宋濂《送东阳马生序》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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公元1378年(明洪武十一年),宋濂告老还乡的第二年,应诏从家乡浦江(浙江省浦江县)到应天(今江苏南京)去朝见,同乡晚辈马君则前来拜访,宋濂写下了此篇赠序,介绍自己的学习经历和学习态度,以勉励他人勤奋。

送东阳马生序

宋濂
 
余幼时即嗜学。家贫,无从致书以观,每假借于藏书之家,手自笔录,计日以还。天大寒,砚冰坚,手指不可屈伸,弗之怠。录毕,走送之,不敢稍逾约。以是人多以书假余,余因得遍观群书。既加冠,益慕圣贤之道,又患无硕师名人与游,尝趋百里外,从乡之先达执经叩问。先达德隆望尊,门人弟子填其室,未尝稍降辞色。余立侍左右,援疑质理,俯身倾耳以请。或遇其叱咄,色愈恭,礼愈至,不敢出一言以复。俟其欣悦,则又请焉。故余虽愚,卒获有所闻。
 
当余之从师也,负箧曳屣,行深山巨谷中。穷冬烈风,大雪深数尺,足肤皲裂而不知。至舍,四支僵劲不能动,媵人持汤沃灌,以衾拥覆,久而乃和。寓逆旅,主人日再食,无鲜肥滋味之享。同舍生皆被绮绣,戴朱缨宝饰之帽,腰白玉之环,左佩刀,右备容臭,烨然若神人。余则缊袍敝衣处其间,略无慕艳意;以中有足乐者,不知口体之奉不若人也。盖余之勤且艰若此。今虽耄老,未有所成,犹幸预君子之列,而承天子之宠光,缀公卿之后,日待坐,备顾问,四海亦谬称其氏名,况才之过于余者乎? 
今诸生学于太学,县官日有廪稍之供,父母岁有裘葛之遗,无冻馁之患矣;坐大厦之下而诵《诗》《书》,无奔走之劳矣;有司业、博士为之师,未有问而不告,求而不得者也;凡所宜有之书皆集于此,不必若余之手录,假诸人而后见也。其业有不精,德有不成者,非天质之卑,则心不若余之专耳,岂他人之过哉?
东阳马生君则,在太学已二年,流辈甚称其贤。余朝京师,生以乡人子谒余,撰长书以为贽,辞甚畅达。与之论辨,言和而色夷。自谓少时用心于学甚劳,是可谓善学者矣。其将归见其亲也,余故道为学之难以告之。谓余勉乡人以学者,余之志也;诋我夸际遇之盛大而骄乡人者,岂知予者哉! 
 

送东阳马生序
宋濂
A Farewell to Ma Junze of Dongyang
Song Lian
🎈东阳:今浙江东阳市,当时与潜溪同属金华府。
🎈马生:姓马的太学生,即文中的马君则。
🎈序:文体名,有书序、赠序二种,本篇为赠序。
🎈farewell 通常译作「再会」,其实往往有「永不再会」的意思
He bade farewell to his native town
他永别了他的故乡
(海明威)《永别了,武器》A Farewell To Arms
告别bid farewell
告别演出 farewell speech
欢送会、惜别酒会a farewell party/drink
例句
She was sorry to bid farewell to Portugal.
她舍不得告别葡萄牙。

 
余幼时即嗜学。
In my adolescence I was fond of reading.
🎈我年幼时就非常爱好读书。
🎈余:我。嗜(shì)学:爱好读书
🎈adolescence青春期(一般指成年以前由13至15的发育期)
🎈古代年龄称谓
垂髫:3、4岁至8、9的儿童
束发:指15岁
弱冠:指20岁
而立:指30岁
不惑:指40岁
知命(半百):指50岁
花甲(耳顺):指60岁
古稀:指70岁
耄耋:指80-90岁
期颐:百岁。
🎈喜欢 be fond of sb/(doing) sth
例句
You won’t let me be fond of you, will you? No matter what I do.
你就是不肯让我喜欢你 是吧 不管我怎么做。

