丰子恺《初冬浴日漫感》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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初冬浴日漫感

丰子恺

 

离开故居一两个月,一旦归来,坐到南窗下的书桌旁时,第一感到异样的,是小半书桌的太阳光。原来夏已去,秋正尽,初冬方到。窗外的太阳已随分南倾了。

 

把椅子靠在窗缘上,背着窗坐了看书,太阳光笼罩了我的上半身。它非但不像一两月前地使我讨厌,反使我觉得暖烘烘地快适。这一切生命之母的 太阳似乎正在把一种祛病延年,起死回生的乳汁,通过了她的光线而流注到我的体中来。

 

我掩卷瞑想:我吃惊于自己的感觉,为什么忽然这样变了?前日之所恶变成了今日之所欢;前日之所弃变成了今日之所求;前日之仇变成了今日之恩。张眼望见了弃置在高阁上的扇子,又吃一惊。前日之所欢变成了今日之所恶;前日之所求变成了今日之所弃;前日之恩变成了今日之仇。

 

忽又自笑:“夏日可畏,冬日可爱,”以及“团扇尽捐,”乃古之名言,夫人皆知,又何足吃惊?于是我的理智屈服了。但是我的感觉仍不屈服,觉得当此炎凉递变的交代期上,自有一种异样的感觉,足以使我吃惊。这仿佛是太阳已经落山而天还没有全黑的傍晚时光:我们还可以感到昼,同时已可 以感到夜。又好比一脚已跨上船而一脚尚在岸上的登舟时光:我们还可以感到陆,同时已可以感到水。我们在夜里固皆知道有昼,在船上固皆知道有陆,但只是“知道”而已,不是“实感”。我久被初冬的日光笼罩在南窗下,身上发出汗来,渐渐湿润了衬衣。当此之时,浴日的“实感”与挥扇的“实感”在我身中混成一气,这不是可吃惊的经验么?

 

于是我索性抛书,躺在墙角的藤椅里,用了这种混成的实感而环视室中,觉得有许多东西大变了相。有的东西变好了:像这个房子,在夏天常嫌其太小, 洞开了一切窗门,还不够,几乎想拆去墙壁才好。但现在忽然大起来,大得很!不久将要用屏帏把它隔小来了。又如案上这把热水壶,以前曾被茶缸驱逐到 碗橱的角里,现在又像纪念碑似地矗立在眼前了。棉被从前在伏日里晒的时 候,大家讨嫌它既笨且厚;现在铺在床里,忽然使人悦目,样子也薄起来了。沙发椅子曾经想卖掉,现在幸而没有人买去,从前曾经想替黑猫脱下皮袍子, 现在却羡慕它了。反之,有的东西变坏了:像风,从前人遇到了它都称“快 哉!”欢迎它进来。现在渐渐拒绝它,不久要像防贼一样严防它入室了。又 如竹榻,以前曾为众人所宝,极一时之荣。现在已无人问津,形容枯槁,毫无生气了。壁上一张汽水广告画。角上画着一大瓶汽水,和一只泛溢着白泡沫的玻璃杯,下面画着海水浴图。以前望见汽水图口角生津,看了海水浴图恨不得自己做了画中人,现在这幅画几乎使人打寒噤了。裸体的洋囡囡趺坐 在窗口的小书架上,以前觉得它太写意,现在看它可怜起来。希腊古代名雕的石膏模型Venus立像,把裙子褪在大腿边,高高地独立在凌空的花盆架上。我在夏天看见她的脸孔是带笑的,这几天望去忽觉其容有蹙,好像在悲叹她自己失却了两只手臂,无法拉起裙子来御寒。

 

其实,物何尝变相?是我自己的感觉变叛了。感觉何以能变叛?是自然教它的。自然的命令何其严重:夏天不由你不爱风,冬天不由你不爱日。自 然的命令又何其滑稽:在夏天定要你赞颂冬天所诅咒的,在冬天定要你诅咒夏天所赞颂的!

