丰子恺《秋》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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丰子恺
 
我的年岁上冠用了“三十”二字,至今已两年了。不解达观的我,从这两个字上受到了不少的暗示与影响。虽然明明觉得自己的体格与精力比二十九岁时全然没有什么差异,但“三十”这一个观念笼在头上,犹之张了一顶阳伞,使我的全身蒙了一个暗淡色的阴影,又仿佛在日历上撕过了立秋的一页以后,虽然太阳的炎威依然没有减却,寒暑表上的热度依然没有降低,然而只当得余威与残暑,或霜降木落的先驱,大地的节候已从今移交于秋了。
 
实际,我两年来的心情与秋最容易调和而融合。这情形与从前不同。在往年,我只慕春天。我最欢喜杨柳与燕子。尤其欢喜初染鹅黄的嫩柳。我曾经名自己的寓居为“小杨柳屋”,曾经画了许多杨柳燕子的画,又曾经摘取秀长的柳叶,在厚纸上裱成各种风调的眉,想象这等眉的所有者的颜貌,而在其下面添描出眼鼻与口。那时候我每逢早春时节,正月二月之交,看见杨柳枝的线条上挂了细珠,带了隐隐的青色而“遥看近却无”的时候,我心中便充满了一种狂喜,这狂喜又立刻变成焦虑,似乎常常在说:“春来了!不要放过!赶快设法招待它,享乐它,永远留住它。”我读了“良辰美景奈何天”等句,曾经真心地感动。以为古人都太息一春的虚度。前车可鉴!到我手里决不放它空过了。最是逢到了古人惋惜最深的寒食清明,我心中的焦灼便更甚。那一天我总想有一种足以充分酬偿这佳节的举行。我准拟作诗,作画,或痛饮,漫游。虽然大多不被实行;或实行而全无效果,反而中了酒,闹了事,换得了不快的回忆;但我总不灰心,总觉得春的可恋。我心中似乎只有知道春,别的三季在我都当作春的预备,或待春的休息时间,全然不曾注意到它们的存在与意义。而对于秋,尤无感觉:因为夏连续在春的后面,在我可当作春的过剩;冬先行春的前面,在我可当作春的准备;独有与春全无关联的秋,在我心中一向没有它的位置。
 
自从我的年龄告了立秋以后,两年来的心境完全转了一个方向,也变成秋天了。然而情形与前不同:并不是在秋日感到像昔日的狂喜与焦灼。我只觉得一到秋天,自己的心境便十分调和。非但没有那种狂喜与焦灼,直常常被秋风秋雨秋色秋光所吸引而融化在秋中,暂时失却了自己的所在。而对于春,又并非像昔日对于秋的无感觉。我现在对于春非常厌恶。每当万象回春的时候,看到群花的斗艳,蜂蝶的扰攘,以及草木昆虫等到处争先恐后地滋生繁殖的状态,我觉得天地间的凡庸,贪婪,无耻,与愚痴,无过于此了!尤其是在青春的时候,看到柳条上挂了隐隐的绿珠,桃枝上着了点点的红斑,最使我觉得可笑又可怜。我想唤醒一个花蕊来对它说:“啊!你也来反覆这老调了!我眼看见你的无数的祖先,个个同你一样地出世,个个努力发展,争荣竞秀;不久没有一个不憔悴而化泥尘。你何苦也来反覆这老调呢?如今你已长了这孽根,将来看你弄娇弄艳,装笑装颦,招致了蹂躏,摧残,攀折之苦,而步你的祖先们的后尘!”
 
实际,迎送了三十几次的春来春去的人,对于花事早已看得厌倦,感觉已经麻木,热情已经冷却,决不会再像初见世面的青年少女地为花的幻姿所诱惑而赞之,叹之,怜之,惜之了。况且天地万物,没有一件逃得出荣枯,盛衰,生灭,有无之理。过去的历史昭然地证明着这一点,无须我们再说。古来无数的诗人千遍一律地为伤春惜花费词,这种效颦也觉得可厌。假如要我对于世间的生荣死灭费一点词,我觉得生荣不足道,而宁愿欢喜赞叹一切的死灭。对于生者的贪婪,愚昧,与怯弱,后者的态度何等谦逊,悟达,而伟大!我对于春与秋的舍取,也是为了这一点。
 