 
家贫,无从致书以观,每假借于藏书之家,手自笔录,计日以还。
My family being poor, I had no access to books, which I had to borrow from bibliophiles, taking whole passages down before I returned them on the appointed date. 
🎈家里贫穷,无法得到书来看,常常向藏书的人家求借,亲手抄录,计算着日期按时送还。
🎈致:得到。
🎈假借:借。
🎈My family being poor是独立主格结构
一、概念:“独立主格结构”是由名词或代词作为逻辑主语,加上分词、形容词、副词、动词不定式或介词短语作为逻辑谓语构成。这种结构在形式上与主句没有关系,通常称为“独立主格结构”。
二、功能:虽然叫做独立主格结构,并不是真正的独立,它还是一种从属分句,在句中有多种作用。如:表原因、表条件、表方式、表伴随、表时间等,在句中通常起状语作用。
三、形式:名词或代词+分词、动词不定式、形容词、副词、或介词短语。
例句
There being nothing else to do, they gone away.
由于无事可做,他们离开了。(代词+-ing,表原因)
🎈access n. 
1.(接近或进入某地的)方法,通道 
2.(使用某物或接近某人的)机会或权利
inaccessible adj. 难以到达的,无法到达的
accessible adj. 可以到达的
通往…方法/通道的access to …
有…的权利,能够使用…have access to …
对…来说无法/可以到达 inaccessible/ accessible to…
🎈bibliophiles: biblio-通常和书籍有关,如bibliomania专指藏书癖,其形容词为bibliomaniacal; bibliography指参考书目。德语、法语里的「图书馆」分别是Bibliothek,bibliothèque。
🎈写下,记录 take down
例句
I took down his comments in shorthand.
我用速记法把他的评论记录了下来。
此外,take down还有「拆除、拆卸」和「往下拽、拉低(下身衣服)」的意思。
拆掉帐篷take down a tent
把裤子往下拽一拽  take down your trousers
🎈约定的日期 the appointed date

 
天大寒,砚冰坚,手指不可屈伸,弗之怠。
Although the frigid weather caused the inkstone to be crusted with ice and made my fingers unable to bend or stretch, I could not afford to be slow.
🎈冬天非常寒冷,砚台里的墨汁都结了冰,手指冻得不能弯曲和伸直,也不放松抄录书。
🎈弗之怠:即「弗怠之」,不懈怠,不放松读书。弗,不。之,指代抄书。
🎈「结了冰」译作be crusted with ice,意为墨汁表面覆了一层冰,描写很形象。其中,crust名词动用,原(尤指软物或液体上面、周围的)硬层,硬表面。
一层薄冰a thin crust of ice
地壳the earth’s crust
🎈could not afford to be slow:我们常用afford to表示「经得住、承受的起、负担得起」,afford单用可表示「提供」,意同provide、offer等。

 
录毕,走送之,不敢稍逾约。
Having copied what I needed, I sent the books back to the owner, not daring to delay a single day. 
🎈抄写完毕后,便马上跑去还书,不敢稍微超过约定的期限。
🎈走:跑,这里意为「赶快」
🎈逾约:超过约定的期限。
🎈dare(敢)的两种用法
其一,dare用作情态动词,后跟动词原形,主要用于疑问句、否定句和条件句中。
例句
Dare you catch the mouse?
你敢抓这只老鼠吗? 
其二,dare用作实义动词,有人称和数及时态变化。其后的动词不定式可带to也可不带,一般肯定句中要有to,否定句和疑问句中可有可无。
例句
I dare to jump down from the top of the wall. 
我敢从墙头跳下来。
She doesn’t dare (to) face her mother. 
她不敢面对母亲。
🎈delay a single day: 
a single连用表示强调,比如,「没有任何一个国家能……」可以译作not a single country can…
没有一个人影without a single soul
虚度年华/让时间白白地浪费掉let a single day slip by without any gain

 
以是人多以书假余,余因得遍观群书。
Thus many gentlemen were glad to lend me books, and I was fortunate enough to read over piles of them. 
🎈因此有很多人都愿意把书借给我,于是我能够遍观群书。
🎈乐于,乐意 (be) glad to
例句
Glad to meet you. 
见到你很高兴。
🎈把…借给…lend sth. to sb. /lend sb. sth.或loan sth. to sb. /loan sb. sth.
向…借…borrow sth. from sb. 
注意没有borrow sb. sth. 的用法
例句
你能不能借给我100块钱?
Would you lend me ¥100? √
Would you lend ¥100 to me? √
May I borrow ¥100 from you? √
May I borrow you ¥100? × [用法不对]
Would you borrow me ¥100? × [逻辑语义完全不合常理]
🎈认真通读 read sth↔over/through
例句
Please read it over at your leisure.
请你在闲暇时候读一读。
🎈成堆的,一大群 piles of/ a pile of 
例句
He has a pile of work to do.
他有一大堆的工作要做。
 

