《保姆校长》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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保姆校长

常常听到一些大学校长说:“我把学生当自己的儿女看待。”他也真做得像个严父慈母:规定学生睡眠要足8小时,清晨6点必须起床做操,不许穿拖鞋在校内行走,等等。我一直以为大学校长是高瞻远瞩、指导学术与教育大方向的决策人,而不是管馒头稀饭的保姆。
教育者或许会说:“这些大学生如果进大学以前就已经学好自治自律的话,我就不必如此喂之哺之;就是因为基础教育没教好,所以我办大学的人不得不教。”听起来有理,可是学生之所以在小学、中学12年间没有学会自治自律,就是因为他们一直接受喂哺式的辅导,大学再来继续进行“育婴”,这岂不是一个没完没了的恶性循环?我们对大学教育的期许是什么?"教出一个言听计从、循规蹈矩的学生,还是教出一个自己会看情况、做决定的学生?

 
保姆校长
University President or Nanny 
 
🎈题目的翻译应仔细斟酌,「保姆校长」中的「保姆」和「校长」是什么关系?这显然是一个隐喻。从文章内容可以看出,这是批评有的大学校长扮演了「保姆」的角色,管的琐事太多,简直成了「保姆式的校长」。但是译成 nanny-like president 也不适合(这里的保姆不能译做housemaid或house keeper 等词,因为是在学校里;下文中还用了babysitting 一词,相应的名词是babysitter,指父母有事外出时临时雇来照料小孩的人),会被误认为是讲某个校长的态度或为人,显然与作者的原意不符。现在用or 的含义译为 university president or nanny,意即:到底是大学校长呢,还是保姆呢?言外之意是让校长们不要扮错了角色,既表达了原文的意思,又显得比较活泼。
 
🎈文章标题的翻译是很有讲究的,建议学习者先翻译文章本身,最后再翻译标题。标题一般不能太长,但既要能反映文章的主要内容,起到提示作用,又要有一定的新意,能吸引人。英语文章的标题一般用名词性短语(即名词加上修饰成分,主要是定语),很少用句子的形式。有时标题虽然看起来简单,但用意深远。
 
🎈有一本书讲一个人到了异国他乡如何克服种种文化隔阂,英文书名是 From Here You Can Get There,汉译是《鸿沟是可以逾越的》,这个书名就译得非常好。又如毛主席的警卫员权延赤著的《走下神坛的毛泽东》,英译是Mao Zedong:Man,Not God,很好地表达出了原作的意思,如果译成 Mao Zedong:Down from the Altar 会让人感到莫名其妙,因为altar是放圣餐或献给神的贡品的桌子。
 
🎈美国的大学校长一般称president
英国的大学校长是vice-chancellor

 
常常听到一些大学校长说:“我把学生当自己的儿女看待。”他也真做得像个严父慈母:规定学生睡眠要足8小时,清晨6点必须起床做操,不许穿拖鞋在校内行走,等等。
I often hear university presidents say, “I regard students as my own children.” In fact, they really act like strict fathers or tender mothers by demanding students sleep at least 8 hours and do morning exercises at 6 am, and by stopping them from wearing slippers at school.
 
I often hear university presidents say, “I treat my students as my own children.” And indeed they act just like strict but compassionate parents, telling the students that they should get at least eight hours of sleep every day, that everyone should get up for morning exercises at six am, and that they are not allowed to walk around campus in slippers, and so on and so forth.
 
🎈通过by+动ing连接可以,通过非谓语动词也可以,参考译文三个that结构一目了然,主要目的是让句子结构更加紧凑。
 
🎈「严父慈母」是汉语的习惯说法,传统的中国父母「一个唱红脸,一个唱白脸」很自然,但西方没有也不主张这样的「分工」,而且本文也没有必要强调是「严父」还是「慈母」,父母都应该又严又慈,所以译为strict but compassionate/loving parents.这里的“规定”似乎不宜用 make demands等很正式的说法,参照上文「像父母一样」的意思,译为tell就可以了。
 
🎈「睡眠要足8小时」的意思是不能少于8小时,所以译为 at least eight hours of sleep,并补上every day使意思表达得更清楚,eight full hours之类的译法是不对的。
 
🎈「起床做操」是两个动作,因为汉语是典型的「意合」语言(即句子各个成分之间,尤其是各小句之间,主要靠意思本身组合成句,不一定要有连接词、关系词等「形合」的成分),要弄清两者的关系。这里强调的是准时起床去做早操(有的学校早操时还要点名),由于英语语法规则的限制,一个句子(在一个层次上)一般只有一个谓语动词,所以至少应译为get up to do morningexercises,最好译为 get up for morning exercises,可以少用一个动词。同样,下文中「穿拖鞋在校内行走」这两个动作之间的关系也要弄清楚,「穿拖鞋」是「行走」的(方式)状语,考虑到英语少用动词的特点,可译为walk around campus in slippers(比译做 wearing slippers 要好)

 
我一直以为大学校长是高瞻远瞩、指导学术与教育大方向的决策人,而不是管馒头稀饭的保姆。
In my opinion, as decision makers who conduct academics and lead the orientation of education, university presidents should have farsighted perspectives, rather than babysitters who are in charge of their trivialities. 
 
I am always of the opinion that university presidents should be visionary policymakers who set the course of academic research and education, rather than mere nannies in charge of feeding steamed bread and porridge to babies.
 