夏目漱石三十岁的时候,曾经这样说:“人生二十而知有生的利益;二十五而知有明之处必有暗;至于三十的今日,更知明多之处暗亦多,欢浓之时愁亦重。”我现在对于这话也深抱同感;有时又觉得三十的特征不止这一端,其更特殊的是对于死的体感。青年们恋爱不遂的时候惯说生生死死,然而这不过是知有“死”的一回事而已,不是体感。犹之在饮冰挥扇的夏日,不能体感到围炉拥衾的冬夜的滋味。就是我们阅历了三十几度寒暑的人,在前几天的炎阳之下也无论如何感不到浴日的滋味。围炉,拥衾,浴日等事,在夏天的人的心中只是一种空虚的知识,不过晓得将来须有这些事而已,但是不能体感它们的滋味。须得人了秋天,炎阳逞尽了威势而渐渐退却,汗水浸胖了的肌肤渐渐收缩,身穿单衣似乎要打寒噤,而手触法郎绒觉得快适的时候,于是围炉、拥衾,浴日等知识方能渐渐融人体验界中而化为体感。我的年龄告了立秋以后,心境中所起的最特殊的状态便是这对于“死”的体感。以前我的思虑真疏浅!以为春可以常在人间,人可以永在青年,竟完全没有想到死。又以为人生的意义只在于生,我的一生最有意义,似乎我是不会死的。直到现在,仗了秋的慈光的鉴照,死的灵气钟育,才知道生的甘苦悲欢,是天地间反覆过亿万次的老调,又何足珍惜?我但求此生的平安的度送与脱出而已。犹之罹了疯狂的人,病中的颠倒迷离何足计较?但求其去病而已。
 
我正要搁笔,忽然西窗外黑云弥漫,天际闪出一道电光,发出隐隐的雷声,骤然洒下一阵夹着冰雹的秋雨。啊!原来立秋过得不多天,秋心稚嫩而未曾老练,不免还有这种不调和的现象,可怕哉!
 
丰子恺
Autumn
—By Feng Zikai
 
我的年岁上冠用了“三十”二字,至今已两年了。
It is two years since I turned thirty.
🎈turn后可接形容词,指天气、颜色、年龄、情绪等的变化。
 

不解达观的我,从这两个字上受到了不少的暗示与影响。
Not being a man to take things philosophically, I have felt the influence and intimations of this figure in a host of ways.
🎈达观:泛指畅通,谓心胸开朗,见解通达。出自《书·召诰》:“ 周公朝至于洛,则达观于新邑营。”
🎈此处figure指a written or printed character
🎈数不胜数的,无数的
innumerable
numerous
countless
a host of … 
a mass of …
a great many …
a large number of …

 
虽然明明觉得自己的体格与精力比二十九岁时全然没有什么差异,但“三十”这一个观念笼在头上,犹之张了一顶阳伞,使我的全身蒙了一个暗淡色的阴影,又仿佛在日历上撕过了立秋的一页以后, 
Though I am fully aware that I am in no way different from when I was twenty-nine in terms of physical strength and vigor, I feel the figure of thirty looms over my head like the opening of a parasol that casts me in a gloomy shadow, or like the tearing off of the page that marks the Beginning of Autumn from the calendar. 
🎈in no way表示否定意义
例句
The chief of police is in no way connected with the scandal.
警察局长与丑闻全无关系。
🎈looms over my head中over my head是副词短语,与“阳伞”撑过头顶相呼应。
🎈like the opening of…和like the tearing off of…为like+动名词结构作状语。
🎈把某人某物投至某处 cast sb./sth. somewhere
例句
The priceless treasures had been cast into the Nile.
价值连城的珍宝被扔进了尼罗河。

 
虽然太阳的炎威依然没有减却,寒暑表上的热度依然没有降低,然而只当得余威与残暑,或霜降木落的先驱,大地的节候已从今移交于秋了。
Though the sun’s power has not abated and the thermometer’s reading has not yet fallen, I think of it only as lingering heat or fading strength, or perhaps just as the forerunner of descending frost and leaf-fall. From today on, the season will switch to autumn.
🎈【词根】“meter” / “metr” = measure
seismometer “seismo” = shake n. 地震仪
meter n. 仪器,仪表;米,公尺;v. 测量
metric adj. 米的;公制的
diameter “dia” = across n. 直径
thermometer “thermo” = heat n. 温度表,体温表
barometer “baro” = weight n. 气压计
voltmeter “volt” = 伏特 n. 电压表
speedometer “speed” = 速度 n. 速度表
milometer “mil” =mile n. 里程表
hygrometer “hygro” = wet n. 湿度计
perimeter “peri” = round n. 周长
geometry “geo” = earth n. 几何学
symmetry “sym” = together n. 对称
🎈余威与残暑:余威强调“威”,理解为尚存余热;残暑强调“残”,理解为酷暑消退,译时分别选用词汇lingering和fading,值得学习。
🎈落叶 leaf-fall
🎈转秋 switch to autumn