既加冠,益慕圣贤之道,又患无硕师名人与游,尝趋百里外,从乡之先达执经叩问。
After I had come of age, I worshipped all the more the teachings of sages. As I feared lest I should be out of contact with great masters and notables, I had to walk a hundred li in order to seek instructions in the scriptures from an eminent local scholar. 
🎈成年以后,我更加仰慕古代圣贤的学说,又苦于不能与学识渊博的老师和名人交往,曾经赶到数百里以外,拿着经书向乡里有道德学问的前辈请教。
🎈既:已经,到了。
加冠:古代男子到二十岁时,举行加冠(束发戴帽)仪式,表示已成年。
圣贤之道:指孔孟儒家的道统。宋濂是一个主张仁义道德的理学家,所以十分推崇它。
🎈硕(shuò)师:学问渊博的老师。
游:交游。
🎈尝:曾。
🎈趋:快步走。
🎈乡之先达:当地在道德学问上有名望的前辈。这里指浦江的柳贯、义乌的黄溍等古文家。
🎈执经叩问:携带经书去请教。
🎈达到法定年龄come of age
未到法定年龄 under age
行为和年龄相称;举止不再有孩子气 be/act your age
容貌与年龄相当 look your age
🎈all the more的用法
中国人不习惯使用这个词组,因为译成中文是「更加」,似乎同英文的more或even more差不多。但其实all the more表示的「更加」,是前后文说出了原因或隐含不明言原因的,而简单的more或even more则不涉及原因。
例句
For this very reason, their recklessness is all the harder to forgive. 正是由于这个原因,他们的鲁莽就更难原谅。
🎈As I feared lest I should be out of contact with…
lest, in case, for fear that「以防,万一,唯恐」引导目的状语从句常用虚拟语气,谓语动词用should+动词原形。lest, for fear that从句中的should可以省去,in case从句中的should通常不省略,但是in case引导的从句也可用陈述语气。
例句
He took the raincoat with him lest it (should) rain.
他带上了雨衣,以防下雨。
I obeyed her for fear that she (should) be angry.
我得顺着她,免得她生气。
In case he comes, let me know. 
万一他来了,告诉我一声。
🎈与…没有联系 be out of contact with sb
与…保持/有联系 be in contact with sb
例句
We do keep in contact.
我们确实保持着联系。

 
先达德隆望尊,门人弟子填其室,未尝稍降辞色。
Since he possessed good virtues and enjoyed high prestige, his room was filled with pupils, before whom he never relaxed a little his severe countenance.
🎈前辈德高望重,门人弟子挤满了他的屋子,他的言辞和态度从未稍有委婉。
🎈稍降辞色:把言辞放委婉些,把脸色放温和些。辞色,言辞和脸色。

 
余立侍左右,援疑质理,俯身倾耳以请。
I stood there, waiting upon him patiently. When it was the right moment, I made bold to ask him some questions to solve my puzzles and elucidate the reasons, bowing to him all the time with great attention. 
🎈我站着陪侍在他左右,提出疑难,询问道理,俯下身子,侧着耳朵恭敬地请教。
🎈援疑质理:提出疑难,询问道理。
🎈侍候,服侍wait upon
例句
She must be nursed and waited upon, and there was no one whose duty it was so much as Karen’s.
她得有人看护和照料,但这种工作不应该是别人而应该是由珈伦做的。
🎈斗胆,冒昧 make bold to do sth
例句
And if ever I go where Pliny is, I, a whaleman (more than he was), will make bold to tell him so.
如果我能够跑到普利尼那地方去,我,作为一个捕鲸人(这就比他强了),一定会斗胆跟他这样说。
 

或遇其叱咄,色愈恭,礼愈至,不敢出一言以复。
Or I might be given a reproval, then I became even more deferential and more submissive, not daring to utter a single word to contradict him. 
🎈有时遇到他大声斥责,我的表情更加恭顺,礼节更加周到,不敢说一个字反驳。
🎈叱(chì)(咄duō):训斥,呵责。
🎈驳斥 contradict sb/sth
自相矛盾 contradict oneself
互相抵触 contradict each other

 
俟其欣悦,则又请焉。
Only when he was good-humoured again, did I continue to ask him.
🎈等到他高兴了,则又去请教。
🎈俟(sì):等待。欣(xīn):同「忻」
🎈good-humoured属于有连词符连接的合成形容词。具体类型为
1.名词+名词+ed,如honey-mouthed嘴甜的、甜言蜜语的
2.数词+名词+ed,如ten-storeyed十层的
🎈当only+状语位于句首时,其后习惯上要用部分倒装,其中,only后的状语可以是副词、介词短语、从句等。
例句
Only in this way can we learn Chinese.
只有这样才能学会中文呢。
Only then did I understand what she meant.
只有到那时我才明白她的意思。
注:在only后作状语的是从句时,从句不倒装,要部分倒装的是主句。
例句
Only when it rains do you feel cool.
只有下雨时才觉得凉爽一点。