 

人生也有冬夏。童年如夏,成年如冬;或少壮如夏,老大如冬。在人生的冬夏,自然也常教人的感觉变叛,其命令也有这般严重,又这般滑稽。

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初冬浴日漫感

丰子恺

On Winter Sunshine

—By Feng Zikai

 

离开故居一两个月,一旦归来,坐到南窗下的书桌旁时,第一感到异样的,是小半书桌的太阳光。

After being away for a couple of months, I returned to my old home and took my place by the south window, but was surprised to find that most of my desk was now in the shade.

🎈几个,两三个…a couple of …

Couple的释义基本和“对”有关系,如一对、一双、夫妻、情侣、连接等。网上常说的“嗑CP”中CP全称即是couple。

🎈took one’s place有两种意思,一是「(职位、权力等)代替」,二是「(空间上)坐在某人的位置上」。文中take my place理解成「我」回到老家,坐在家中(我的)座位上。

🎈「小半书桌的太阳光」译作most of my desk was now in the shade(大半书桌都没在阳光之中),要和上下文连起来理解:如今正值秋冬接替之际,而作者离开故居一两个月,那么离开之前阳光必定是要比当下充足的,所以作者用了「异样」一词,表示自己觉得阳光没以前那样铺天盖地了。


 

原来夏已去,秋正尽,初冬方到。窗外的太阳已随分南倾了。

Summer was long gone, and autumn was giving way to winter, so naturally enough the sun’s rays were now tilted from the south.

🎈long gone中long是副词,指(在某一时间或事件之前或以后)很久地

例句

He retired long before the war.

他在战争之前早就退休了。

🎈被 …代替 give way to sth.

例句

The storm gave way to bright sunshine.

暴风雨过后阳光灿烂。

🎈很自然 naturally enough

例句

Naturally enough, the Canadian wanted to lay in a supply of honey, and it would have been ill-mannered of me to say no.

很自然,加拿大人要采取蜂蜜,留作食用,我如果反对,那就显得我不近人情。


 

把椅子靠在窗缘上,背着窗坐了看书,太阳光笼罩了我的上半身。它非但不像一两月前地使我讨厌,反使我觉得暖烘烘地快适。

I put a chair against the window and, with my back to the sunshine, sat down to read. The sun’s glow enveloped my upper body, and instead of roasting me as it did a couple of months ago, it made me feel warm and cozy.

🎈把…靠在/顶在…上 put…against…

例句

They put him against the wall.

他们把他摁在墙上。

He put a gun against Oliver’s head.

他把一支枪顶在奥利弗脑门上。

🎈with my back to the sunshine中to指「朝…方向」,to the sunshine即为「朝着阳光」。with复合结构是介词with后接复合宾语,即宾语+宾补,宾语用宾格(现代英语名词没有宾格才用通格代替)。其本质是一个介词短语,因此可以作定语、状语、宾补。

🎈上半身the upper body

下半身 the lower body

全身 the whole/entire body

🎈「使我讨厌」和「觉得暖烘烘地快适」其实都是在说作者对不同时节阳光的感受,因为「暖烘烘」所以「快适」,同样地,因为「酷热」所以「讨厌」,译者索性将「使我讨厌」处理成了roasting me(炙烤)

🎈as…as结构中,在不引起误解的前提下可以省略第二个as后面成分中的多余部分,否则不能省略。比较下列句子:

He is clever as I (am).

He tends me as well as my mother does.

He tends me as well as (he tends) his family.


 

这一切生命之母的太阳似乎正在把一种祛病延年,起死回生的乳汁,通过了她的光线而流注到我的体中来。

The mother of all living things seemed to be pouring her life-prolonging, regenerating milk into my body through her golden rays.

🎈life-prolonging是「名词+现在/过去分词」形式的合成形容词,例如epoch-making划时代的、state-owned国有的、peace-loving爱好和平的。

🎈life-prolonging, regenerating均为中心词milk的前置修饰成分,可直接用逗号相连,也可使用and。


 

我掩卷瞑想:我吃惊于自己的感觉,为什么忽然这样变了?前日之所恶变成了今日之所欢;前日之所弃变成了今日之所求;前日之仇变成了今日之恩。

Closing my book, I began to meditate. I wondered how my feelings could change so drastically. What I loathed yesterday had now become my love, and what I threw away yesterday was now my goal. What I hated yesterday had now become my favorite.