 
实际,我两年来的心情与秋最容易调和而融合。这情形与从前不同。
As a matter of fact, over the past two years, my frame of mind has intermingled fairly well with the idea of autumn. It had been all new to me before.
🎈事实上,实际上as a matter of fact
(谢逸《下蛋·唱鸡及其它》)其实,古人早就以鸡喻人了……。
As a matter of fact, our forefathers long ago already drew an analogy between the hen and man…。
🎈心情,心境frame of mind,是固定搭配。
例句
To get passengers in the right frame of mind, the “Tranquil Train” carriage hosting the sessions was decorated with fresh eucalyptus and lavender to fill the carriage with soothing aromas.
为了让乘客进入瑜伽状态,教授课程的”宁静列车”车厢还特意放置了新鲜的桉树和薰衣草,让车厢充满舒缓的香气。
🎈all new: all用在形容词前,起强调作用。
例句
You’ve gone all chatty.
你变得真唠叨。

 
在往年,我只慕春天。我最欢喜杨柳与燕子。尤其欢喜初染鹅黄的嫩柳。
In the years gone by, I yearned for spring alone. I adored willows and swallows, especially light brown willow twigs.
🎈在过去 in days / times / years gone by = in the past
例句
In times gone by, all crops were harvested by hand(手工收割).
🎈不计前嫌,既往不咎let bygones be bygones
🎈渴望/渴求…
1 v. 
long for … / to do …
yearn for … / to do …
hunger / thirst for …
crave (for) sth.
2 n.
longing for … / to do …
yearning for … / to do …
hunger / thirst for …
craving for sth

 
我曾经名自己的寓居为“小杨柳屋”,曾经画了许多杨柳燕子的画,又曾经摘取秀长的柳叶,在厚纸上裱成各种风调的眉,想象这等眉的所有者的颜貌,而在其下面添描出眼鼻与口。
I once called my dwelling place ‘a willow cabin.’ I painted many pictures featuring willows and swallows, and plucked slender willow shoots and mounted them on cartridge paper as shades of eyebrows, and visualized the faces that would go with the eyebrows, and then sketch in the eyes, noses, and mouths below them.
🎈cabin指a small one-story dwelling usually of simple construction。
🎈sth featuring…结构中feature之后可接“特色”和“内容”。如:德智体美劳全面发展的社会主义事业建设者和接班人 builders and successors of socialist cause featuring all-round development in moral grounding, intellectual and physical ability, aesthetic sensibility, and work skills.
🎈绘画纸,图画纸cartridge paper:thick strong paper for drawing on

 
那时候我每逢早春时节,正月二月之交,看见杨柳枝的线条上挂了细珠,带了隐隐的青色而“遥看近却无”的时候,我心中便充满了一种狂喜,这狂喜又立刻变成焦虑,似乎常常在说:“春来了!不要放过!赶快设法招待它,享乐它,永远留住它。”
Every early spring, around the end of the first lunar month, the sight of the buds on new willow twigs, with a suggestion of green that seemed to vanish close up, would throw me into ecstasy, a temporary pleasure that would immediately turn into anxiety. I seemed to be constantly muttering to myself: “Spring is here. Don’t let it slip. Hurry over to entertain it, enjoy it, and cherish it forever.”
🎈早春early spring
孟春时节in the early days of spring
在…早期in the early days (of …)
在…起步阶段in the pioneering days (of …)
在某人年轻时/上学时/学生时代/军旅生涯/童年…in one’s younger / school / student / army / childhood / … days
🎈一年分四季,春、夏、秋、冬。每三个月为一季,即孟、仲、季。农历一年分十二个月,依次为:孟春、仲春、季春,孟夏、仲夏、季夏,孟秋、仲秋、季秋,孟冬、仲冬、季冬。
孟春,即农历正月份。仲春,即农历二月份。季春,即农历三月份。孟夏,即农历四月份。仲夏,即农历五月份。季夏,即农历六月份。孟秋,即农历七月份。仲秋,即农历八月份。季秋,即农历九月份。孟冬,即农历十月份。仲冬,即农历冬月份。季冬,即农历腊月份。
自秦代以来,我国就一直以立春作为春季的开始。立春是从天文上来划分的,而在自然界、在人们的心目中,春是温暖,鸟语花香;春是生长,耕耘播种。清明节在仲春与暮春之交,也就是冬至后的108天,节气是按照太阳回归年制定的。中国汉族传统的清明节大约始于周代,距今已有二千五百多年的历史。
🎈隐约,有点 a suggestion of
🎈在很近处;很近地 close to/up
例句
The picture looks very different when you see it close to.
这幅画贴近看时就很不一样。

