never my forte.

语言从来就不是我的强项。


 

家里有厨师厨娘,自然一声吩咐,不再劳心,否则主妇势必亲自下厨操动刀俎。

If there is a cook in the home, it is a simple matter for the hostess to make her wishes known, and she does not have to concern herself with the food. If no cook is employed, then the hostess will find herself confined to the kitchen, chopping and cooking.

🎈关心、关注某事concern oneself with sth

例句

丰子恺《家》

比较起借用旅馆的器物,对付旅馆的茶房来,究竟更为自由。

In comparison, I found more freedom in my apartment than in the hotel, for I had my own things there, and didn’t have to concern myself with the waiter.


 

主人多半是擅长理论,真让他切葱剥蒜都未必能够胜任。所以拟定菜单,需要自知之明,临时“钻锅”翻看食谱未必有济于事。

As usual, many hosts can talk of their prowess in the kitchen, but seldom are they up to the simplest of tasks like cutting onions and garlic. So, when drawing up the menu, the host should first of all assess his own cooking skills, because consulting a cookbook by the kitchen range is probably of no avail should a crisis arise.

🎈prowess n.[U] great skill at doing sth

非凡的技能;高超的技艺;造诣

academic/sporting prowess

学术/体育运动造诣

🎈 up to sth

1) (体力或智力上)能胜任 [up to (doing) sth]

例句

I don’t feel up to going to work today.

我觉得不舒服,今天不能去上班。

2)与 … 一样高(或好)

例句

Her latest book isn’t up to her usual standard.

她的新作没有达到她平常的水准。

3)直到;不多于;不迟于 [=up until sth]

例句

Up to now he’s been very quiet.

到目前为止,他一直很安静。

4)到达(某数量、程度等);至多有

例句

I can take up to four people (= but no more than four) in my car.

我的汽车最多能带四个人。

5)正在干,从事着(尤指坏事);在捣鬼

例句

What’ve you been up to?

你一直在搞什么名堂?

I’m sure he’s up to no good (= doing sth bad).

我敢说他在打什么坏主意。

🎈炉灶 a range/a kitchen range

例句

吴伯箫《山屋》

山屋炉边围了几个要好的朋友,说着话,暖烘烘的。

A few close friends crowd around the kitchen range, chatting gaily, feeling warm and cozy.

🎈… should a crisis arise=if a crisis should arise

 


四冷荤,四热炒,四压桌,外加两道点心,似乎是无可再减,大鱼大肉,水陆杂陈,若不能使客人连串的打饱嗝,不能算是尽兴。

A menu of four cold starters, four hot dishes, four side orders, and two dim sums —it seems that no dish can be taken off the list. If the meat and fish, delicacies from both land and sea, cannot make the guests belch continually afterwards, they can’t have eaten their fill.

🎈(一餐中的)第一道菜,开胃小吃starter [In American English, appetizer is used]

(主菜之外)另点的配菜side order

点心(中式食品)dim sum

🎈belch v.打嗝to let air come up noisily from your stomach and out through your mouth

🎈吃饱 eat one’s fill

例句

施蛰存《寓言三则》

在每个刺猬的胃里装满了瓜、豆和茄子的时候,稻草的守夜人是显得更无用了。

When each hedgehog had eaten his fill of the melons, beans and eggplants, the watchman seemed all the more helpless.


 

菜单拟定的原则是把客人一个个的填的嘴角冒油。而客人所希冀的也往往是一场牙祭。

So the guiding principle of planning a menu must be to let the guests gorge themselves until their mouths drip with lard. Rather than simply stuffing themselves, what the guests hope for is nothing short of a special treat!

🎈指导原则 the guiding principle

🎈1)贪婪地吃;狼吞虎咽gorge oneself on sth

例句

I could spend each day gorging on chocolate.

我可以每天只吃巧克力就够了。

2)使吃撑,使吃足,使吃得过饱stuff oneself

例句

I could stuff myself with ten chocolate bars and half an hour later eat a big meal.

我可以一口气吃10块巧克力,半小时后再吃一顿大餐。

3)吃撑了 be stuffed

🎈可以说是、无异于、近乎 little/nothing short of sth.

例句

李大钊《艰难的国运与雄健的国民》

历史的道路,不会是坦平的,有时走到艰难险阻的境界。这是全靠雄健的精神才能冲过去的。

The course of history is never smooth. It is sometimes beset with difficulties and obstacles and nothing short of a heroic spirit can help surmount them.


