王佐良《想起清华种种》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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想起清华种种

王佐良
 
我只是清华几万校友中的一个,现已不在清华工作,然而一说起这所学校,至今仍像年轻时一样兴奋,话也像说不完似的。
 
清华吸引人的究竟是什么呢?它有很好的校园,设备,但这些别校也有;它的历史也不很长,世界大学中,成立已几百年的有的是;想来想去,还是由于清华的人,或者说清华人和中国历史的特殊关联。
 
说起清华人,我怀念我的老师们。大学一年级,俞平伯、余冠英两先生教我国文,一位教读本,一位教作文,都亲切而严格,有一次余先生指出我把爬山虎写成紫荆的错误,但又要我多写几篇给他看。二年级,贺麟老师教我西洋哲学史,见了我长达百页的英文读书报告不仅不皱眉,反而在班上表扬我;正是在他的指导之下,我读了不少古希腊哲学家著作的英译,真有发现新星球似的喜悦。温德老师在工字厅讲意大利文艺复兴时期艺术,打开许多画册让我们传阅,幽默地然而严格地区分画的优劣。
 
同样难忘的事还很多,那时候日本军队已在华北城市大街上演习,而清华的师生则在学术上特别争气,不久又在政治上发动了公然反日的12.9运动。
 
我们这一级(1935-1939)还有一段特殊经历,即抗日战争的锻炼。我们两年在清华园度过,两年在长沙、南岳、蒙自、昆明度过。有的同学进入解放区打游击,大多数在大后方直接或间接地参加过战争工作。但是学术上并未放松。昆明西南联大集北大、清华、南开三校的精华,师生在最简陋的条件下做出了当时第一流的研究成绩,青年人的成长分外迅猛。走遍半个中国给了我们以接触内地实际的宝贵经验,这是在清华园小范围内埋头读书所无法得到的。所以这次大转移又是我们知识和感情上的一次大扩充。
 
然而我们仍然怀念清华园。在昆明读书和教书的八年里,可以说没有一天不想念北方的故土。中国历史上汉族士大夫几度被赶出北方,却没有一次能够回去。正如冯友兰先生指出的,只有抗日这一次不同。我们战胜了,1946年夏我从昆明带着妻儿重新回到了清华园,虽然校舍残破,校园荒芜,但有陈岱孙先生领导一批员工在进行大规模的复校工作,不久就在北方的灿烂秋阳中重新上课,清华人意兴之豪,达到了一个新的高度。
 
接着,我出国留学。等我回来,清华园已经解放,开始了一个新的历史时期。
 
后来我转入别的学校工作。但是我心里始终保持着一种清华做学问的标准。
 
这标准并无人明确定出,但是无数师友“行胜于言”的实际榜样却使我悟到:做学问必须要有最高标准,而取得学问却是为了报效国家。简单说,就是卓越与为公。
想起清华种种
王佐良
Reminiscences of Tsinghua University
—By Wang Zuoliang
🎈ureminiscence  n.
1 [U] 回忆,怀旧 
2 [pl] 回忆,回忆录
对…的回忆(录)the reminiscences of / about…
【近义词&辨析】
1 reminisce v. 缅怀往事,话旧
缅怀… reminisce about …
2 memoirs n. [pl.] 回忆录,自传
3 memo / memorandum n. 备忘录
🎈清华大学 Tsinghua University
威妥玛式拼音法(Wade-Giles romanization)简称威氏拼音法,它由英国人威妥玛等人合编,是中国清末至1958年汉语拼音方案公布前国际上流行的中文拼音方案,这个方案被普遍用来拼写中国的人名、地名等,虽然保持了接近英文拼法的一些特点,但是并不完全迁就英文的拼写习惯。