 
我读了“良辰美景奈何天”等句,曾经真心地感动。
When I read the lines—”what an enchanting sight on this fine morning, but who is there that takes delight in the spring?” —I was once deeply touched.
🎈“良辰美景奈何天”意思是:纵有令人惬意的美好的时光,美丽的景色,却没有欣赏的心思,值得高兴的事。“语出明代汤显祖的《牡丹亭》:“原来姹紫嫣红开遍,似这般都付与断井颓垣。良辰美景奈何天,便赏心乐事谁家院? ”原是描写少女杜丽娘被父母归训,严守闺阁,春花烂漫时,怀春无人诉,空负无限春光,沉浸在伤怀中,最终寂寞难耐,偷偷溜到后花园,梦会情郎。

 
以为古人都太息一春的虚度。前车可鉴!到我手里决不放它空过了。
Ancients all sighed over spring passing neglected, so I must learn a lesson from them and not let it slip through my fingers!
🎈sigh over后接sigh的原因或内容。
🎈slip through one’s fingers常可用于表达时间的流逝。
例句
(朱自清《匆匆》)在默默里算着,八千多日子已经从我手中溜去。
Counting up silently, I find that more than 8000 days have already slipped away through my fingers.

最是逢到了古人惋惜最深的寒食清明,我心中的焦灼便更甚。那一天我总想有一种足以充分酬偿这佳节的举行。
On the Festival of Pure Brightness, when our forefathers felt the deepest sorrow, I would feel all the more grieved. I always wanted to pursue a project to celebrate the festival!
🎈清明节的4种常用译文:
Qingming Festive
Ching Ming Festival
Tomb-sweeping Festival
Pure Brightness Festival
清明节除了是节日,也是一个节气。Pure Brightness Festival指的就是作为节气的清明。《岁时百问》说:万物生长此时,皆清洁而明净。故谓之清明。
🎈all the more的用法(摘自英语常用词疑难用法手册):
中国人不习惯使用这个词组,因为译成中文是“更加”,似乎同英文的more或even more差不多。但其实all the more表示的“更加”,是前后文说出了原因或隐含不明言原因的,而简单的more或even more则不涉及原因。E.g. For this very reason, their recklessness is all the harder to forgive. 正是由于这个原因,他们的鲁莽就更难原谅。

 
我准拟作诗,作画,或痛饮,漫游。虽然大多不被实行;或实行而全无效果,反而中了酒,闹了事,换得了不快的回忆;但我总不灰心,总觉得春的可恋。
I planned to write a poem, paint a picture, drink my fill, or go on an excursion, but most of the plans were never carried out, or if they were carried out, they would prove entirely fruitless, resulting in unpleasant memories such as getting drunk and creating a scene. However, I was never discouraged, and always felt spring was lovable.
🎈喝个饱,喝个痛快 drink one’s fill
🎈去远足 go on an excursion
🎈大吵大闹 make/create a scene

 
我心中似乎只有知道春,别的三季在我都当作春的预备,或待春的休息时间,全然不曾注意到它们的存在与意义。
In the depths of my heart, I seemed to know only spring. To me, the other three seasons were nothing but a reserve of time or a waiting period for spring. I completely ignored their existence and meaning.
🎈三个「不定代词+but」表达
1 只不过是,只有
nothing but = nothing more than = only [可修饰n]
例句
Nothing but a miracle can save her now.
现在只有奇迹能救她。
2 一点也不
anything but = not … at all [可修饰n/adj等]
例句
He is anything but a hero / stupid.
3 几乎,差不多
all but = almost / virtually[可修饰adj/adv]
例句
It’s all but impossible to read his writing. 
他的书写太难辨认了。
🎈忽视 neglect,bypass, disregard, forget, ignore, overlook, overpass, pass over, slight, slur (over)

 
而对于秋,尤无感觉:因为夏连续在春的后面,在我可当作春的过剩;冬先行春的前面,在我可当作春的准备;独有与春全无关联的秋,在我心中一向没有它的位置。
I was especially indifferent to autumn, because summer, which follows spring, may be considered as the extension of spring; winter, which goes before spring, may be regarded as its preparation. Autumn, the only season that has no connection to spring, never had a place in my heart.
🎈对…无动于衷/不在乎/冷漠
be indifferent to …
be apathetic about …
be unsympathetic to …
无所谓。/我不在乎。
It makes no difference to me.
I don’t mind / care.
It’s all the same to me.
对我很重要。
It makes a lot of / a whole world’s difference to me.
It matters to me.
It means a lot to me.
It weighs heavily with me.