🎈 Closing my book作伴随状语。

🎈loath是adj,loathe是v

讨厌…loathe sb/sth或loathe doing sth

不愿做某事 be loath to do sth.

例句

They loathe each other.

他们相互讨厌对方。

She is loath to give up her hard-earned liberty…

她不愿放弃好不容易得来的自由。


 

张眼望见了弃置在高阁上的扇子,又吃一惊。前日之所欢变成了今日之所恶;前日之所求变成了今日之所弃;前日之恩变成了今日之仇。

When I looked up and noticed the fan sitting on the shelf, I was once again shocked. What I loved yesterday was now loathsome, and what I pursued yesterday was now contemptible, what I craved yesterday was now despised.

🎈此句结构同上句。

🎈loathsome令人憎恨的

后缀-some表形容词,意为「充满的、具有倾向的」,例如:frolicsome a 快活的(frolic嬉戏)、meddlesome爱管闲事的(meddle干涉)等等。

 


忽又自笑:“夏日可畏,冬日可爱,”以及“团扇见捐,”乃古之名言,夫人皆知,又何足吃惊?

Suddenly I laughed to myself. The summer sun is awesome; the winter sun is lovable, and in autumn moon-shaped fans are all shelved—such sayings are known even to housewives, so why should I make such a fuss about change?

🎈暗自发笑,自笑 laugh to oneself

🎈团扇,又称宫扇、纨扇,起源于中国,是中国汉族传统工艺品及艺术品,是一种圆形有柄的扇子。扇子不是用来扇风取凉,而是作为帝王外出巡视时遮阳挡风避沙之用。团扇见捐,汉语词语,意思是秋凉以后,扇子就被抛在一边不用了。旧时比喻妇女遭丈夫遗弃。出自《怨歌行》。

 


 

于是我的理智屈服了。但是我的感觉仍不屈服,觉得当此炎凉递变的交代期上,自有一种异样的感觉,足以使我吃惊。

My senses yielded, but my sensibilities refused to give in. When summer gives way to autumn, I often feel surprised by the strange feeling that steals over me.

🎈理性与感性 senses and sensibilities

🎈(感觉)支配/席卷全身/渐渐弥漫 steal over

例句

A vague feeling of uneasiness began to steal over me.

一阵模模糊糊的不安的感觉渐渐支配了我。


 

这仿佛是太阳已经落山而天还没有全黑的傍晚时光:我们还可以感到昼,同时已可以感到夜。又好比一脚已跨上船而一脚尚在岸上的登舟时光:我们还可以感到陆,同时已可以感到水。

It is like nightfall—then the sun has already gone down but the sky is not yet all dark, we can feel both day and night at once. Or, it is like boarding a ship—when you have one foot on the ship and the other is still on the shore, we can feel both land and sea simultaneously.

🎈登上火车/轮船/飞机 board  a train/ship/aircraft

🎈同时 at once/simultaneously

同声传译simultaneous interpretation

交替传译 alternate interpretation

提示

at once既可以指「立即、马上」,还可指「同时」

例句

Come here at once!

马上到这里来!

I can’t do two things at once.

我不能同时做两件事。


 

我们在夜里固皆知道有昼,在船上固皆知道有陆,但只是“知道”而已,不是“实感”。

We all know that there will be day after night and a new shore at the voyage’s end, but this knowledge is only an intuition, not a sensation.

🎈区分

①sensation [U] (尤指)触觉,感觉能力,知觉

a person’s ability to feel things physically, especially through your sense of touch

②sensibilities [pl.] (尤指易受伤害或影响的)感情

a person’s feelings, especially when the person is easily offended or influenced by sth

③intuition 直觉

unexplained feelings you have that something is true even when you have no evidence or proof of it


 

我久被初冬的日光笼罩在南窗下,身上发出汗来,渐渐湿润了衬衣。

After sitting in the sun’s rays by the south window for a long while, I felt my shirt gradually soaked up by the ooze of my sweat.

🎈很长一段时间 for a long while

例句

He didn’t contact us for a good long while.

很长一段时间他都没有联系我们。

🎈soak up的四层含义

①吸收(液体)

例句

The cells will promptly start to soak up moisture.