 
故余虽愚,卒获有所闻。
Thus, stupid as I was, I gained eventually some learning.
🎈所以我虽然愚笨,但最终获得不少教益。
🎈卒:终于。
🎈stupid as I was
as / though引导让步状语从句时,as必须用部分倒装,though可倒可不倒。此类倒装分三种情况:表语、动词原形及状语的倒装。
1. 表语的倒装
一般直接将表语提前到句首,若表语是带不定冠词a / an的单数可数名词,倒装后,不定冠词a / an须被省略。
例句
Fine as / though he looks, he is ill with some serious diseases.
Child as / though he is, he knows much about the society.
2. 原形动词的倒装
A. 动词前面带有情态动词may, might, will, would, can, could等时,只将行为动词提到句首,而这些情态动词保留在原处。
B. 若动词前面没有情态动词时,应在动词原来的位置加上助动词do的适当形式。
C. 用于这一句型的动词一般是不及物动词,而不能是系动词或及物动词。
例句
Swim as / though he can, he can’t swim so far. 
尽管他会游泳,但是他游不得那么远。
Run as / though he did, he didn’t run fast enough to catch the bus. 虽然他跑,但是他跑得不够快而没有赶上汽车。
3. 状语倒装
例句
In the classroom as / though he stays, he doesn’t read his texts. 
尽管他呆在教室里,但他不读书。
Carefully as / though he worked, he made some mistakes. 
尽管他工作很细心,但还是除了一些差错。
🎈gain some learning中的learning是不可数名词,指「学问、知识、学识」knowledge that you get from reading and studying
学识渊博的女子a woman of great learning
 

当余之从师也,负箧曳屣,行深山巨谷中。穷冬烈风,大雪深数尺,足肤皲裂而不知。
The day when I first went to school, I, burdened with my suitcase and dragging my feet, trudged into unfrequented mountains and valleys, braving the vehement winter gale and crunching through snow several feet deep, unaware that my legs had become chapped. 
🎈当我外出求师的时候,背着书箱,拖着鞋子,行走在深山峡谷之中。隆冬时节,刮着猛烈的寒风,雪有好几尺深,脚上的皮肤受冻裂开都不知道。
🎈箧(qiè):箱子。曳屣(yè xǐ):拖着鞋子。
🎈穷冬:隆冬。
🎈皲(jūn)裂:皮肤因寒冷干燥而开裂。
🎈when 和 where 可以在表示时间和地点的名词后面引出关系从句。它们的用法与介词 + which 相同。I’ll never forget the day when I first met you.(= … the day on which …) 我永远不会忘记我们见面的那一天。
🎈拖着脚步走,缓慢前行 drag one’s feet
(因疲惫或沮丧)拖着沉重的脚步走,步履艰难地走 trudge somewhere
步履艰难地走完最后两英里到了城里trudge the last two miles to the town
疲惫地往山上爬trudge up the hill
🎈迎着狂风brave the gale
其中brave为动词,指「勇敢地面对」
🎈snow several feet deep中several feet deep是snow的后置修饰成分,属于列举的第6种情况。
英语中形容词作后置定语的十种情况
1、当形容词修饰由 some-,no-,any和 every-,-thing,-body和-one构成的不定代词,如something, everything, anything, nothing, somebody, everybody, anybody, nobody, someone, everyone, anyone等时,该形容词要后置。
例句
Every minute there is something exciting going on here.
这里每一分钟都有使人兴奋的事情发生。
2、形容词性短语作定语时要后置,这时该短语相当于一个定语从句。
例句
The basket full of fruits belongs to the beautiful girl.
装满水果的这个篮子是属于这个漂亮女孩的。
3、当某些以-ble或-ible结尾的形容词具有动词色彩,并表示被动意义时,应置于被修饰的词的后面,而且这些形容词大都和形容词最高级或 all,only,every等词连用。
例句
His is the earliest edition obtainable.
他那本是现在能找到的最早的版本。
4、由and, or等连接的两个或几个形容词作定语时常后置,从而进一步说明被修饰词的性质或特点,并起强调作用。 
例句
I like reading story-books both interesting and instructive.
我喜欢读那些既有趣又有教育意义的故事书。
5、在比较结构的句型中,修饰名词的比较结构须后置,以说明大小、多少、新旧、高矮等方面比较的情况。
例句
They produced gases almost as harmful as the gases from the factories.
他们排出的废气几乎和工厂排出的废气一样有害。
6、”基数词+名词(时间、度量)+形容词”构成的数量结构常放在名词之后作后置定语,以说明所修饰名词的年龄、长度、深度、高度等情况。
例句
He found a good place in the rocks, more than twelve feet high with a narrow entrance.
他在岩石中找到一个好地方,十二英尺多高,还有一个狭窄的入口。
There was an ancient tree 30 metres high.
那是一棵三高的古树。
7、else, left, present(出席的、在场的)等形容词作定语修饰名词时常后置,以说明名词的状态、特点等情况。
例句
All the people present spoke at the meeting.
所有出席的人都在会议上讲了话。
8、形容词连同其后面的介词短语或不定式短语一起修饰名词的时候,该形容词及其之后的部分一并后置,作后置定语。 
例句
This is an article worthy of careful study.
这是一篇很值得研究的文章。
9、某些以a-开头的形容词,常用来作定语、表语,在作定语时要后置。这类形容词主要有asleep(睡着的),afraid(害怕的),alive(活着的),afloat(漂着的),afire(烧着的), awake, aged,ablaze(着火的)等。
例句
He was the only person alive at that moment.
他是那时惟一活着的人。
10、当形容词前有so,more,most等词修饰时,形容词应后置。
例句
I have never seen a calm so deep.
我从来没见过此平静的场面。
 