 
自从我的年龄告了立秋以后,两年来的心境完全转了一个方向,也变成秋天了。
Two years ago when my year of age reached the start of autumn on life’s calendar, my state of mind suddenly changed its direction. It has become autumn as well.
🎈年龄,年纪 year of age
🎈情绪,心态 state of mind
🎈我的年龄告了立秋:说的是我的年纪到了人生后半段日子,译为reached the start of autumn on life’s calendar,不仅译出了内在含义,也保留了“立秋”一词在时节上的意义,让人眼前一亮。

 
然而情形与前不同:并不是在秋日感到像昔日的狂喜与焦灼。我只觉得一到秋天,自己的心境便十分调和。
My mindset is different from what it was: I no longer feel any ecstasy or anxiety about my autumn days. I feel when autumn comes around my state of mind is perfectly at peace with it.
🎈本篇文章出现的3个表示「情绪、心境」的表达:frame of mind, state of mind, mindset
 

非但没有那种狂喜与焦灼,直常常被秋风秋雨秋色秋光所吸引而融化在秋中,暂时失却了自己的所在。
I often find myself fascinated with autumn wind, autumn rain, autumn colors and sights. It is as if I was melting into the season and losing my own identity.
🎈“find+宾语+宾语补足语”的结构中,宾补可以是:
①形容词I found the text difficult to understand.(课文很难理解)
②名词或代词I find it a boring film.(是部无聊的片子)
③副词Mary hurried there, only to find them/all out.(发现他们都出去了)
④介词短语When he woke up, he found him in hospital.(在医院里)
⑤不定式They find the Chinese people to be happy and cheerful.(发现中国人很幸福快乐)
⑥现在分词We found him waiting to receive us.(发现他正等着迎接我们)
⑦过去分词The old man found his hometown much changed.(发现故乡变化很大)
🎈as if/as though引导的从句若表示完全不可能发生的事情,用虚拟语气,例句
Don’t act as if you were the only pebble on the beach. 
不要太拿自己当回事。(you是不可能真的成为pebble的,所以用了虚拟语气);若表示可能会发生的事情,则用真实语气。也就是说,as if/as though从句不是必须用虚拟语气。

 
而对于春,又并非像昔日对于秋的无感觉。我现在对于春非常厌恶。
Now my feeling for spring is not the indifference I felt for autumn. I loathe it.
🎈厌恶 loathe, abhor, abominate, despise, detest, execrate, hate

 
每当万象回春的时候,看到群花的斗艳,蜂蝶的扰攘,以及草木昆虫等到处争先恐后地滋生繁殖的状态,我觉得天地间的凡庸,贪婪,无耻,与愚痴,无过于此了!
When all life revives in spring, the sight of flowers vying for beauty, bees and butterflies frolicking about, trees and grass overgrowing, and insects multiplying and procreating makes me feel that the world is so mediocre, greedy, shameless, and stupid!
🎈万象回春:多指各种事物都出现了生机。出自宋·朱熹《道德经注释》第四章。
🎈争夺,竞争 vie for
vying原形是vie
🎈嬉戏 frolick about或frolic about
about/around与move、walk、roam等词连用时表示“四处走动”。
🎈multiplying and procreating:前者指数量增加,后者指生物繁衍。
早婚早育 early marriage and procreation

 
尤其是在青春的时候,看到柳条上挂了隐隐的绿珠,桃枝上着了点点的红斑,最使我觉得可笑又可怜。
Especially in the first flush of spring, the green buds on willow twigs and the red beads on peach branches just seem ridiculous and pitiable to me!
🎈在新鲜兴奋时刻,初期强盛阶段 in the first flush of sth.
in the first flush of youth/enthusiasm/romance
在青春活力旺盛时期/在热情高涨阶段/在热恋初期
 

我想唤醒一个花蕊来对它说:“啊!你也来反覆这老调了!我眼看见你的无数的祖先,个个同你一样地出世,个个努力发展,争荣竞秀;不久没有一个不憔悴而化泥尘。
I want to awaken a flower bud and say: “Oh no! You are playing the old tune again. I once saw with my own eyes your countless ancestors come into the world and contend for beauty like you; in no time, they all withered and turned into soil. 
🎈花苞,花蕾a flower bud
🎈老调重弹play the old tune again/ sing the same old song
(庐隐《中学时代生活的回忆》)不管你能吸收消化与否,他们只管照着老调唱。
The teachers then would harp on the same old platitudes regardless of whether the students could comprehend or not. 
「照着老调唱」即「不断重复陈词滥调」,译作harp on the same old platitudes,其中harp on sth.作「唠唠叨叨地说个不停,喋喋不休」解,platitudes是「毫无新意、反复无聊的论调」即「陈词滥调」
🎈竞秀 contend for beauty
🎈立刻,很快 in no time