 

有人以水饺宴客,馅子是猪肉菠菜,客人咬了一口,大叫:“哟,里面怎么净是青菜!” 一般人还是欣赏肥肉厚酒,管它是不是烂肠之食!

Once, a host entertained his guests with boiled dumplings stuffed with pork and spinach. After taking the first bite, one of the guests called out, “Oh! How come the stuffing is all greens? You see?” Most guests want only fatty meats and strong liquors, and don’t give a hoot about their health.

🎈How come后面接上不颠倒词序的问句,有“怎的”、“为什么竟然”的意思。

例句

How come the door’s locked?

门怎的竟然是锁着的?

How come you know my name?

你怎的知道我的名字?

🎈greens n. 绿叶菜,青菜

You can refer to the cooked leaves of vegetables such as spinach or cabbage as greens.

🎈烈酒strong liquor

🎈毫不在乎,根本不在意

don’t give a hoot/don’t care two hoots about sth

例句

Alan doesn’t care two hoots about Irish politics.

艾伦对爱尔兰政治毫不关心。


 

宴客的吉日近了,主妇忙着上菜市,挑挑捡捡,捡捡挑挑,又要物美又要价廉,装满两个篮子,半途休息好几次才能气喘汗流的回到家。

When the auspicious day approaches, the hostess must go through the market back and forth to select the best quality fare at the lowest price. With two baskets of food to struggle with, she will have to stop several times before getting home, dripping with sweat.

🎈fare n. (饭店或咖啡店的)餐点,饮食,饭菜

例句

The fare has much improved since Hugh has taken charge of the kitchen.

自从休主厨以来,伙食大为改进。

🎈浸满(某种液体)be soaked / dripping / dr

enched with …

大汗淋漓be ~ with sweat


 

泡的,洗的,剥的,切的,闹哄一两天,然后丑媳妇怕见公婆也不行,吉日到了。客人早已折简相邀,难道还会不肯枉驾?不,守时不是我们的传统。

After two hectic days of steeping, washing, peeling, and cutting, the day of reckoning arrives and the ugly bride must face the music. Since the guests accepted our invitation, they should at least be punctual in their arrivals, but no, punctuality is not in our tradition!

🎈 hectic adj. 忙碌的,繁忙的

very busy; full of activity

to lead a hectic life生活十分忙碌

a hectic schedule安排很满的日程表

🎈算总账的日子the day of reckoning


 

准时到达,岂不像是“头如穹庐咽细如针”的饿鬼?要让主人干着急,等他一催请再催请,然后徐徐命驾,跚跚来迟,这才像是大家风范。

If a guest arrived on time, he might appear like a starving ghost with a head the size of a barrel and a throat as thin as a straw. It is our style to keep the host helplessly worried and apprehensive despite repeated urging on the part of the host while we leisurely take our time and arrive fashionably late—nothing short of this can be called manners of good breeding.

🎈干着急 helplessly worried and apprehensive

apprehensive adj. 忧虑的,担心的,疑惧的,恐惧的

worried or frightened that sth unpleasant may happen

🎈由某人作出的on the part of sb. / on sb.’s part

例句

It was a mistake on my part.

这是我的错。

对某人而言for one’s part

部分地,某种程度上in part = partly= to some degree

🎈从容不迫,不着急 take one’s time

姗姗来迟fashionably late

🎈大家风范manners of good breeding

有学问品行的人 men of breeding


 

当然朋友也有特别性急而提早莅临的,那也使得主人措手不及慌成一团。

Naturally, some particularly impatient friends insist on arriving ahead of the appointed time—an occurrence that often catches the host and hostess unawares and throws them into utter confusion.

🎈提前、预先ahead of time

约定的时间the appointed time

🎈使某人措手不及 catch/take sb unawares


 

客人的性格不一样,有人进门就选一个比较最好的座位,两脚高架案上,真是宾至如归;也有人寒喧两句就一头扎进厨房,声称要给主妇帮忙,系着围裙伸着两手的主妇连忙谦谢不迭。

After the arrival, the guests display their differing personalities. Some, upon entering the house, will choose a good seat, lift their feet onto a stool, and make themselves totally at home. Others, after a brief introduction, will hurry into the kitchen to help. Of course the apron-clad hostess will stick out her greasy hands to rebuff their offer.