 
我只是清华几万校友中的一个,现已不在清华工作,然而一说起这所学校,至今仍像年轻时一样兴奋,话也像说不完似的。
Once I was a student at Tsinghua University, but that was long ago. I no longer work there, but whenever speaking of my Alma Mater I relive the excitement of my student days. There seems no end to the stories my old school inspired.
🎈谈论,提及 speak of
例句
People speak of Mark Twain as a signal humourous writer.
人们称马克·吐温为杰出的幽默作家。
🎈母校、校歌alma mater
例句
胡适《不要抛弃学问》
你们现在要离开母校了,我没有什么礼物送给你们,只好送你们一句话罢。
As you are leaving your alma mater, I have nothing to offer you as a gift except a word of advice.
🎈重温,再次体验 relive sth.
例句
He relives the horror of the crash every night in his dreams.
每天晚上他都会梦见那次撞车的可怕情景。
🎈之前见过的 story
夏衍《野草》
有这样一个故事也可译作
there is such a story that…
庐隐《恋爱不是游戏》
哀哉 O what a sad story!
吴冠中《绿衣姑娘》
我住的是最后院的最后两间平房,后墙外是一条小小的胡同… 
…I live in a one-story two-room house in the rearmost backyard backed by a small lane.
柯灵《巷》
有自己的一本哀乐帐,一部兴衰史
…has its own covered-up story of joys and sorrows, and rise and decline…
何为《第二次考试》
这就是全部经过。
That was the whole story.
施蛰存《美国的男女》
有一封读者来信报道的一个信息。
A reader wrote to tell the following little story.

 
清华吸引人的究竟是什么呢? 
What on earth makes Tsinghua University so appealing? 
🎈到底,究竟 on earth
例句
But what on earth was it doing?
它到底在干啥呢?
同理的还有the hell,也有「究竟、到底」的意思。
例句
Where the hell are you guys heading for?
这些人到底上哪儿去啊?
🎈adj. 吸引人的 appealing, captivating, attractive, tempting, intriguing, fascinating, amazing

 
它有很好的校园,设备,但这些别校也有; 
She boasts a beautiful campus and first-rate facilities, but other universities enjoy similar advantages. 
🎈boast的两种常见用法:
1拥有 (sth.) boast…
例句
Often a valley boasted no inn at all. 
通常村子里都没有客栈。
2吹牛,夸口…boast of / about …或boast that …
例句
He’s boasted of being involved in the arms theft…
他吹嘘自己参与过盗窃军火的行动。
🎈一流的 first-rate, first-class, world-class, top, prime, excellent, outstanding, exceptional
🎈译文中用boast和enjoy译出了「有」
中文的「有」很多情况下不直接翻译成have
1)经济学人中经常用boast,例如:“深圳有大量高速增长的科技公司”英文可以说:Shenzhen boasts a large number of fast growing technology companies. 根据boast的本意「吹嘘」可以知道,一般情况下这种「有」是好的东西,boast的英英解释有一条是:(a person, place, or thing) possess (a feature that is a source of pride)。政府工作报告中夸中国地大物博、物产丰富之类的也常用boast。
例句
季羡林《我和北大图书馆》
我对北大图书馆有一种特殊的感情。
cherish a particular affection for Peking University Library.

 
它的历史也不很长,世界大学中,成立已几百年的有的是; 
She is time-honored, but there are countless age-old universities across the world. 
🎈历史悠久的 time-honored,age-old
 

想来想去,还是由于清华的人,或者说清华人和中国历史的特殊关联。
After lengthy consideration, I decided that it is Tsinghua graduates or rather the impact they made on China’s history that made her special.
🎈想来想去,经过长时间考虑 after lengthy consideration
再思,三思think it over again
这两个短语虽都有「深思熟虑」之意,但二者略有差别,此处不能互换使用,前者强调「思考以做出决定」,后者强调「在已有决定后思考以确定该决定」
🎈更确切说,更准确说,严格来说 or rather
例句
Time or rather lack of time seems to be a major inhibitor of code reviews.
时间或缺少时间看起来是进行代码检查的主要障碍。
🎈…对…的效用/影响the effect / influence / impact of … on / upon …
🎈I decided that it is Tsinghua graduates or rather the impact they made on China’s history that made her special中第一个that引导宾语从句,整个作动词decide的宾语,第二个that和宾语从句中的it is构成it is…that…强调句结构。

 
说起清华人,我怀念我的老师们。
When referring to Tsinghua residents, I especially cherish the memory of my teachers. 
🎈说起…… when speaking of/when referring to/when it comes to…
🎈cherish
对A抱有……感情 cherish a +adj.+ affection + for A
「对……抱有感情」,汉译英很容易条件反射“have a feeling for sth”,但实际上have a feeling for sth意思是「对某事有悟性(天分)」,比如说「你似乎对绘画很有天分」可以表达为You seem to have a feeling for drawing。have没有cherish选词准确,看英英解释第二条,to keep an idea, a hope or a pleasant feeling in your mind for a long time,显然cherish比have包含的感情更多。新概念3的第34课《a happy discovery》里面有一句: He must cherish the hope that one day he will be amply rewarded. 中文意思是:他必须抱有这样的希望,终有一天,他的努力会取得丰硕的成果。