 
你何苦也来反覆这老调呢?如今你已长了这孽根,将来看你弄娇弄艳,装笑装颦,招致了蹂躏,摧残,攀折之苦,而步你的祖先们的后尘!”
So what is the point of singing the same old song? Now you have fallen into sin. Even if you posture and play the flirt, you will inevitably be trampled and crushed. Why are you following in your ancestors’ footsteps?”
🎈 …的意义是什么?what is the point of …
🎈 “而步你的祖先们的后尘!”以反问句的语气译出,反而更能凸显“何苦”二字。

 
实际,迎送了三十几次的春来春去的人,对于花事早已看得厌倦,感觉已经麻木,热情已经冷却,决不会再像初见世面的青年少女地为花的幻姿所诱惑而赞之,叹之,怜之,惜之了。
As a matter of fact, as one who has ushered in more than thirty springs, I have become bored with those new blooms. My feeling for them has gone dead and my enthusiasm has chilled. I will not, like a girl seeing the world for the first time, be bewitched by the magic of flowers, marvel at them, take pity on them, and mourn them.
🎈开启,迎来,引入 usher in
例句
a unique opportunity to usher in a new era of stability in Europe
开启欧洲稳定新纪元的绝无仅有的机会
🎈go dead
go用作连系动词时,通常表示主语处于某种状态或由某种状态向另一种状态转变,后面多接形容词作其表语,此类形容词往往意义不佳
例句
go hungry(挨饿)
go thirsty(忍受口渴)
go mad(发狂)
 

况且天地万物,没有一件逃得出荣枯,盛衰,生灭,有无之理。过去的历史昭然地证明着这一点,无须我们再说。
Moreover, nothing in the world can defy the law of rise and fall, of life and death. History has amply proven this; we need not say more.
🎈违背人伦纲常 defy laws of God and man
自然法则 the law of nature
丛林法则(弱肉强食)the law of the jungle

 
古来无数的诗人千遍一律地为伤春惜花费词,这种效颦也觉得可厌。
Since time immemorial, poets stereotypically wrote poems to express their sorrow at the passage of spring and their regret over the fading of flowers. This imitation simply makes me sick.
🎈since time immemorial 自远古以来
英义
If you say that something has been happening since time immemorial or from time immemorial, you are emphasizing that it has been happening for many centuries.
🎈千篇一律 stereotypically
陈词滥调 platitudes
🎈东施效颦play the ape/blind imitation with ludicrous effect

 
假如要我对于世间的生荣死灭费一点词,我觉得生荣不足道,而宁愿欢喜赞叹一切的死灭。
If I were to write about birth and prosperity, death and extinction, I will not waste my words on birth and prosperity; instead I prefer to extol death and extinction.
🎈荣枯盛衰 rise and fall 
生灭有无life and death
生荣死灭birth and prosperity, death and extinction

 
对于生者的贪婪,愚昧,与怯弱,后者的态度何等谦逊,悟达,而伟大!我对于春与秋的舍取,也是为了这一点。
Compared with the greed, ignorance, and cowardice of the former, what an unassuming, magnanimous and dignified attitude the latter adopts. My preference for autumn over spring is for the same reason.
🎈 the former指生荣,the latter指死灭。

 
夏目漱石三十岁的时候,曾经这样说:“人生二十而知有生的利益;二十五而知有明之处必有暗;至于三十的今日,更知明多之处暗亦多,欢浓之时愁亦重。”
When he was thirty, Natsume Soseki (1867-1916), one of the first modern Japanese novelists, said, “At twenty I learned the value of being alive; at twenty-five I realized where there is light there must be shade. Today at thirty, I know even better that much light means much shade, abundant joy implies plentiful anxieties.”
🎈夏目漱石:日本近代作家,本名夏目金之助,笔名漱石,取自“漱石枕流”。夏目漱石在日本近代文学史上享有很高的地位,被称为“国民大作家”。他对东西方的文化均有很高造诣,既是英文学者,又精擅俳句、汉诗和书法。写小说时他擅长运用对句、迭句、幽默的语言和新颖的形式。他对个人心理的描写精确细微,开启了后世私小说的风气之先。1984年,他的头像被印在日元1000元的纸币上。(2004年11月改为日本医学家野口英世)。
今晚月色很美,网络流行语,出自日本著名作家夏目漱石。夏目漱石曾在学校当英文老师时,要求学生把书中的男女在月下散步时,男生情不自禁说出的I love you翻译成日文。学生直译出「我爱你」。而夏目漱石认为直译没有韵味,应该翻译成「今晚月色真美」。温柔含蓄又动人,把爱意融化在现在与你共同沐浴的月光中。于是这句话就成了表白利器,如果有人对你说了「今晚月色真美」,那就说明他很喜欢你,如果你也正有此意,就可以回复他:风也很温柔,表示我也是同样的喜欢你啊。