至舍,四支僵劲不能动,媵人持汤沃灌,以衾拥覆,久而乃和。
When I arrived at our inn, my limbs were numbed and stiff, and it was a long time before I was warmed up with the help of a servant, who gave me hot water to drink and tucked me in with a quilt. 
🎈回到客舍,四肢僵硬动弹不得。服侍的人拿着热水为我洗浴,用被子裹着我,很久才暖和起来。
🎈僵劲:僵硬。
🎈媵人:陪嫁的女子。这里指女仆。
🎈持汤沃灌:指拿热水喝或拿热水浸洗。
汤:热水。
沃灌:浇水洗。
🎈衾(qīn):被子。
🎈过了很久才… it was a long time before…
没过多久就… it was not a long time before…
🎈使暖和,加热,(天气)转暖 warm up
例句
He blew on his hands to warm them up
他冲着双手哈气,好让手暖和些。
All that she would have to do was warm up the pudding.
她所需要做的就是把布丁加热。
The weather had warmed up.
天气已经转暖。
🎈把 … 的被子掖好 tuck sb in/up
例句
tucked the children in and said goodnight.
我给孩子们盖好被子说晚安。
 

寓逆旅,主人日再食,无鲜肥滋味之享。
The innkeeper offered me only two meals a day, without any dainty food.
🎈寄居在旅店里,旅店老板每天供应两顿饭,没有新鲜肥嫩的美味享受。
🎈逆旅:旅店。
🎈日再食:每日两餐。
🎈美味的食物 dainty food
嘴太刁 be too dainty about food

 
同舍生皆被绮绣,戴朱缨宝饰之帽,腰白玉之环,左佩刀,右备容臭,烨然若神人。余则缊袍敝衣处其间,略无慕艳意;
My fellow students lodging in the same inn were all dressed in silk and satin, wearing hats decorated with tassels of precious stones and girded with sashes of white jade hung with swords on the left and sachets on the right, looking as bright as fairies, while I, in striking contrast, was clothed in an outworn padded robe and a shabby dress. Living among them, I was not in the least envious of their foppery.
🎈同客舍的人都穿着华丽的衣服,戴着用红色帽带和珠宝装饰的帽子,腰间挂着白玉环,左边佩戴宝刀,右边挂着香囊,光彩鲜明,像神仙一样。我却穿着破旧的衣服处于他们之间,但我毫无羡慕的心。
🎈被(pī)绮绣:穿着华丽的绸缎衣服。
被,同「披」
绮,有花纹的丝织品
🎈朱缨宝饰:红穗子上穿有珠子等装饰品。
🎈腰白玉之环:腰间悬着白玉圈。
🎈容臭:香袋子。臭(xiù):气味,这里指香气。
🎈烨(yè页)然:光采照人的样子。
🎈fellow students中fellow指「和(自己)身份、地位相同的人」,比如同胞fellow Chinese。
🎈结构划分:wearing hats decorated with tassels of precious stones(戴朱缨宝饰之帽)/and girded with sashes of white jade hung(腰间挂着白玉环)[分词短语做伴随状语]//with swords on the left and sachets on the right(左边佩戴宝刀,右边挂着香囊)[with复合结构表伴随]
🎈对比鲜明 in striking contrast

