诸葛亮《前出师表》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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前出师表

诸葛亮
The First Memorial to the King Before Setting Off for War
Zhuge Liang
本文出自于《三国志·诸葛亮传,是三国时期(227年)汉丞相诸葛亮在决定北上伐魏、克服中原之前给后主刘禅上书的表文。这篇表文以议论为主,兼用记叙和抒情。以恳切委婉的言辞劝勉后主要广开言路、严明赏罚、亲贤远佞,以此兴复汉室,还于旧都(洛阳);同时也表达自己以身许国,忠贞不二的思想。

 
臣亮言:
先帝创业未半而中道崩殂,今天下三分,益州疲弊,此诚危急存亡之秋也。
Your humble servant Liang begs to say:
    Our late king passed away before the great undertaking founded by him was half accomplished. Now China is divided into three kindoms. Yizhou is drained of its manpower and resources. This is a critical juncture of life or death for our country. 
🎈「臣亮言」翻译为「Your humble servant Liang begs to say」,其中「bumble」和「beg」都体现出一种谦卑的态度,表现出诸葛亮与刘禅的身份关系。
🎈「servant」在这里的意思是a person who works for a company or an organization (公司或机构的)雇员,职员,这一用法在英文中常见的表达还有「civil servant公务员」。
🎈这里的「创业」是指「先帝创立的统一中原的大业」,译为「great undertaking」,其中「undertaking」意为「a task or project, especially one that is important and/or difficult 」,用在此处非常合适。
🎈「疲弊」是「人力疲惫,民生凋敝,困苦穷乏」的意思,在这里要意译,处理为「is drained of its manpower and resources」,对原文进行了适当的补充,并且采用了并列结构,简洁明了。
🎈「危急存亡之秋」也就是「危及存亡的时刻」、「紧要关头」之意,译为「a critical juncture of life or death」 ,其中「juncture」意为「a particular point or stage in an activity or a series of events」,是非常地道的表达。

 

然侍卫之臣不懈于内,忠志之士忘身于外者,盖追先帝之殊遇,欲报之于陛下也。
Bearing the late king’s special favor in hearts, the officials at court which guard Your Majesty dare not slacken in their vigilance and the devoted officers and soldiers at the front are fighting bravely disregarding their personal safety. They are now repaying to Your Majesty what they have received from the late king. 
🎈在原文的这句话中是有因果关系的,「追先帝之殊遇」是「侍卫之臣不懈于内,忠志之士忘身于外」的原因,译为「Bearing the late king’s special favor in hearts, the officials at court which guard Your Majesty dare not slacken in their vigilance and the devoted officers and soldiers at the front are fighting bravely disregarding their personal safety.」译文通过将原因部分处理成分词结构放在句首,表示原因,体现了分句之间的逻辑关系。
🎈在译文的后半句中「what they have received from the late king」是对原文的增补,使得译文内容更加具体明晰,不会造成歧义。

 

诚宜开张圣听,以光先帝遗德,恢弘志士之气,不宜妄自菲薄,引喻失义,以塞忠谏之路也。
It is advisable that Your Majesty should listen extensively to the counsels of officials in order to carry on the late king’s lofty virtues, and heighten the morale of people with high aspirations. It is injudicious that Your Majesty should unduly humble yourself, and use metaphors with distorted meanings, lest you should block the way of sincere admonition. 
🎈表示「应当做某事」、「建议做某事」时可用「It is advisable that…」这个结构。与之相对,「不应当做某事」、「不宜做某事」可译为「It is injudicious that…」
🎈「以光先帝遗德」中「光」是「发扬光大」的意思,引申为「继续做某事」,译为「carry on」,有「to continue doing sth」之意。
最后一个小句「以塞忠谏之路也」与前文是有因果关系的,这一小句是说「妄自菲薄,引喻失义」可能带来的后果,这样的逻辑关系通过「lest」一词来体现。

宫中府中,俱为一体,陟罚臧否,不宜异同。
The imperial court and the Prime Minister’s Office are an integral whole. There should be impartiality in meting out rewards and punishments to officials from either administration.
🎈「陟罚臧否」:陟:提升,提拔;罚:惩罚;臧否:善恶,这里形容词用作动词,意思是「评论人物的好坏」。译文处理为了「meting out rewards and punishments」,评定奖惩。

 

若有作奸犯科及为忠善者,宜付有司论其刑赏,以昭陛下平明之理,不宜偏私,使内外异法也。
For both those who are treacherous and violate the law and those who are loyal and do some good deed, the same legally appointed officials should pass decision on how to punish or reward. This will make plain the equality and sagaciousness of Your Majesty’s rule. There should be neither prejudice nor partiality in Your Majesty’s attitude towards the officials inside and outside the court for fear that different laws be put into practice.
🎈「作奸犯科及为忠善者」处理为用「those who」引导的两个并列结构,对仗工整,一目了然。
🎈「昭陛下平明之理」意为「显示陛下处理国事的公正严明」,译文补充出了「治理」一词「rule」,并将「公正严明」译为了并列结构「equality and sagaciousness」