 
大学一年级,俞平伯、余冠英两先生教我国文,一位教读本,一位教作文,都亲切而严格, 
In my first year, I had two amiable but strict teachers of Chinese. Mr. Yu Pingbo taught classical Chinese, and Mr. Yu Guanyin gave instruction on writing. 
🎈 amiable形容人和蔼、亲切等。
🎈instruction
1)[U]教学,讲授
教授…… give instruction on…
2)[Pl]指示,命令,用法说明,操作指南
接受指示/命令take instructions
按指示/命令做follow instructions
等候指示/命令await instructions
 

有一次余先生指出我把爬山虎写成紫荆的错误,但又要我多写几篇给他看。
Once Yu Guanyin pointed out that I misused Boston ivy for Chinese redbud in my composition, but instead of scolding, he encouraged me to write a few more for him to evaluate.
🎈爬山虎 Boston ivy
美国紫荆 redbud
紫荆Chinese redbud 
紫荆花是清华校花之一,校内有紫荆学生公寓及紫荆园餐厅等建筑。
🎈instead of:代替,而不是。该表达的重点词是介词of,所以后接名词,代词和v-ing形式。
🎈「多写几篇给他看」中的「看」不能只止步于「看」,考虑到课堂教学,译作evaluate(评估)更合适。

 
二年级,贺麟老师教我西洋哲学史,见了我长达百页的英文读书报告不仅不皱眉,反而在班上表扬我; 
In my second year, Mr. He Ling was my teacher of history of western philosophy. He never tired of my marathon English book reports and, on the contrary, praised me in class. 
🎈(某人)教授…… sb. + teach…/ give instruction on…/ be one’s teacher of…/ delivere lectures on…
 
🎈对……感到厌倦 be/become/get+ bored/tired/sick + of … 
例句
萧乾《老黑奴》
这是一支十分凄凉的歌曲,黑人厌倦了尘世,听到已死去的亲人的呼唤,渴望奔向另一世界。
It was a very sad and plaintive song. The said Black Joe, being sick and tired of the mortal world, longs to go to a better world on hearing the gentle voice of his departed folks calling, “Old Black Joe!” 其中be sick and tired of表示「对……十分厌倦」,是惯用表达,和单独使用的be sick of或be tired of相比,语气更为强烈。
🎈反之 on the contrary
相比之下 by comparison
例句
丰子恺《作客者言》
反之,单伸一根食指的手,是指示路径的牌子上或“小便在此”的牌子上所画的手。
Pointing with the forefinger, on the contrary, is like a direction sign pointing to the destination of a road or indicating the way to the toilet.
 

正是在他的指导之下,我读了不少古希腊哲学家著作的英译,真有发现新星球似的喜悦。
It was under his guidance that I read numerous English translations of ancient Greek philosophical works. Truly, I felt as if I had discovered a new planet.
🎈本文中「不少」的同义替换countless, numerous

 
温德老师在工字厅讲意大利文艺复兴时期艺术,打开许多画册让我们传阅,幽默地然而严格地区分画的优劣。
Mr. Winter delivered lectures on Italian Renaissance Art in the I-shaped Lecture Theatre. Opening his painting albums, he passed them amongst his students and amusingly showed us how to distinguish good paintings from bad ones.
🎈文艺复兴(Renaissance)是指发生在14世纪到17世纪的一场反映新兴资产阶级要求的欧洲思想文化运动。文艺复兴最先在意大利各城邦兴起,以后扩展到西欧各国,于16世纪达到顶峰,带来一段科学与艺术革命时期,揭开了近代欧洲历史的序幕,被认为是中古时代和近代的分界。文艺复兴和宗教改革、启蒙运动并誉为西欧近代三大思想解放运动。
🎈「工字型」之所以译作I-shaped,是因为大写的英文字母I看上去和汉字「工」相似,如建筑中的工字钢(I-steel)
🎈「区分」的近义词替换distinguish / differentiate / discriminate
把A和B区分开来 differentiate/ differentiate / discriminate A from B
辨别A和B / differentiate / discriminate between A and B