 
以中有足乐者,不知口体之奉不若人也。
Because I was contented with the happiness of learning and was unconscious of my inferiority to others in terms of physical gratification.
🎈因为心中有足以快乐的事情,所以不觉得吃的、穿的享受不如别人。
🎈缊(yùn)袍:粗麻絮制作的袍子。
敝衣:破衣。
🎈满足,知足be contented with 
🎈未发觉;不觉;不知be unconscious of
🎈自卑感 a sense of inferiority
🎈in terms of … / in … terms 
1、从…角度 
例句
Think of it in terms of an investor.
从投资者的角度去考虑。
2、以…方式
例句
The figures are shown in terms of a percentage. 
这些数字采用了百分比的形式。
 

盖余之勤且艰若此。
Such was my diligence and hardship. 
🎈我求学的辛勤和艰苦就是像这个样子。
🎈此句译文为倒装结构→My diligence and hardship was such,其中表语位置上的such为形容词,such提前到句首,则主句倒装。
 

今虽耄老,未有所成,犹幸预君子之列,而承天子之宠光,缀公卿之后,日待坐,备顾问,四海亦谬称其氏名,况才之过于余者乎? 
Although I am now stricken in years and have few achievements, I am fortunate enough to place myself in the ranks of gentlemen, bask in the grace of the Sovereign, attach myself to the retinue of nobility and wait upon the Emperor in the capacity of counselor. The whole nation also designs to blaze my name. How much more exalted must be people who are more talented than I?
🎈如今我虽已年老,没有什么成就,但所幸还得以置身于君子的行列中,承受着天子的恩宠荣耀,追随在公卿之后,每天陪侍着皇上,听候询问,天底下也不适当地称颂自己的姓名,更何况才能超过我的人呢?
🎈幸预:有幸参与。君子指有道德学问的读书人,另译指有官位的人 。
🎈缀:这里意为「跟随」
🎈谬称:不恰当地赞许。这是作者的谦词。
🎈这一段是在自谦,说自己虽已年老,但未有建树,即便是这样,也能承蒙四方的谬爱(错爱),更何况那些真正有才干的人,想必更会得到人们的厚爱.
🎈little修饰不可数,few修饰可数。A little/few表示否定含义。
🎈依附,加入;属于 attach oneself to
例句
You should attach yourself to the activities to help you relaxed and unwind.
你应该多参与能够帮助你放松的活动。
🎈以…的资格 in the capacity of

今诸生学于太学,县官日有廪稍之供,父母岁有裘葛之遗,无冻馁之患矣;
Now you young scholars studying at the Imperial College are granted stipends by the government and provided with fur coats and summer wears by your parents, free of cold and starvation. 
🎈如今的学生们在太学中学习,朝廷每天供给膳食,父母每年都赠给冬天的皮衣和夏天的葛衣,没有冻饿的忧虑了
🎈诸生:指太学生。
太学:明代中央政府设立的教育士人的学校,称作太学或国子监。
县官:这里指朝廷。
🎈廪(lǐn)稍:当时政府免费供给的俸粮称“廪”或“稍”。
🎈裘(qiú):皮衣。
葛:夏布衣服。
🎈遗(wèi):赠,这里指接济。
🎈you和young scholars互为同位语。
🎈太学the Imperial College
🎈夏季着装 summer wears
🎈free of cold and starvation是形容词短语作状语,表伴随或结果。

 
坐大厦之下而诵《诗》《书》,无奔走之劳矣;有司业、博士为之师,未有问而不告,求而不得者也;
Now you are living in grand mansions, reading books and intoning poems, saved the trouble of shuttling over a long distance. Now you have experts and doctors as your teachers, with no questions unanswered and no requests denied.
🎈坐在大厦之下诵读诗书,没有奔走的劳苦了;有司业和博士当他们的老师,没有询问而不告诉,求教而无所收获的了
🎈司业、博士:分别为太学的次长官和教授。
🎈(给某人)省去了…麻烦 save(sb)the trouble of…
例句
Saves me the trouble of explaining it to you.
省得我再来给你解释。
 