 

侍中、侍郎郭攸之、费祎、董允等,此皆良实,志虑忠纯,是以先帝简拔以遗陛下。
Shizhong Guo Youzhi and Fei Yi as well as Shilang Dong Yun are kind and honest men with a strong sense of loyalty. 
🎈志虑忠纯:men with a strong sense of loyalty

 

愚以为宫中之事,事无大小,悉以咨之,然后施行,必能裨补阙漏,有所广益。
The late king appointed them for your sake, and I respectfully opine that all political affairs at court, regardless of magnitude, be first subjected to their inquiry before actions are taken. In this way can errors be amended, negligence avoided, and greater results attained.
🎈在译文中,「是以先帝简拔以遗陛下」若放在前一句中,应处理为定语从句,但是第一句中修饰成分较多,定语从句会使得句子过长,信息冗杂。相比之下,这句话和后文的内容联系更为紧密,断句之后放在下一句更为恰当。
「愚」是中文中对「我」的谦称,在译文中通过增加「respectfully」来体现原文的语气,属于增词不增意。
🎈「悉以咨之」这个小句在英文中的逻辑主语是「political affairs at court」,因此翻译时动词要用被动语态,这是中英文表达的差异,翻译时要格外注意。
🎈「裨补阙漏」意为「弥补缺点和疏漏之处」,译文将这个部分与「有所广益」处理成了并列结构,且省略了两个相同的动词,避免重复。

 

将军向宠,性行淑均,晓畅军事,试用于昔日,先帝称之曰能,是以众议举宠为督。
General Xiang Chong is well versed in military affairs and is kind and just by nature. After evaluating his performance on a trial basis, the late king praised his talent and ability. That is why officials have elected him to be commander-in-chief.
🎈「is versed in」意为「having a lot of knowledge about sth, or skill at sth」,注意积累这种表达。
🎈「性行淑均」意为「性格和品行善良公正」,其中「性情如何」在英语中常翻译为「by nature」
例句
她和蔼的性格使她从来没有打骂过我们,而且也没有和任何人吵过架。
Amiable by nature, she never beat or scolded us, let alone quarreled with anybody.
🎈译文在「试用于昔日」处断句,这是因为前半句是对将军向宠的评价,时态为一般现在时,而后半句讲的是发生在过去的事,时态为过去时,这种同一句中时态不一致的情况需要断句处理。
🎈「试用于昔日,先帝称之曰能」这两句之间既有时间先后关系,又有因果关系,译文将前半句处理为「after evaluating his performance on a trial basis」这一时间状语从句,体现出了两句话的主次关系,逻辑清晰,层次分明。
 

愚以为营中之事,事无大小,悉以咨之,必能使行阵和睦,优劣得所。
I humbly suggest that military concerns, regardless of weight, be first met with his consultation. In this way will there be harmony among the troops, and men both capable and incapable will each find his proper place in the camp.
🎈「愚」与上文相同,这里换了一种表达,用「humbly」来表明态度。
🎈「行阵」,指部队,译为「troop」。「优劣」,才能高的和才能低的人,译为「men both capable and incapable」
 

亲贤臣,远小人,此先汉所以兴隆也;亲小人,远贤臣,此后汉所以倾颓也。
To be close to the virtuous and able officials and keep away from the vile and mean persons. That was the reason that the Western Han Dynasty was prosperous. To be close to the vile and mean persons and keep away from the virtuous and able officials. That was the reason that the Eastern Han Dynasty collapsed.
🎈「贤臣」指的是「贤能的人」,既要有品德,还要有才能,这里译出了「virtuous and able」两个形容词,与之相对,后文的「小人」也译出了「vile and mean」两个形容词,实现了结构的对称和平衡,体现了英文之美。
🎈分号前后的两个句子结构相同,译文也是如此,最大限度地保留了原文的结构之美。

先帝在时,每与臣论此事,未尝不叹息痛恨于桓、灵也。
When the late king was alive and talked with me about these historical lessons, he used to heave a sigh in detestation for Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling.
🎈「此事」指的是前文王朝的兴盛和覆灭,这里引申概括为「historical lessons」,是对内容的具体化,增加了译文的风采。
🎈「叹息」译作「heave a sigh」,是非常地道的表达,注意积累。

 