细胞会立即开始吸收水分。

②晒(太阳)

例句

I was lying on my stomach soaking up the sun.

我正趴在那里晒着太阳。

③沉浸于,充分体验

例句

Keaton comes here once or twice a year to soak up the atmosphere.

基顿每年到这里来一两次,为的是尽情感受这里的气氛。

④用去,耗费(大量金钱、资源等)

例句

Defence soaks up forty per cent of the budget…

国防耗去40%的预算。


 

当此之时,浴日的“实感”与挥扇的“实感”在我身中混成一气,这不是可吃惊的经验么?

At that moment the sensation of sunbathing mingled nicely with that of fanning. It was extraordinary!

🎈with that of fanning中that同sensation

🎈和…混合 mingle with

例句

If we mingle with the crowd, we should not be noticed.

如果我们混在人群中, 就不会被注意到。

 


于是我索性抛书,躺在墙角的藤椅里,用了这种混成的实感而环视室中,觉得有许多东西大变了相。有的东西变好了:像这个房子,在夏天常嫌其太小,洞开了一切窗门,还不够,几乎想拆去墙壁才好。

Immediately I put aside my book and, lying down on a rattan chair in the corner, and studied the rooms with my ‘new’ sensation. I felt that a number of things had changed, some for the better. In summer, this room seemed too cramped, even with all the doors and windows thrown wide open. At one time I had even wanted to tear down its walls!

🎈暂时丢掉,搁置 put aside

例句

She took up a slice of bread, broke it nervously, then put it aside

她拿起一片面包,焦虑不安地把它掰碎,又放在一边。

🎈some (being) for the better是独立主格结构,可以按some of which had changed for the better理解。独立主格的逻辑主语是代词(不定代词除外)时,being不能省略。

🎈大开着 wide open

例句

The outer door was wide open but the inner one was locked.

外面的门大开着而里面的门锁着。

🎈曾经,一度 at one time

🎈拆毁,拆除tear sth ↔ down


 

但现在忽然大起来,大得很!不久将要用屏帏把它隔小来了。

Now it seemed to have expanded considerably, and if this growth continued, it would soon have to be screened off into compartments.

🎈considerably和前文提到的drastically均表示程度。

🎈(用屏风等)隔开 screen off

例句

Her bed was screened off from the other patients.

她的病床用屏风与其他病人隔开。


 

又如案上这把热水壶,以前曾被茶缸驱逐到碗橱的角里,现在又像纪念碑似地矗立在眼前了。

The thermos, which was once pushed into a corner of the cupboard by the teapot, now stood on the table like a monument.

🎈thermo- adj. 热的(用来构成名词、形容词和副词)

thermonuclear热核的

thermometer温度计

Thermos (flask/bottle) 热水瓶,保温瓶


 

棉被从前在伏日里晒的时候,大家讨嫌它既笨且厚;现在铺在床里,忽然使人悦目,样子也薄起来了。

The cotton-padded quilt that once seemed so thick and cumbersome when aired in summer’s scorching heat now appeared so thin and comfortable on the bed.

🎈that once seemed so thick and cumbersome when aired in summer’s scorching heat是定语从句,其中内嵌的when引导的状语从句涉及省略现象:当从句的主语和主句的主语一致(或者从句的主语为it),且从句的谓语中包含be动词的某种形式,如be doing、be done、be to do、be+adj等,在此种情况下可以省去从句的主语和be动词,保留be动词之后的部分”。


 

沙发椅子曾经想卖掉,现在幸而没有人买去,从前曾经想替黑猫脱下皮袍子,现在却羡慕它了。

I once played with the idea of selling the couch. Thank goodness no one would buy it. Also, I thought of shaving the fur coat off the black cat’s back, but now wish she would share it with me.

🎈皮大衣 fur coat

🎈剃掉,刮去 shave off

🎈英语中,一旦用人称代词he和she来表示时,是将动物赋予人性化了,再加上文化因素,在英语成语中,dog经常被用来指男性,而猫则常与女性相关,所以文中使用了she来指代the black cat。


 

反之,有的东西变坏了:像风,从前人遇到了它都称“快哉!”欢迎它进来。现在渐渐拒绝它,不久要像防贼一样严防它入室了。

However, some things seem to have changed for the worse. The wind, which was once most pleasant, is now unwelcome and will soon be barred at the door as we would block a thief.