 
同样难忘的事还很多,那时候日本军队已在华北城市大街上演习,而清华的师生则在学术上特别争气,不久又在政治上发动了公然反日的12.9运动。
There were many other equally unforgettable events. Japanese troops had at that time occupied the streets of North China’s cities, but in spite of the invasion, students and teachers of Tsinghua University pushed themselves fairly hard in terms of learning. A short time later they launched the December 9th Movement, openly calling for resistance to Japanese aggression.
🎈at that time和at the time的区别
at that time 意思是 在那时候(可以表示过去也可以表示将来)
at the time 表示时,那个时候(表示过去)
例句
I didn’t. I was sleeping at the time。不知道呢。当时我在睡觉。
🎈华北地区(North China)简称华北,是中国地理区划七分之一。在自然地理上一般指秦岭—淮河线以北,长城以南的中国的广大区域,北与东北地区、内蒙古自治区地区相接。
🎈despite (of) 和 in spite of的区别:
1.论语气,despite 比in spite of严谨,但意思没有分别,都可译做“虽然”或“不顾”,
例句
In spite of/Despite mounting public discontent , the government is determined to push the bill through. 
虽然公众不满愈来愈强烈,政府还是执意要通过议案。
2.有时,我们会看到despite of mounting public discontent 之类说法,但despite之后加of ,一般被视为鄙俗甚至不正确,不宜仿效。
3.In spite of或despite之后必须用名词或动名词(gerund),不能接普通句子(clause),例如不可说“Despite the public is getting increasingly discontented”,只能说“Despite the fact that the public is getting increasingly discontented.
4.in spite of/despite the fact that 这句式虽然正确,却嫌累赘,最好用although一字取代,例如:“Although the public is getting increasingly discontented, the government is determined to push the bill through. ”
🎈抗日战争
China’s Anti-Japanese War 
China’s War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression
抗日根据地the anti-Japanese base area

 
我们这一级(1935-1939)还有一段特殊经历,即抗日战争的锻炼。
As well, the graduates of my cohort (1935-1939) had the unusual experience of being tempered in the War of Resistance against Japan.
🎈cohort [N-COUNT 可数名词] 
尤指为了进行统计而被看作一个整体的)一群人
A cohort of people is a group who have something in common.
一九九九年出生的同龄人口
the 1999 birth cohort (= all those born in 1999)
小学三年级所有八岁到九岁的学生
the entire cohort of eight to nine year-olds in their third year at primary school
🎈temper   v.磨练
to make stronger and more resilient through hardship

 
我们两年在清华园度过,两年在长沙、南岳、蒙自、昆明度过。
For the first two years we lived and studied in Tsinghua. Then, we were forced to move, first to Changsha, then to Nanyue, then to Mengzi and finally to Kunming in the last two years. 
🎈增译were forced to是对时代背景的补充,表明战火的蔓延。

 
有的同学进入解放区打游击,大多数在大后方直接或间接地参加过战争工作。但是学术上并未放松。
Some students fought as guerrillas in liberated areas, and the majority of us, either directly or indirectly, did our bit to fight Japan. Nevertheless, we didn’t slacken our efforts in our studies.
🎈guerrilla n.游击队员
游击战the guerrilla warfare 
区分:gorilla大猩猩
a guerrilla war
🎈大多数 the majority of
🎈尽微薄之力,尽一份力 do one’s bit
例句
《运动员的情操》
实在到了自知技穷之时,他会愉快地退下来,让位给年轻的优胜者,并对自己在奥林匹克运动中争取更好成绩尽了一份力而心满意足。
When the time comes and he knows he can’t, he will step down happily to give place to the younger winner, aware contentedly of the fact that he has done his bit for the “ever better” records of the Olympic Games.