凡所宜有之书皆集于此,不必若余之手录,假诸人而后见也。
All indispensable books are collected here at your disposal, and you need not copy them as I did to borrow them from others.
🎈凡是所应该具备的书籍,都集中在这里,不必再像我这样用手抄录,从别人处借来然后才能看到了。
🎈对…是必备的 be indispensable for (doing) sth
例句
A good dictionary is indispensable for learning a foreign language.
一本好词典是学习外语必备的。
🎈任…处理,供…任意使用,由…自由支配 at one’s disposal
例句
If I can be of service, I am at your disposal.
如果我可以效劳的话,敬请吩咐。

 
其业有不精,德有不成者,非天质之卑,则心不若余之专耳,岂他人之过哉?
If there be young men who are wanting in accomplishments of learning our virtues, it must be either owing to their inferior gifts or to their lack of the same application as I had in my youth. Who but they themselves are to blame?
🎈他们中如果学业有所不精通,品德有所未养成的,如果不是天赋、资质低下,就是用心不如我这样专一,难道可以说是别人的过错吗!
🎈非天质之卑:如果不是由于天资太低下。
🎈缺少,缺乏…
1 be wanting in sth
2 lack sth
3 a lack of sth
4 sth is lacking
例句
The students were certainly not wanting in enthusiasm.
学生们当然不乏热情。
It lacked the power of the Italian cars.
它没有意大利轿车动力强劲。
There is a lack of people wanting to start up new businesses.
有创业意愿的人非常匮乏。
Certain vital information is lacking in the report.
该报告缺少某些关键信息。
不乏… there is no lack of sth
例句
He said there was no lack of things for them to talk about.
他说他们之间不缺谈资。
🎈Who but they themselves are to blame中but是介词,but they themselves(除了他们)理解为介词短语作定语,修饰who。

东阳马生君则,在太学已二年,流辈甚称其贤。
Ma Junze of Dongyang has studied at the Imperial College for two years and has been highly appreciated by his fellow-students for his good character. 
🎈东阳马生君则,在太学中已学习二年了,同辈人很称赞他的德行。
🎈流辈:同辈。

 
余朝京师,生以乡人子谒余,撰长书以为贽,辞甚畅达。
As I have been staying in the capital, he has paid me a visit by virtue of his being a junior townsman of mine and presented me with a long epistle which is distinguished by a fluent and lucid style. 
🎈我到京师朝见皇帝时,马生以同乡晚辈的身份拜见我,写了一封长信作为礼物,文辞很顺畅通达。
🎈朝:旧时臣下朝见君主。宋濂写此文时,正值他从家乡到京城应天(南京)见朱元璋。
🎈以乡人子:以同乡之子的身份。谒(yè):拜见。
🎈撰(zhuàn):写。长书:长信。贽(zhì):古时晚辈初次拜长辈时所赠的礼物。
🎈拜访pay a visit to
例句
从宣统元年(一九〇九)到现在,我再没有回过家一次,只在民国十年(一九二一),我曾经把父亲和母亲接出去。(朱德《母亲的回忆》)
From 1909 up to now, I have never paid a visit to my home town. In 1921, however, I had my parents come out to live with me.
🎈凭借,依靠,由于,因为 by virtue of
例句
She got the job by virtue of her greater experience.
她由于经验较为丰富而得到了那份工作。
🎈以…为特征be distinguished by

 
与之论辨,言和而色夷。
His discussions and arguments with me also revealed his elegance of speech and gentility of manner. 
🎈同他论辩,言语温和而态度谦恭。
🎈夷:平易。
 

自谓少时用心于学甚劳,是可谓善学者矣。
By his own account, in his adolescence he devoted himself to learning with great assiduity, and might be regarded as a good learner. 
🎈他自己说少年时对于学习很用心、刻苦,这可以称作善于学习者吧!
🎈根据(某人)自己的说法 by one’s own account
根据各种说法 by/from all accounts
例句
He was by his own account an ambitious workaholic.
据他自己所言,他是个雄心勃勃的工作狂。
He is, by all accounts, a superb teacher.
他是位有口皆碑的好老师。
🎈献身、奉献、投入devote oneself/one’s life/efforts to sth.
例句
趁现在年富力强的时候,努力做一种专门学问。(胡适《不要抛弃学问》)
While you are in the prime of life, why not devote yourselves to a special field of study?
 