🎈stool n.凳子

a seat with legs but no support for your arms or back

🎈围裙apron clad

🎈rebuff v./n.拒绝,回绝

例句

Her offer of help was met with a sharp rebuff.

她主动帮忙,却遭到断然拒绝。


 

等到客人到齐,无不饥肠辘辘。

By the time all the guests have arrived, everyone will find their stomach rumbling.

🎈雷声轰鸣 thunder rumbling

腹中雷鸣 stomachs rumbling (with hunger)


 

落座之前还少不了你推我让的一幕。主人指定坐位,时常无效,除非事先摆好名牌,而且写上官衔,分层排列,秩序井然。

Before they sit down at the table, guests invariably go through the ritual of declining and yielding. Unless the host has properly arranged the plates with guests’ names and titles in advance, he will have a hard time assigning his seating plan.

🎈ritual n. 习惯,老规矩

something that is done regularly and always in the same way

例句

Cocktails at the Plaza was a nightly ritual of their sophisticated world.

到广场饭店喝鸡尾酒是他们这个高雅时髦的圈子中的人每晚必做的事情。


 

敬酒按说是主人的责任,但是也时常有热心人士代为执壶,而且见杯即斟,每斟必满。

As a rule, toasting is the host’s duty, but some eager beaver always seems to take this task upon himself and constantly fills every glass he sees to the brim.

🎈干活特别卖力的人,对工作极有热忱的人 eager beaver

some可以表示「某个或某些」

🎈承担,接受take on/upon sth

例句

No other organization was able or willing to take on the job.

没有任何别的组织有能力或愿意承担此项工作。


 

不喝酒的也要把汽水杯子高高举起,虚应故事,喝酒的也多半是狞眉皱眼的抿那么一小口。

Those who do not drink must go through the motions with a glass of soda water, while those who do drink sip carefully and then wrinkle up their noses.

🎈go through

1)仔细察看某事物;检查某事物;审查某事物

例句

I always start the day by going through my email.

我每天第一件事就是要查阅电子邮件。

2)(尤指反复地)详细研究,仔细琢磨

例句

Let’s go through the arguments again.

咱们再详细研究一下这些论据吧。

3)执行某行动;实行某方法;履行某程序

例句

Certain formalities have to be gone through before you can emigrate.

必须办理一定的手续方能移居他国。

4)经历;遭受

例句

He’s amazingly cheerful considering all he’s had to go through.

经历了种种磨难,他还那么乐观,令人惊叹。

5)用完;耗尽

例句

The boys went through two whole loaves of bread.

这些男孩把整整两条面包吃得精光。


 

一大盘热糊糊的东西端上来了,像翅羹,又像浆糊,一人一勺子,盘底花纹隐约可见,上面撒着的一层芫荽不知被哪一位像芟除毒草似的拨到了盘下,又不知被哪一位从盘下夹到嘴里吃了。

Then, a big plate of steaming hot food, which appears to be custard of shark’s fin or something similar, is served. One guest will take it upon himself to poke down the coriander sprinkled on the surface as if cutting poisonous grass, while another will fish it up from the bottom and hide it in his mouth. After each guest takes a spoonful, the floral pattern on the bottom of the bowl is soon visible.

🎈coriander n. 芫荽,香菜

🎈译文的逻辑顺序:菜上桌→哄抢→光盘

🎈花纹the floral pattern

floral adj.

①有花形图案的,绘有花的

②花的made of flowers

a floral dress有花卉图案的连衣裙

a floral arrangement/display插花,花展


 

还有人坚持海味非蘸醋不可,高呼要醋,等到一碟“忌讳”送上台面,海味早已不见了。菜是一道道的上,上一道客人喊一次“太丰富,太丰富”,然后埋头大嚼,不敢后人。

Some guests insist that seafood should be eaten with vinegar and request it loudly, but when it finally arrives the seafood has already disappeared. Dishes are served one after another, and each time a dish appears on the table the guests will shout “Abundance! Abundance!”, but then turn their heads to their bowls, unwilling to be left behind.

🎈abundance n.大量,丰盛,充裕

a large quantity that is more than enough

大量的…… an abundance of

大量,丰盛,充裕in abundance

abundant adj.丰盛的,充裕的

🎈落后,落伍 be left behind

例句

He’s behind the rest of the class in reading.