侍中、尚书、长史、参军,此悉贞良死节之臣,愿陛下亲之信之,则汉室之隆,可计日而待也。
Shizhong, shangshu, zhangshi and canjun are faithful, upright, and ready to lay down their lives for honor and fidelity. As your humble servant, I hope that Your Majesty will retain close ties to them and trust them. Then can the prosperity of the Han Dynasty be soon realized.
🎈「侍中、尚书、长史、参军」都是中国古代的官职名,是中国文化色彩非常浓厚的词,可直接音译,选择在文后加注解释。此处若是意译,会导致译文冗长,效果不佳。
🎈「贞良死节」:坚贞可靠,能够以死报国。译为「faithful, upright, and ready to lay down their lives for honor and fidelity」。其中「lay down one’s life」是「为…牺牲生命」之意。

 

臣本布衣,躬耕于南阳,苟全性命于乱世,不求闻达于诸侯。
I was originally a commoner who had to wear clothes made of hemp, and tilled land in Nanyang. I merely managed to survive in times of turbulence and had no intention of seeking fame and position from princes.
🎈「布衣」指平民百姓,古代平民不能衣锦绣,这里要进行一定的信息补充,译为「a commoner who had to wear clothes made of hemp」。
🎈「苟全性命」译为「manage to survive」,其中「manage」意为「to succeed in doing sth, especially sth difficult」,是非常生动的表达,要注意积累。
例句
The creatures on the ocean floor manage to survive without sunlight and get energy from other sources.
生活在大样底部的生物必须在没有阳光的情况下生存,并且能利用其它能源。
🎈「times of turbulence」意为「乱世」、「动荡时期」

 

先帝不以臣卑鄙,猥自枉屈,三顾臣于草庐之中,咨臣以当世之事,由是感激,遂许先帝以驱驰。
With an utter disregard of my low social status and meager fund of knowledge, the late king condescended to visit me at my thatched cottage three times to consult me about the current events of the country. I felt so grateful that I promised to serve him.
🎈「先帝不以臣卑鄙」一句译为了「with an utter disregard of my low social status and meager fund of knowledge」,其中「卑鄙」这个词在古文中的意义如今不同,「卑」为「身份低下」之意;「鄙」为「见识短浅」之意。「with+名词短语」作状语,表示原因。
🎈「condescend」这个词意为「to do sth that you think it is below your social or professional position to do」,是诸葛亮自谦的说法,体现了自己与先皇的身份之别。
🎈「驱驰」在这里是「奔走效劳」之意,译为「serve」,这个词的英英释义为「to work or perform duties for a person, an organization, a country, etc. 」

 

后值倾覆,受任于败军之际,奉命于危难之间,尔来二十有一年矣。
Soon afterwards we suffered a military defeat. Twenty-one years have passed since I received my assignment at the time of the setback and was dispatched as an envoy at the moment of crisis.
🎈在这一句之中,「倾覆」(兵败)一事发生在过去,时态为过去时;而后文是诸葛亮回忆自己受命至今已有二十一年,时代为现在完成时,中文句子中出现了时态差异时要断句处理。在这个例句中,断句还可以使得译文有长有短,错落有致,要注意学习。

 

先帝知臣谨慎,故临崩寄臣以大事也。
The late king knew of my prudence, and entrusted me on his deathbed with the duty of assisting Your Majesty in governing the country.
🎈这里的「大事」指的是「辅佐君王治理国家」,在译文中进行了补充和具体化,译为「the duty of assisting Your Majesty in governing the country」。在翻译时有时进行信息补充和具体化时非常必要的,否则就会造成歧义或者读者的理解困难。

 

受命以来,夙夜忧叹,恐托付不效,以伤先帝之明,故五月渡泸,深入不毛。
Since then I have been worrying and sighing night and day lest I should do harm to the late king’s illustrious fame if I fail to be effective. I was thus impelled to lead an army across the Lu River in May and went deep into the barren district.
🎈「受命以来,夙夜忧叹,恐托付不效,以伤先帝之明」这一句是有逻辑关系的,中文可以这样排列,但是译成英文必须依据逻辑关系体现出主次之分。在译文「Since then I have been worrying and sighing night and day lest I should do harm to the late king’s illustrious fame if I fail to be effective」中,「受命以来」处理成了时间状语,「托付不效」意译为「自己未能做好分内之事」,处理成了条件状语。

 

今南方已定,兵甲已足,当奖率三军,北定中原,庶竭驽钝,攘除奸凶,兴复汉室,还于旧都。
Now the whole south is under our rule and we have plenty of fighters and armaments. It is time to reward our army men and lead them northward to conquer the Central Plains. Although I am inferior in ability like a worn out horse or a blunt knife, I would do upmost to root out treacherous evildoers, rejuvenate the Han Dynasty, and move the capital back to the old city.
🎈「驽钝」:驽,劣马,走不快的马,指才能低劣;钝,刀刃不锋利,指头脑不灵活,做事迟钝。这是诸葛亮自谦的说法,在译文中对原文的比喻意义进行了保留,这是因为这些比喻不会造成英文读者的理解困难。
🎈「root out」是「清除」、「铲除」之意
例句
Radicalized youth sought to root out all remnants of China’s ancient feudal culture.
激进的青年们试图根除所有中国古代“封建”文化的残余。

