陶渊明《桃花源记》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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桃花源记

陶渊明
A Tale of the Fountain of the Peach Blossom Spring
Tao Yuanming
《桃花源记》是东晋文学家陶渊明的代表作之一,是《桃花源诗》的序言,选自《陶渊明集》。此文借武陵渔人行踪这一线索,把现实和理想境界联系起来,通过对桃花源的安宁和乐、自由平等生活的描绘,表现了作者追求美好生活的理想和对当时的现实生活不满。

 
晋太元中,武陵人捕鱼为业;缘溪行,忘路之远近。忽逢桃花林,
In the year of Taiyuan of the Jin Dynasty, there lived a man in Wuling Prefecture who earned his living by fishing. One day, he rowed his boat along a stream, unaware of how far he had gone when all of a sudden, he found himself in the midst of a wood full of peach trees in blossom.
🎈「prefecture」 释义为「an area of local government in some countries, for example France, Italy and Japan (法、意、日等国的)地方行政区域;省;县」
🎈以…为生earn one’s living by…
🎈「缘溪行」意为「顺着溪水行船」,要补出 「行船」这个动词,译作「rowed his boat」
🎈「find oneself」这个短语常表示一个并非自己主动选择的动作,这里是体现文中之人不知何故到了此地。

 

夹岸数百步,中无杂树,芳草鲜美,落英缤纷,渔人甚异之,复前行,欲穷其林。
The wood extended several hundred foot-steps along both banks of the stream. There were no trees of other kinds. The fragrant grass was fresh and beautiful and peach petals fell in riotous profusion. The fisherman was so curious that he rowed on, in hope of discovering where the trees ended.
🎈译文将「忽逢桃花林,夹岸数百步」这两小句断开来,实际上「夹岸数百步」的主语仍是「桃花林」。这句是在说「桃花林」的面积,动词用了「extend」一词,同义词还有「cover」
🎈「落英」意即「落花」,结合前文,不难知道这里的花就是指桃花,所以这里的「落英」就是桃花花瓣,译作「peach petals」
🎈「渔人甚异之,复前行」两小句暗含因果关系,译文中用「so…that…」来体现。
🎈「欲穷其林」译作了「in hope of discovering where the trees ended」,介词短语做目的状语,使得句式层次清晰。

 

林尽其源,便得一山,山有小口,仿佛若有光,便舍船,从口入。
At the end of the wood was the fountainhead of the stream. The fishermen beheld a hill, with a small opening from which issued a glimmer of light. He stepped ashore to explore the crevice.
🎈这几个句短小精悍,都没有主语,是中文中的流水句。译文在「便得一山」处断句,补出了「人」做主语,符合英语的表达习惯。
🎈「behold」释义为「to look at or see sb/sth 看;看见」,例句如下:
They beheld a bright star shining in the sky. 
他们看到了一颗明亮的星在天空中闪闪发光。
 

初极狭,才通人。
His first steps took him into a passage that accommodated only the width of one person.
🎈「初极狭」的逻辑主语是「洞口」,这一句译为了「a passage that accommodated only the width of one person」,通过一个定语从句体现出了这种逻辑关系。
🎈「accommodate」释义为「to provide enough space for sb/sth 容纳;为…提供空间」
例句
Over 70 minutes of music can be accommodated on one CD. 
一张激光唱片可以容纳70多分钟的音乐。

 

复行数十步,豁然开朗。
After he progressed about scores of paces, it suddenly widened into an open field.
🎈「豁然开朗」是指眼前的景象令人感到豁然开朗,结合具体的语境就是「到达了一块开阔的土地」,译作「it suddenly widened into an open field」 

 

土地平旷,屋舍俨然,有良田、美池、桑竹之属。阡陌交通,鸡犬相闻。
The land was flat and spacious. There were houses arranged in good order with fertile fields, beautiful ponds, bamboo groves, mulberry trees and paths crisscrossing the fields in all directions. The crowing of cocks and the barking of dogs were within hearing of each other.
🎈「属」:类。
🎈「阡陌交通」:田间小路交错相通。阡陌,田间小路,南北走向的叫阡,东西走向的叫陌。交通,交错相通。译作「paths crisscrossing the fields in all directions」
🎈「鸡犬相闻」是指鸡鸣狗吠到处可以听到,要注意的是对原文进行具体化,指明是这二者的叫声,译作了「the crowing of cocks and the barking of dogs」。除此之外还要注意的是这些叫声是被「人」听到,所以动词要用被动语态。

 

其中往来种作,男女衣着,悉如外人。
In the fields the villagers were busy with farm work. Men and women were dressed like people outside.
🎈「往来种作」是指「(人们)来来往往(忙于)耕作」,选用了「be busy with」这个词组。「farm work」农活,耕作。

黄发垂髫,并怡然自乐。
They all, old and young, appeared happy.
🎈「黄发垂髫:老人和小孩。黄发,旧说是长寿的象征,用以指老人。垂髫,垂下来的头发,用来指小孩子。」这里用「old and young」两个形容词做了状语,后置。

 