🎈pleasant adj.令人愉悦的

Pleased adj.感到愉悦的


 

又如竹榻,以前曾为众人所宝,极一时之荣。现在已无人问津,形容枯槁,毫无生气了。

The bamboo cot, once in everyone’s good graces, is now out of favor. It looks so withered and listless that no one takes any interest in it.

🎈竹榻bamboo cot

🎈受某人青睐in one’s good graces

If you want to redeem yourself in my good graces, you won’t give him a chance either.

你要是还想挽回我的好感,就也别给他机会。

🎈失宠,不受欢迎 out of favor

🎈对…感兴趣 take an interst in


 

壁上一张汽水广告画。角上画着一大瓶汽水,和一只泛溢着白泡沫的玻璃杯,下面画着海水浴图。

On the wall there is a poster, and in one of its corners there is a big bottle of soda water, a bubbling glass, and a beach scene adjacent.

🎈「汽水广告画」本质上是广告画poster,汽水是对广告画内容的叙述,后文已经详细列出广告画中有什么,此处就没必要重复译出「汽水」了。


 

以前望见汽水图口角生津,看了海水浴图恨不得自己做了画中人,现在这幅画几乎使人打寒噤了。

In summer the sight of the soda water would make my mouth drool and the beach scene made me dream of joining the swimmers. Now the picture simply makes me shiver with cold.

🎈令人口角生津make one’s mouth drool/ make sb mouth-watering

 


裸体的洋囡囡趺坐在窗口的小书架上,以前觉得它太写意,现在看它可怜起来。

The naked doll, which sits cross-legged on the bookshelf by the window, once looked so joyful, but now it appears simply wretched.

🎈囡囡,汉语方言词语,是对女孩的昵称。洋囡囡指洋娃娃。

🎈趺坐:盘腿端坐,左脚放在右腿上,右脚放在左腿上。

🎈「写意」按「惬意、快意」解。


 

希腊古代名雕的石膏模型Venus立像,把裙子褪在大腿边,高高地独立在凌空的花盆架上。

The plaster statuette of the Greek Goddess Venus, her bath towel sliding to her thighs, still stands high on the Jardiniere.

🎈her bath towel sliding to her thighs是独立主格结构。独立主格结构(Absolute Construction)是一种英语句式,由两部分组成,前一部分是名词或者代词,后一部分是非谓语动词(动名词、不定式、现在分词、过去分词)或形容词、副词、名词或介词短语。前后两部分具有逻辑主谓关系。

🎈维纳斯(Venus),是罗马神话中美的女神,罗马十二主神之一,对应希腊神话中的阿佛洛狄忒。最初她可能是一种果园的精灵。她的别名是穆耳忒亚,可能是拉丁语中的“山桃”之意。后期因为被与希腊神话的阿芙罗狄忒(Aphrodite)对应,维纳斯也成了美与爱的女神,小爱神丘比特(Cupid)是她的儿子。拉丁语的“金星”和“星期五”等词都来源于此。维纳斯也出现在诸多历代文学作品和西方油画里。影响力最大的艺术品是1820年在爱琴海米洛斯岛的山洞中发现的维纳斯雕像。

 

🎈断臂原因:维纳斯是希腊米洛农民伊奥尔科斯1820年春天刨地时掘获的。出土时的维纳斯右臂下垂,手扶衣衿,左上臂伸过头,握着一只苹果。当时法国驻米洛领事路易斯-布勒斯特得知此事后,赶往伊奥尔科斯住处,表示要以高价收买此塑像,并获得了伊奥尔科斯的应允。但由于手头没有足够的现金,只好派居维尔连夜赶往君士坦丁堡报告法国大使。大使听完汇报后立即命令秘书带了一笔巨款随居维尔连夜前往米洛洽购女神像,却不知农民伊奥尔科斯此时已将神像卖给了一位希腊商人,而且已经装船外运。居维尔当即决定以武力截夺。英国得知这一消息之后,也派舰艇赶来争夺,双方展开了一场激烈的战斗,混战中雕塑的双臂不幸被砸断,从此,维纳斯就成了一个断臂女神。

🎈站得高,看得远 stand high and gaze far


 

我在夏天看见她的脸孔是带笑的,这几天望去忽觉其容有蹙,好像在悲叹她自己失却了两只手臂,无法拉起裙子来御寒。

During summer days she seemed to be all smiles, but now she looks so sullen and miserable. It’s as if she were lamenting the loss of her arms and her inability to pull the towel up for warmth!