🎈乍一看学生译文好像很通顺的样子,事实上理解出现了偏差。翻译某人身份或职位时,确实很多人喜欢用as,但在这里,句子主干为「大学校长是决策人」,也就是university presidents are policymakers,剩下的「高瞻远瞩、指导学术与教育大方向」都是定语成分起修饰作用,高瞻远瞩用一个形容词就能概括,visionary / far-sighted policymakers都可以,较短的我们就放在名词前面当前置定语,比较长的「指导学术与教育大方向」就用定语从句来解释,这样既不会偏离句子原意,又不会造成头重脚轻的情况。
 
🎈如何检查自己是否错译,有个很简单的方法,回译一下就会发现,学生译文的意思是:大学校长作为决策人,指导学术与教育大方向,应该高瞻远瞩。这里的重点变成了「大学校长应该高瞻远瞩」,已经偏离了原文的重心。其次,应该高瞻远瞩是形容词,而rather than后面跟的是名词保姆,这在语法上就已经混乱了。看看参考译文的结构十分清晰:大学校长应该是…..的决策人,而不是…..的保姆。university presidents should be visionary policymakers rather than mere nannies.句子主干确保不出错的情况下,再往里面填充成分,不要像第一个版本一样,想用自己擅长的句子结构,却不管原文重心。
 
🎈「大方向」不能机械译做 general orientation之类的词语,参考译文中用 set the course(of…)表达了这个意思,当然也可以译为 make decisions on major matters like. . . .
 
🎈「管馒头稀饭的保姆」一说很形象,但是实际上管的不是「馒头稀饭」,而是「有关馒头稀饭之类的事」,可译为 in charge of minor matters like steamed bread and porridge,参考译文用 in charge of feeding steamed bread and porridge to babies也表达了同样的意思,而且加上to babies更能和前文相呼应。

 
教育者或许会说:“这些大学生如果进大学以前就已经学好自治自律的话,我就不必如此喂之哺之;就是因为基础教育没教好,所以我办大学的人不得不教。”
Masters may retort, “ if undergraduates had learned discipline before attending universities, we would not act in this way; they didn’t lay a solid foundation on basic education, so we have no choice but to teach them in universities.”
 
These educators might say, “ if these students had learned a bit of self-reliance before they came to college, I would not need to coddle and spoon-feed them in this manner. It is because they were not taught all these things in primary or secondary schools that I, a university president, have to make up by teaching them now.”
 
🎈「自治自律」中的「自律」尚可译成self-deciplined,「自治」则无论如何也不能译做 self-determination 或self-government 之类的说法。其实这里的「自治自律」就是指自己管理(照料)自己的能力,译为self-reliance 就够了。
 
🎈「喂之哺之」也很形象,结合前面用了nanny和fedding…to babies等词,选用coddle(意为娇惯)and spoon-feed 比较妥帖。

 
听起来有理,可是学生之所以在小学、中学12年间没有学会自治自律,就是因为他们一直接受喂哺式的辅导,大学再来继续进行“育婴”,这岂不是一个没完没了的恶性循环?我们对大学教育的期许是什么?"教出一个言听计从、循规蹈矩的学生,还是教出一个自己会看情况、做决定的学生?
It sounds reasonable. However, the reason why students didn’t learn discipline during 12 years from primary school to senior high school is because they received spoon-fed education. If universities continue to educate them in this way, will it be an endless vicious circle? What are the expectations of university education? To educate obedient students who always follow the guidance of teachers, or independent students who can make decisions on their accord?
 
These remarks sound reasonable, yet since it is because the students have all along been taught in a spoon-fed manner that they haven’t acquired self-reliance and self-discipline after twelve years of schooling, wouldn’t it merely result in an endless vicious cycle if this sort of “babysitting” is continued in universities? Besides, what are the aims of our university education? To turn out docile students who only know to toe the line, or students who are able to observe the situation and make decisions accordingly on their own?
 
🎈英语表示重要信息的从句(如结果等)往往放在句首,然后再交代原因、条件等。因此,翻译「大学再来继续进行育婴」,这岂不是一个没完没了的恶性循环?”这一句时,最好对词序进行调整:wouldn’t it merely result in an endless vicious cycle if this sort of “babysitting” is continued inuniversities?此外,根据上下文,这里的「育婴」译为babysitting也比较合适。
 
🎈我们对大学教育的期许是什么?一句中的「期许」表示「期待」,可译为 What do we expect/require of our university education?但这样翻译换了个视角,行文显得有点松散,为了更好地衔接上文,参考译文译为 what are the aims of our university education?
 
🎈「看情况、做决定」两者之间的关系在翻译时也要弄清楚,意思是「根据看到的情况做出决定」,所以可译为 to make proper decisions according to the situations they see 或 to observe the situationand make decisions accordingly. 这里,proper一词增译得非常好!可不是随便乱做决定,具体问题具体分析,作出合适的决定。
🔥必背词汇 
visionary     adj.有眼力的,有创见的,有远见卓识的
英义
original and showing the ability to think about or plan the future with great imagination and intelligence
例句
visionary leader  
有远见卓识的领袖 
 
docile     adj.驯服的,易驾驭的,易控制的
英义
quiet and easy to controla 
例句
docile child / horse 
听话的孩子,温驯的马 
 
coddle    v.娇惯,娇养,溺爱 
英义
to treat sb with too much care and attention
 
spoon-feed      v.填鸭式灌输,满堂灌
英义
to teach people sth in a way that gives them too much help and does not make them think for themselves
例句
The students here do not expect to be spoon-fed
这儿的学生不希望教师满堂灌。 
 
🔥重点表达
大学校长 university president
严父慈母 strict but compassionate parents
等等 and so on and so forth 
自治自律 self-reliance and self-discipline
恶性循环 vicious circle
循规蹈矩 toe the line

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