 
昆明西南联大集北大、清华、南开三校的精华,师生在最简陋的条件下做出了当时第一流的研究成绩,青年人的成长分外迅猛。
South-West Associated University gathered together the cream of Beijing, Tsinghua and Nankai Universities and indeed both teachers and students achieved some excellent research results under rather harsh conditions. We young people grew up exceptionally quickly and soon rose to the occasion.
🎈国立西南联合大学(The National SouthWest Associated University, NSAU)是中国抗日战争开始后高校内迁设于昆明的一所综合性大学。1937年11月1日,由国立北京大学、国立清华大学、南开大学在长沙组建成立的国立长沙临时大学在长沙开学(这一天也成为西南联大校庆日)。由于长沙连遭日机轰炸,1938年2月中旬,经中华民国教育部批准,长沙临时大学分三路西迁昆明。1938年4月,改称国立西南联合大学。
🎈rather adv. 有些,颇为,相当 
近义词 fairly, very
例句
It had made some rather bad mistakes which I thought should be corrected.
它犯了一些相当严重的错误,我觉得应该加以纠正。
🎈rise to sth.
1) 能够处理,有能力处理(突发情况、问题等)
例句
He was determined to rise to the challenge.
他决心克服困难迎接挑战。
2) 上当,上钩,进圈套
例句
As soon as I mentioned money he rose to the bait.
我一提到钱,他就上钩了。

 
走遍半个中国给了我们以接触内地实际的宝贵经验,这是在清华园小范围内埋头读书所无法得到的。
After the long, hard evacuation journey from north to south, we came to understand the actual conditions in inland China. If we had confined ourselves to the small campus poring over books, we could never have gained such valuable insight. 
🎈增译from north to south仍是对抗日时代背景知识的补充。
🎈实际情况actual conditions
例句
The testing result indicates that this measuring system can describes the actual condition of heading attitude system objectively.
测试结果表明,该测试系统能够客观的反映航姿系统的各项实际情况。
🎈把…局限于…confine … to …/restrict … to … (to是介词)
例句
吴冠中《太阳》
总是生活在阴影里不健康,生活中没有阴影也不健康,
It is unhealthy to confine ourselves to shadows, nor is it healthy to have no shadows in life.

 
所以这次大转移又是我们知识和感情上的一次大扩充。
In retrospect, this forced migration greatly broadened our horizons and enhanced our patriotism.
🎈回顾;回想;追溯往事 in retrospect
例句
In retrospect, I think that I was wrong.
回首往事,我觉得当时我错了。
【词根词缀记单词】
inspect v.检查
introspect v.反省,自省.
retrospect v./n. 回首往事
prospect n.前程;展望
circumspect a.谨慎的
🎈拓宽兴趣to broaden / expand one’s interests gradually
拓宽视野to broaden / expand one’s horizons
🎈patriotism n. 爱国主义
patriot n.爱国者
patriotic a.爱国的 
爱国主义歌曲/教育patriotic songs / education 
compatriot n.同胞
【词根词缀记单词】
1part-=pater:father
patriarchy n.父系社会,父权制 
patricide n.弑父罪
父爱paternal affection
2matr = mater: mother
matriarchy n.母系社会,母权制
matricide n.弑母罪
母爱maternal affection
休产假on maternity leave

 
然而我们仍然怀念清华园。在昆明读书和教书的八年里,可以说没有一天不想念北方的故土。
In spite of this, we missed Tsinghua University during this time. In the eight years’ learning and teaching in Kunming, I never spent a single day without missing my native land to the north.
🎈never spent a single day without missing…是双重否定句,句意和肯定句相似,但语气比肯定句强烈,指不容置疑的进一步的肯定,加强了肯定的效果。
🎈往北方,向北方,在北方 to the north
例句
There are more pyramids to the north at Jebel Barka.
在杰贝勒巴尔卡北部还有更多的金字塔。
To the north are the Montmorency Falls.
往北则可来到蒙特摩伦斯瀑布。

 
中国历史上汉族士大夫几度被赶出北方,却没有一次能够回去。
In Chinese history, scholar-officials of Han nationality were, on several occasions, driven out of North China, and were never able to return.
🎈士大夫(scholar-officials),古时指当官有职位的人,也指没有做官但有声望的读书人.

 
正如冯友兰先生指出的,只有抗日这一次不同。我们战胜了,1946年夏我从昆明带着妻儿重新回到了清华园,
Mr. Feng Youlan has correctly pointed out that this episode, in the face of Japanese invasion, was the only exception. After our victory over Japan, my wife and children and I were able to return to Tsinghua in the summer of 1946.
🎈 episode n.插曲,事件,时期
You can refer to an event or a short period of time as an episode if you want to suggest that it is important or unusual, or has some particular quality.
例句
I’d like to try and forget the whole episode.
我倒想尽量把那段经历全部忘掉。
 