他的阅读能力不及班上其他人。


 

主人照例谦称:“不成敬意,家常便饭。”心直口快的客人就许提出疑问:“这样的家常便饭,怕不要吃穷了?”主人也只好卟嘛一笑而罢。

As a rule, the host replies modestly, “This is just a token of our respect for you; it’s only a plain home meal.” Some outspoken guest may exclaim, “What a simple home meal! I hope we are not eating you out of house and home.” In response, the host can only snigger.

🎈 token n. (感觉、事实、事件等的)象征,标志,表示,信物

something that is a symbol of a feeling, a fact, an event, etc.

例句

Please accept this small gift as a token of our gratitude.

区区薄礼,以表谢忱,请笑纳。

🎈把某人吃得倾家荡产 eat sb out of house and home


 

将近尾声的时候,大概总有一位要先走一步,因为还有好几处应酬。

As the feast comes to a close, one guest may leave ahead of the others as he has a few more social engagements on his plate for this evening.

🎈接近尾声 draw/come to a close/an end

例句

林海音《冬阳·童年·骆驼队》

冬天快过完了,春天就要来,太阳特别的暖和,暖得让人想把棉袄脱下来。

As winter was drawing to an end and spring coming nearer, the sun became so warm that people felt like taking off their cotton-padded jackets.

🎈社交活动,应酬social engagement

文中的「好几处应酬」指「还得吃好几场席」


 

这时主妇踱了进来,红头涨脸,额角上还有几颗没揩干净的汗珠,客人举起空杯向她表示慰劳之意,她坐下胡乱吃一些残羹剩炙。

At this time, the hostess strolls in, her face aglow from the hectic work and a few beads of sweat standing on her forehead. The guests lift their empty glasses to toast her in recognition of her efforts in the kitchen. She takes the departed guest’s place at the table and hastily grasps for the leftovers.

🎈her face aglow from the hectic work and a few beads of sweat standing on her forehead是独立主格结构,aglow from中的from引出原因。

aglow adj. 红光满面的,面色发红的

glowing especially with warmth or excitement

🎈对(某人的功劳或成就)表示认可in recognition of…

为了/以感谢…in return / reward for …或in appreciation of …

为了纪念某人;向某人表示敬意in honor of …[可为生者或逝者]

追思/悼念某人in memory of …


 

席终,香茗水果伺候,客人靠在椅子上剔牙,这时节应该是客去主人安了。但是不,大家雅兴不浅,谈锋尚健,饭后磕牙,海阔天空,谁也不愿首先言辞,致败人意。

At the close of the feast as the tea and fruits arrive, the guests lean back in their chairs and pick their teeth. It is high time they returned home and gave the host some peace and quiet, but everybody seems to be in high spirits. They chat with much gusto, exchanging gossip and shooting the bull repeatedly. No one seems willing to be the first to say goodbye, lest he spoil the fun of the others.

🎈剔牙 pick teeth

🎈是该做某事的时候了。

It’s high time+…

例句

It’s high time this leakage of information was put a stop to.

是结束这种泄密现象的时候了。

🎈兴高采烈,情绪高涨 in high spirits

🎈热情满满,投入,兴致勃勃with gusto

英义

If you do something with gusto, you do it with energetic and enthusiastic enjoyment.

🎈聊天,闲聊 shoot the breeze/bull

🎈spoil v. 破坏,搞坏,糟蹋,毁掉

to change sth good into sth bad, unpleasant, useless, etc

扫兴;破坏气氛 spoil the mood

影响某人食欲 spoil one’s appetite

例句

Don’t let him spoil your evening.

别让他搞得你一晚上不开心。

The tall buildings have spoiled the view.

那些高楼大厦破坏了这一带的景致


 

最后大概是主人打了一个哈欠而忘了掩口,这才有人提议散会。

Only when the yawning hostess forgets to cover her mouth will a guest take the hint and propose to break up the party.

🎈 only位于句首修饰状语要倒装。在句首的only如果后面跟了副词、介词短语或从句等状语,则主句用倒装结构.如only后跟的是主语,就不用倒装结构了。例如:

Only when the war was over in 1918 was he able to get back to work.

Only in this way can you learn English well.