 
我现在对于这话也深抱同感;有时又觉得三十的特征不止这一端,其更特殊的是对于死的体感。
I cannot agree more with the writer, but sometimes I feel the age of thirty implies more than this. What is special about this figure is the sense of death.
🎈完全同意 can’t agree more (with sb.)
🎈独立感/自由感/方向感/幽默感/正义感/自豪感/荣誉感/成就感/责任感/优越感/自卑感 the sense of independence / freedom / direction / humor / justice / pride / honor / accomplishment / responsibility / superiority / inferiority
 

青年们恋爱不遂的时候惯说生生死死,然而这不过是知有“死”的一回事而已,不是体感。
Young people, when disappointed in love, will threaten life with death. However, they only know of death in theory, not through experience.
🎈threaten v.威胁要
英义
To announce the possibility of (something) in a threat or prediction. 
例句
workers threatening a walkout(工人威胁要罢工)
a customer threatening to sue for fraud(顾客以欺诈起诉相威胁)

 
犹之在饮冰挥扇的夏日,不能体感到围炉拥衾的冬夜的滋味。就是我们阅历了三十几度寒暑的人,在前几天的炎阳之下也无论如何感不到浴日的滋味。
Similarly, when sucking on a popsicle and fanning yourself on a hot summer day, one cannot recall the joys of huddling by the fireside and wrapping oneself in blankets on a winter night. Even people like me, who have gone through more than thirty summers and winters, could not imagine the pleasures of a nice crisp dawn during the recent heat wave.
🎈冰棍,冰棒 popsicle(英国英语用 ice lolly)
🎈就是我们阅历了三十几度寒暑的人:想象作者在你面前说这句话,指的其实就是以他自己为例的这一辈人,这是中国人的说话习惯,不用纠结为什么翻成了like me而非like us。
🎈crisp:(of the air or the weather 空气或天气) pleasantly dry and cold 凉爽的;清新的;干燥寒冷让人舒畅的
例句
a crisp winter morning 
冬日里一个寒冷的早晨

 
围炉,拥衾,浴日等事,在夏天的人的心中只是一种空虚的知识,不过晓得将来须有这些事而已,但是不能体感它们的滋味。
Things like winter fires, huddling in blankets, and nice crisp dawns are simply fantasies in the minds of those living in summer. They know there can be such pleasures, but are not in a position to savor them.
🎈浴日:太阳初升,即黎明。

 
须得人了秋天,炎阳逞尽了威势而渐渐退却,汗水浸胖了的肌肤渐渐收缩,身穿单衣似乎要打寒噤,而手触法郎绒觉得快适的时候,于是围炉、拥衾,浴日等知识方能渐渐融人体验界中而化为体感。
Only when the sweltering sun has spent its force at the dawn of autumn, when flesh which has been swelled with sweat gradually draws in, and when your unlined clothes cause you to shiver and the woolen sweater becomes pleasant to the touch can such knowledge as crisp dawns, winter fires, and huddling in blankets enter the realm of your experience and become sensation.
🎈关于flesh
血肉之躯flesh and blood
骨肉flesh and blood 
例句
You’re my grandson. My flesh and blood.
因为你是我外孙啊。我的骨肉啊。
【词根】carn = flesh肉体
carnal a.肉体的,性欲的 
性欲carnal desire 
carnation n.康乃馨
carnival n.狂欢节,嘉年华
incarnate v.使具体化 a.人形的
incarnation n.(…)的化身
reincarnation n.转世,轮回
🎈全句译文为倒装结构:Only when…can…

 
我的年龄告了立秋以后,心境中所起的最特殊的状态便是这对于“死”的体感。
When my year of age announced the commencement of autumn, I began to feel a peculiar state of mind—a sensation of death.
🎈年龄告了立秋
reach the start of autumn on life’s calendar
announced the commencement of autumn
表达多样是译文很重要的评判标准之一。

 
以前我的思虑真疏浅!以为春可以常在人间,人可以永在青年,竟完全没有想到死。又以为人生的意义只在于生,我的一生最有意义,似乎我是不会死的。
How shallow my thinking had been! I thought that spring could be our constant companion, that man could stay forever young, and that I never thought of death. I thought that the meaning of life resided only in living, that my life was most significant, and that I would never die.
🎈存在于,属于,在于 reside in
例句
Happiness does not reside in strength or money…
幸福不是由实力或金钱决定的。
The military is based on the principle that the ultimate authority resides in the armed forces.
军队建立的基本原则就是最高权力属于武装部队。