其将归见其亲也,余故道为学之难以告之。
On the occasion of his homecoming, I set forth to him the hardships of learning. 
🎈他将要回家拜见父母双亲,我特地将自己治学的艰难告诉他。
🎈归见:回家探望。
🎈set forth to him the hardships of learning等同set forth //the hardships of learning //to him,涉及set forth sth的表达。
🎈set forth
1、阐述、陈述、说明
例句
Dr. Mesibov set forth the basis of his approach to teaching students.
梅西伯夫博士阐述了他的教学方法的基础。
2 动身、启程
例句
It was during the reign of Queen Isabella that Christopher Columbus set forth on his epic voyage of discovery.
正是在伊莎贝拉女王统治时期克里斯托弗·哥伦布开始了他伟大的发现之旅。

 
谓余勉乡人以学者,余之志也;诋我夸际遇之盛大而骄乡人者,岂知予者哉!
To say that I encourage my townsmen to study hard is to help me make clear my sincere wish to them. To slander me that I try to humble them by flaunting my dignified position proves indeed a failure to understand me!
🎈如果说我勉励同乡努力学习,则是我的志意;如果诋毁我夸耀自己际遇之好而在同乡前骄傲,难道是了解我的人吗?
🎈“谓余”二句:认为我是在勉励同乡人努力学习,这是说到了我的本意。
🎈2诋(dǐ):毁谤。
🎈际遇之盛:际遇的得意,指得到皇帝的赏识重用。
🎈骄乡人:对同乡骄傲。
🎈(这两句的译文采用了相同的结构:To say/slander me (that…) is/proves…,注意找全前面的一串主语。
🔥重点表达
告别bid farewell
告别演出 farewell speech
欢送会、惜别酒会a farewell party/drink
喜欢 be fond of sb/(doing) sth
通往…方法/通道的access to …
有…的权利,能够使用…have access to …
对…来说无法/可以到达 inaccessible/ accessible to…
写下,记录 take down
拆掉帐篷take down a tent
把裤子往下拽一拽  take down your trousers
约定的日期 the appointed date
一层薄冰a thin crust of ice
地壳the earth’s crust
乐于,乐意 (be) glad to
认真通读 read sth↔over/through
成堆的,一大群 piles of/ a pile of 
达到法定年龄come of age
未到法定年龄 under age
行为和年龄相称;举止不再有孩子气 be/act your age
容貌与年龄相当 look your age
与…没有联系 be out of contact with sb
与…保持/有联系 be in contact with sb
侍候;服侍wait upon
斗胆,冒昧 make bold to do sth
驳斥 contradict sb/sth
自相矛盾 contradict oneself
互相抵触 contradict each other
学识渊博的女子a woman of great learning
迎着狂风brave the gale
使暖和;加热;(天气)转暖 warm up
把 … 的被子掖好 tuck sb in/up
美味的食物 dainty food
嘴太刁 be too dainty about food
满足,知足be contented with 
未发觉;不觉;不知be unconscious of
自卑感 a sense of inferiority
(给某人)省去了…麻烦 save(sb)the trouble of…
对…是必备的 be indispensable for (doing) sth
任…处理;供…任意使用;由…自由支配 at one’s disposal
缺少,缺乏…be wanting in sth
拜访pay a visit to
凭借;依靠;由于;因为by virtue of
以…为特征be distinguished by
根据(某人)自己的说法 by one’s own account
根据各种说法 by/from all accounts
献身、奉献、投入devote oneself/one’s life/efforts to sth.
阐述、陈述、说明set forth
 
🔥餐后甜点
——Domino Effect 多米诺骨牌效应
 
Dominoes is an old game. So, is this what happens after you play dominoes for too long?
多米诺骨牌是一种古老的游戏。所以,多米诺骨牌效应就是你玩了很长时间多米诺骨牌之后的反应么?
 
情景对话:
I’m going to China next month. How was your trip there?
下个月我就要去中国了。你上次去中国的旅行怎么样啊?
Difficult. I missed my flight in Los Angeles, which made me miss my connecting flight in Hong Kong which made me miss my train in Shanghai.
太艰难了。我错过了洛杉矶的飞机,这就导致我错过了香港转机的航班,最后我又错过了上海的火车。
Wow! That is quite the domino effect.
哇!这真的是多米诺骨牌效应。
It was an international domino effect.
这是国际版的多米诺骨牌效应。
 
Dominoes is a game. But people also use the tiles in this way. They knock the first tile over, which knocks over the second, then the third, and so on.
多米诺骨牌是一种游戏。但是人们也会这样使用骨牌。他们碰倒第一枚骨牌,然后第一枚骨牌碰倒第二枚骨牌,然后依次碰倒第三枚以及后面的骨牌。
So, a “domino effect” is when one event causes a series of other things to happen.
所以,“多米诺骨牌效应”就是指一件事情引发一系列其他事情的发生。

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 宋濂《送东阳马生序》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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