🎈一脸笑意,喜滋滋的 all smiles

例句

Twelve hours later she was all smiles again.

十二小时之后,她又喜笑颜开了。


 

 

其实,物何尝变相?是我自己的感觉变叛了。

But it is not the things that have changed, but rather that I was betrayed by my feelings.

🎈此句为that强调句。

🎈不是…而是… not…but rather…

not …but和not…but rather都是「不是…而是…」的意思,但二者感情色彩强烈程度不同,not…but rather比not …but语气更强,rather起强调的作用。


 

感觉何以能变叛?是自然教它的。

How could they have done this to me? The answer can be found in Nature.

🎈怎么会,怎能,怎么能够,怎么可能 how could(带有惊讶、无法相信的感情色彩)


 

自然的命令何其严重:夏天不由你不爱风,冬天不由你不爱日。

Her decrees are so arbitrary that in summer you cannot reject the company of the wind, and in winter you cannot deny your love for the sun.

🎈如此…以至于… so…that…


 

自然的命令又何其滑稽:在夏天定要你赞颂冬天所诅咒的,在冬天定要你诅咒夏天所赞颂的!

And her decrees are so odd that she orders you to extol in summer what you cursed last winter and commands you to curse in winter what you loved last summer.

🎈extol in summer what you cursed last winter和curse in winter what you loved last summer中in summer、in winter也可以放在what引导宾从之后。将其嵌在动词和宾从之间是出于结构平衡的考虑。


 

人生也有冬夏。童年如夏,成年如冬;或少壮如夏,老大如冬。

Life has winters and summers as well. Childhood is like summer; adulthood like winter. Put another way, youth is like summer; old age like winter.

🎈在节日、星期、月份、季节、年等词前不用冠词.如:in summer, in August…。但特指的时候会加,比如in the spring of 1945。

🎈换句话说 put another way

🎈老年,晚年 old age

例句

Old age can bring many problems.

人老麻烦多。


 

在人生的冬夏,自然也常教人的感觉变叛,其命令也有这般严重,又这般滑稽。

In the winter and summer of life, Nature also brings about a reversal of feelings. As in all things, her decrees are so arbitrary—and so strange!

🎈导致,引起 bring about

例句

What brought about the change in his attitude?

是什么使他改变了态度?

🎈As in all things理解为原因状语从句。

🎈任何情况下,始终 in all things

英义

in every situation and at all times

例句

Well, precision in all things, Watson.

不能放过任何细节,华生。

 

🔥重点表达

几个,两三个…a couple of …

被 …代替 give way to sth.

很自然 naturally enough

把…靠在/顶在…上 put…against…

上半身the upper body

下半身 the lower body

全身 the whole/entire body

讨厌…loathe sb/sth或loathe doing sth

不愿做某事 be loath to do sth.

暗自发笑,自笑 laugh to oneself

登上火车/轮船/飞机 board  a train/ship/aircraft

同时 at once/simultaneously

同声传译simultaneous interpretation

交替传译 alternate interpretation

很长一段时间 for a long while

和…混合 mingle with

大开着 wide open

暂时丢掉;搁置put aside

曾经,一度 at one time

拆毁,拆除tear sth ↔ down

(用屏风等)隔开 screen off

皮大衣 fur coat

剃掉,刮去 shave off

竹榻bamboo cot

受某人青睐in one’s good graces

失宠,不受欢迎out of favor

对…感兴趣take an interst in

站得高,看得远 stand high and gaze far

一脸笑意,喜滋滋的all smiles

不是…而是… not…but rather…

怎么会,怎能,怎么能够,怎么可能 how could

换句话说 put another way

老年,晚年 old age

导致,引起 bring about

任何情况下,始终 in all things

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 丰子恺《初冬浴日漫感》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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