此臣所以报先帝而忠陛下之职分也。
I owe this to the late king and wish to demonstrate my loyalty to Your Majesty.
🎈「owe」在这里意为「to feel that you ought to do sth for sb or give them sth, especially because they have done sth for you」,简洁地道。

 

至于斟酌损益,进尽忠言,则攸之、祎、允之任也。
As for government affairs such as the augmentation or repeal of certain measures, or the broadening of the way to receive exhortations, they are the duties of Guo Youzhi, Fei Yi, and Dong Yun.
🎈「government affairs」是对原文信息的增补,是对「斟酌损益」和「进尽忠言」的概括,通过增加这个词作为整个句子的主语,使得句子结构更加清晰,与后半句衔接也更加简洁自然。
 

愿陛下托臣以讨贼兴复之效,不效,则治臣之罪,以告先帝之灵。
I hope Your Majesty would delegate to me the task of punishing the traitors and rejuvenating the Han Dynasty. If I should fail to achieve this, please punish me so as to console the soul of the departed king.
🎈「If I should fail to achieve this」是虚拟语气的用法,中文中时态和语态在英文中都要注意体现出来。
🎈「departed king」是「先帝」一词的变换说法,与前文「late king」同义。中文倾向于使用同样的词汇,而英文倾向于使用不同的说法,这是种英文的表达差异,在翻译时要多多留心。

 

若无兴德之言,则责攸之、祎、允等之慢,以彰其咎;陛下亦宜自谋,以咨诹善道,察纳雅言,深追先帝遗诏,臣不胜受恩感激。
If Youzhi, Yi, and Yun fail to gather exhortations for the fostering of virtues, they should be held responsible for their negligence. Your Majesty should also make the most of your resources to solicit opinions on governing a country, to judge judiciously and accept good advices, and always bear in mind the imperial edict issued by the late king prior to his death. If this can be achieved, you will have my extreme gratitude.
🎈 「be held responsible for」是「为…承担责任」之意。
🎈「以彰其咎」中「咎」也就是前文的「慢」,因此这一小句可以省译,否则译文便有重复之嫌。
🎈「咨诹善道,察纳雅言」意即「做出判断,接纳好的建议」,应是先「判断」再「接纳」,所以译文译为「to judge judiciously and accept good advices」
🎈「imperial edict」是「诏书」、「圣旨」之意,「遗诏」中「遗」意即「遗留的,去世之前的」,在这里译为「prior to his death」,处理为了时间状语。

今当远离,临表涕零,不知所言。
I will be journeying far, and my eyes are full of tears in writing this memorial upon my departure. I can hardly express what else I should say.
🎈「upon+…」结构可做时间状语。
🎈「不知所言」并不是不知道自己在说什么,而是不知道该说些什么话,这是表示自己可能失言,是为谦词。这里应采取意译,译为「I can hardly express what else I should say」
🔥重点词汇
undertaking     n. (重大或艰巨的)任务,项目,事业;企业
英义
a task or project, especially one that is important and/or difficult
例句
He is interested in buying the club as a commercial undertaking. 
他有意购买那个俱乐部作为投资。
 
condescend     v. 屈尊;俯就
英义
to do sth that you think it is below your social or professional position to do
例句
We had to wait almost an hour before he condescended to see us. 
我们等了几乎一小时他才屈尊大驾来见我们。
 
owe      v. 欠(情)
英义
to feel that you ought to do sth for sb or give them sth, especially because they have done sth for you
例句
You owe me a favour! 
你还欠我个人情哪!
 
juncture      n.特定时刻;关头
英义
a particular point or stage in an activity or a series of events
例句
The battle had reached a crucial juncture. 
战斗已到了关键时刻。
🔥重点表达
建议做某事It is advisable that…
不宜做某事It is injudicious that…
性情如何by nature
叹息heave a sigh
为…牺牲生命lay down one’s life
苟全性命manage to survive
乱世times of turbulence
铲除root out
🔥表达对比
紧要关头有几种表达?
此诚(危急存亡之秋)也。
This is a critical juncture of life or death for our country.
 
后值倾覆,受任于败军之际,奉命于(危难之间),尔来二十有一年矣。
Soon afterwards we suffered a military defeat. Twenty-one years have passed since I received my assignment at the time of the setback and was dispatched as an envoy at the moment of crisis.
 
这个公司显然正处于(紧要关头)。
The company was clearly at a crossroads. 
 
他们俩都知道(紧要关头)到了。
Both men knew the moment of truth had arrived. 

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 诸葛亮《前出师表》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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