虽然校舍残破,校园荒芜,但有陈岱孙先生领导一批员工在进行大规模的复校工作,不久就在北方的灿烂秋阳中重新上课,清华人意兴之豪,达到了一个新的高度。
Despite the dilapidated buildings and desolate campus, under the direction of Mr. Chen Daisun the teaching and administrative staff began our University’s restoration. The university reopened in the north in the bright autumn sun, and our enthusiasm for learning could not have been greater.
🎈dilapidated a.残破的
desolate a.荒凉的,荒芜的
🎈教职工the teaching and administrative staff
🎈 could not have been greater暗含最高级的意思。
(can’t be too careful再怎么小心也不为过)

 
接着,我出国留学。等我回来,清华园已经解放,开始了一个新的历史时期。
Then I went and studied abroad. By the time I returned, the university had been liberated, which marked the beginning of a new historical stage in China.
🎈By the time I returned意同by the time when / that / at which I returned,这几种用法都正确。
🎈区分
1)historic a.具有重大历史意义的
2)historical a.历史上的
东欧的历史性变革the historic changes in Eastern Europe
古迹,历史遗迹 historical interest

 
后来我转入别的学校工作。但是我心里始终保持着一种清华做学问的标准。
Later in my career I transferred to another university, but I have always kept the yardstick with which scholars of Tsinghua University measure learning.
🎈yardstick / benchmark n. 标准,标杆,尺度,准绳[较文气]
例句
The yardstick / benchmark of truth is practice.时间是真理的标准。
criterion / criteria n. 标准[某机构,某组织]
录取标准admission criterion
用来选拔候选人的标准the criteria we use to select candidates
standard n. 标准,水准,水平[全世界公认]
安全标准/道德标准/生活水平safety / moral / living standards
高/低水平的生活a high / low standard of living
国际标准组织International Standards Organization (ISO)

 
这标准并无人明确定出,但是无数师友“行胜于言”的实际榜样却使我悟到:做学问必须要有最高标准,而取得学问却是为了报效国家。
Though there is no clear-cut definition for the yardstick, I learned through my teachers and students’ actual models that action is better than words. We must set ourselves a supreme standard in the pursuit of learning, and serve the country with our knowledge. 
🎈adj. 清晰的 clear-cut
例句
There is no clear-cut answer to this question.
这个问题没有确切的答案。
🎈行胜于言Action is better than words.
事实胜于雄辩。
Facts speak louder than words.
🎈追求某事物 be in pursuit of sth.
例句
巴金《做一个战士》
战士是永远追求光明的。
A fighter is always in pursuit of light.

 
简单说,就是卓越与为公。
Simply put, scholarship is for excellence and for the people.
🎈简言之simply put, in short, in sum, in summary, to sum up, to summarize
🎈「卓越与为公」是对上句「追求学问与报效国家」的浓缩,for sth并列结构短小精悍,运用贴切。补充一个经典的例句,出自林肯的《葛底斯堡演讲》:This nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. (我们)要使国家在上帝福佑下自由地新生,要使这个民有、民治、民享的政府永世长存。
 
🔥重点表达
对…的回忆(录)the reminiscences of / about…
母校、校歌alma mater
重温,再次体验 relive sth. 
到底,究竟 on earth
拥有 (sth.) boast…
历史悠久的 time-honored,age-old
想来想去,经过长时间考虑 after lengthy consideration
再思,三思think it over again
更确切说,更准确说,严格来说 or rather
…对…的效用/影响the effect / influence / impact of … on / upon …
对A抱有……感情 cherish a +adj.+ affection + for A
爬山虎 Boston ivy
紫荆Chinese redbud 
(某人)教授…… sb. + teach…/ give instruction on…/ be one’s teacher of…/ delivere lectures on…
反之 on the contrary
把A和B区分开来 differentiate/ differentiate / discriminate A from B
华北 North China
大多数 the majority of
尽微薄之力;尽一份力 do one’s bit
西南联大South-West Associated University
能够处理,有能力处理(突发情况、问题等)rise to sth.
实际情况actual conditions
把…局限于…confine … to …/restrict … to …
回顾;回想;追溯往事 in retrospect
拓宽视野to broaden / expand one’s horizons
士大夫scholar-officials
教职工the teaching and administrative staff
行胜于言Action is better than words.
事实胜于雄辩。Facts speak louder than words.
追求某事物 be in pursuit of sth.
简言之simply put, in short, in sum, in summary, to sum up, to summarize

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 王佐良《想起清华种种》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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