Only after a bitter struggle was the aim achieved.

Only the teachers are allowed to use the room.(不倒装)

Only five men were hurt in the accident.(不倒装)

🎈领会某人暗示 take the/a hint

例句

I thought they’d never go — some people just can’t take a hint.

我以为他们永远也不会走的,有些人就是不会看眼色。


 

天下无不散之宴席,奈何奈何?

Since all feasts must eventually have an end, the others are left with no recourse but to join him at the door.

🎈recourse n. 依靠,依赖

例句

Your only recourse is legal action.

你的唯一依靠就是诉诸法律。

She made a complete recovery without recourse to surgery.

她未做手术就完全恢复了健康。


 

不要以为席终人散,立即功德园满,地上有无数的瓜子皮,纸烟灰,桌上杯盘狼籍,厨房里有堆成山的盘杯锅勺,等着你办理善后!

But do not think that with the guests all gone, the party can be promptly wrapped up! The floor is littered with melon seed shells and cigarette ashes, the table is scattered with plates and dishes, the kitchen is piled high with bowls and pots—and all sit waiting for the poor hostess to wash.

🎈圆满完成,圆满结束(工作、协议等) wrap up sth

例句

NATO defense ministers wrap up their meeting in Brussels today.

北约各国国防部长今天圆满结束了在布鲁塞尔的会议。

🎈……乱扔得到处都是 be littered with sth

例句

The floor was littered with papers.

地板上乱七八糟扔了许多文件。

🎈……堆得老高be piled high with…

例句

郭沫若《墓》

昨朝我一个人在松林里徘徊,在一株老松树下戏筑了一座砂丘。

Yesterday morning, while wandering about alone in a pine forest, I amused myself by piling up a small sandhill under an old pine tree.

 

🎈重点表达

用某物招待某人entertained sb with sth

(对……)有害,不利 do harm (to…)

有时;偶尔;时常every now and then/again

邀请某人到家中 invite sb over/round/around

结账 settle account

(就……)达成共识 reach consensus /reach a consensus (about/on sth)

主宾,贵宾guest of honor

自命不凡的人,爱摆架子的人 a stuffed shirt

有臭味;有难闻的气味stink of…

讨好;奉承;拍…的马屁 curry favor with…

位置不当;不得体,不适当 out of place

要求太过分,要求太高,等等be too much to ask

任其发展,听天由命,顺其自然 leave it to chance

像,仿佛,可谓是,可以说是so to speak =as it were

谁能想到……?Who would have thought that…?

挤满了be packed with

决不;一点也不by no means

招牌菜special delicacies

(体力或智力上)能胜任 up to (doing) sth

炉灶 a range/a kitchen range

(一餐中的)第一道菜,开胃小吃starter [In American English, appetizer is used]

(主菜之外)另点的配菜side order

点心(中式食品)dim sum

吃饱 eat one’s fill

指导原则 the guiding principle

贪婪地吃;狼吞虎咽gorge oneself on sth

使吃撑;使吃足;使吃得过饱stuff oneself

可以说是、无异于、近乎 little/nothing short of sth.

毫不在乎;根本不在意 don’t give a hoot/don’t care two hoots about sth

浸满(某种液体)be soaked / dripping / drenched with …

干着急 helplessly worried and apprehensive

由某人作出的on the part of sb. / on sb.’s part

从容不迫,不着急 take one’s time

姗姗来迟fashionably late

大家风范manners of good breeding

提前、预先ahead of time

约定的时间the appointed time

使某人措手不及 catch/take sb unawares

围裙apron clad

干活特别卖力的人;对工作极有热忱的人 eager beaver

承担,接受take on/upon sth

花纹the floral pattern

落后,落伍 be left behind

把某人吃得倾家荡产 eat sb out of house and home

接近尾声 draw/come to a close/an end

社交活动,应酬social engagement

对(某人的功劳或成就)表示认可in recognition of…

剔牙 pick teeth

是该做某事的时候了。It’s high time+…

兴高采烈,情绪高涨 in high spirits

热情满满;投入;兴致勃勃with gusto

聊天;闲聊 shoot the breeze/bull

领会某人暗示 take the/a hint

圆满完成,圆满结束(工作、协议等) wrap up sth

……乱扔得到处都是 be littered with sth

……堆得老高be piled high with…

 

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 梁实秋《请客》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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