 
直到现在,仗了秋的慈光的鉴照,死的灵气钟育,才知道生的甘苦悲欢,是天地间反覆过亿万次的老调,又何足珍惜?
Now, in the merciful autumn light, and under the benign influence of the spirit of death, I have come to realize life’s sweetness and bitterness, joys and sorrows, are really just an old refrain that has been played billions of times before. They are nothing to be treasured. Why should I hold life so dear?
🎈refrain n. 歌曲的叠句,副歌部分;反复说的话,老调
🎈非常关心;十分看重;极为珍视 hold sb./sth. dear
例句
He had destroyed everything we held dear.
他把我们珍视的一切都给毁了。
 

我但求此生的平安的度送与脱出而已。犹之罹了疯狂的人,病中的颠倒迷离何足计较?但求其去病而已。
I seek only peaceful passage and release from this life! I am like an insane man. Why should I be so concerned with the confusion and bewilderment? If only I could be cured of the illness!
🎈关于concern
在…看来(表述观点) as far as sb. be concerned(be随前面的人称变化)
就…而言(提及谈论话题)as far as sth. is concerned
令某人担忧 …is of concern to sb.
🎈if only和only if
1. if only 用于虚拟语气,表示「要是…就好了;但愿…」
例句
If only I were rich.
但愿我很富有。
If only one had an unlimited supply of money!
要是财源不断就好了!(与现在事实相反)
2. only if 用于引导条件状语从句,表示「只有」
例句
Only if a teacher has given permission is a student allowed to leave the room.
学生只有得到老师的许可才能离开教室。
Only if the red light comes on is there any danger to employees.
只有红灯闪亮时才有危及职工的险情。

 
我正要搁笔,忽然西窗外黑云弥漫,天际闪出一道电光,发出隐隐的雷声,骤然洒下一阵夹着冰雹的秋雨。
I was just laying down my brush when outside the western window dark clouds gathered, lightening flashed, and thunder rumbled over the horizon. A sudden shower of autumn rain mixed with hail poured down.
🎈积累动词(及其描写的对象)
cloud-gather
lightening-flash
thunder-rumble
rain-pour down
🎈天气场景词汇
frost 霜
ice 冰
hail 冰雹
dew 露水
hot 热的
warm 温暖的
cool 凉爽的
cold 冷的
freeze 结冰
temperature 温度
degree 度
Celsius 摄氏
weather 天气
forecast 预报
sunny 阳光明媚的
sunshine 阳光
cloud 云
cloudy 多云的
rain 雨
rainy 下雨的
rainstorm 暴风雨
thunderstorm 雷雨
rainbow 彩虹
snow 雪
snowy 下雪的
snowflake 雪花
snowstorm 暴风雪
thunder 雷
lightning 闪电
wind 风
windy 多风的
hurricane 飓风
tornado 龙卷风
sandstorm 沙尘暴
fog

 
啊!原来立秋过得不多天,秋心稚嫩而未曾老练,不免还有这种不调和的现象,可怕哉!
Oh! Autumn commenced just a few days ago, so its tender heart has not grown mature. Unavoidably, discord resulted. How awful!
 
🔥重点表达
数不胜数的,无数的 a host of … 
把某人某物投至某处 cast sb./sth. somewhere
落叶 leaf-fall
转秋 switch to autumn
事实上,实际上as a matter of fact
在过去 in days / times / years gone by = in the past
不计前嫌,既往不咎let bygones be bygones
渴望/渴求… yearn for…
绘画纸,图画纸cartridge paper
早春early spring
隐约,有点 a suggestion of
在很近处;很近地 close to/up
清明节the Festival of Pure Brightness
喝个饱,喝个痛快 drink one’s fill
去远足 go on an excursion
大吵大闹 make/create a scene
对…无动于衷/不在乎/冷漠be indifferent to …
年龄,年纪 year of age
情绪,心境,心态frame of mind, state of mind, mindset
争夺,竞争 vie for
嬉戏 frolick about或frolic about
在新鲜兴奋时刻,初期强盛阶段 in the first flush of sth.
花苞,花蕾a flower bud
老调重弹play the old tune again/ sing the same old song
竞秀 contend for beauty
立刻,很快 in no time
…的意义是什么?what is the point of …
开启;迎来;引入 usher in
自远古以来since time immemorial
荣枯盛衰 rise and fall 
生灭有无life and death
生荣死灭birth and prosperity, death and extinction
完全同意 can’t agree more (with sb.)
冰棍,冰棒 popsicle(英国英语用 ice lolly)
存在于,属于,在于 reside in
非常关心;十分看重;极为珍视 hold sb./sth. dear
在…看来(表述观点) as far as sb. be concerned(be随前面的人称变化)
就…而言(提及谈论话题)as far as sth. is concerned
令某人担忧 …is of concern to sb.

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 丰子恺《秋》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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