见渔人,乃大惊,问所从来。具答之。
They were surprised at seeing the fisherman, who, being asked where he came from, answered their every question.
🎈这句话中要注意的还是主语的问题。「见渔人,乃大惊,问所从来」的主语都是桃花源里的人,而「具答之」的主语是 「渔人」。因为两句话中能够都涉及到了「渔人」,所以这句话在开头补出了「they(村民)」做主语,又通过以「fishermen」做先行词的定语从句将几个小句衔接起来,流畅自然。

 

便要还家,设酒杀鸡作食。
Then they invited him to visit their homes, killed chickens, and served wine to entertain him.
🎈「要」:通「邀」,邀请。译作「invite」
🎈「设酒杀鸡作食」意思是「拿出酒饭来款待(渔人)」,其中「款待」译作了「entertain sb」。「entertain」释义为「to invite people to eat or drink with you as your guests, especially in your home (尤指在自己家中)招待,款待」
例句
Michael left his sickbed to entertain his house guests. 
迈克尔走下病床去招待客人。

 

村中闻有其人,咸来问讯。
As the words of his arrival spread, the entire village turned out to greet him.
🎈「村中闻有其人」是「咸来问讯」的原因,译文将前半句处理为as引导的原因状语,译为「as the words of his arrival spread」转换了角度,将原文的「村里人听闻了这件事」转换为「消息传开来」,用「words」这一物称作主语,符合英语的表达习惯。
🎈「问讯」:询问消息,打听消息。这里结合具体语境,就是「打招呼」之意,译作「greet」

 

自云先世避秦时乱,率妻子邑人来此绝境,不复出焉,遂与外人相隔。
They told him that their ancestors had come to this isolated haven, bringing their families and the village people, to escape the turmoil during the Qin Dynasty and that from then onwards, they had been cut off from the outside world.
🎈「先世」意即「祖先」,「前辈」,译作「ancestors」,还可译作「forefathers」
🎈「妻子」:指妻室子女,「妻」「子」是两个词。妻:指男子配偶。子:指子女。「邑人」:同乡(县)的人。译作了「their families and the village people」
🎈动乱turmoil
🎈「遂与外人相隔」译作了「they had been cut off from the outside world」化中文中的主动为英文中的被动,是常见的汉英翻译方法。

 

问今是何世,乃不知有汉,无论魏晋。
They were curious to know what dynasty it was now. They did not know the Han Dynasty, not to mention the Wei and the Jin dynasties.
🎈更不用说,更不用提not to mention

 

此人一一为具言所闻,皆叹惋。
The fisherman told them all the things they wanted to know. They sighed.
🎈原文只有一句话,但是原文的两个小句包含不同的主语,所以译文进行断句,分别补出了两个小句的主语,前一句为「the fisherman」,后一句为「they」(村民)

 

余人各复延至其家,皆出酒食。
The villagers offered him one hospitality after another. They entertained him with wine and delicious food.
🎈「延」为「邀请」之意,译作「offer him hospitality」,其中「hospitality」释义为
「friendly and generous behaviour towards guests 好客;殷勤」
例句
Thank you for your kind hospitality. 
感谢你的友好款待。

 

停数日,辞去。
After several days, the fisherman took his leave.
🎈离开take one’s leave

 

此中人语云:「不足为外人道也。」
The village people entreated him not to let others know of their existence.
🎈「语」为「告诉」之意,译作了「entreat」,这个词的释义为「to ask sb to do sth in a serious and often emotional way 恳求;乞求」
例句
She entreated him not to go. 
她恳求他不要走。
 

既出,得其船,便扶向路,处处志之。
Once out, the fisherman found his boat and rowed homeward, leaving marks all the way.
🎈「便扶向路」意为「就顺着来时的路回去」,译作「rowed homeward」,十分简洁。
🎈这句话原文有多个动词,符合汉语的表达习惯,但是英文中涉及多个动词时会采取不同的结构(例如分词短语、介词短语等)来突出主次关系。在这句话中,「处处志之」译作了「leaving marks all the way」,用分词短语做做了伴随状语。

 

及郡下,诣太守,说如此。太守即遣人随其往,
When he came back to the prefecture, he reported his adventure to the prefect, who immediately sent people to find the place, with the fisherman as guide. 
🎈太守prefect
🎈「如此」在这里指的就是渔人在桃花源的奇妙经历,要在译文中进行具体化,译作「his adventure」,否则会造成读者理解困难。

 
寻向所志,遂迷,不复得路。
However, the marks he had left could no longer be found. They got lost and could not find the way.
🎈这里是有转折关系的,原文中虽未明说,但是英文中要体现出来。
🎈「寻向所志,遂迷」是说这些人按照渔人的标记前去寻找,但是渔人的标记已找不到了,所以人们才会迷路。「渔人的标记已找不到了」这一隐含信息要在译文中体现出来,否则就会语义不通,造成理解困难。

 

南阳刘子骥,高尚土也。闻之,欣然规往。
Liu Ziji of Nanyang Prefecture, a learned scholar of high repute, was excited when hearing the fisherman’s story.
🎈学者/文人learned scholar

未果,寻病终。后遂无问津者。
He devised a plan to find the village, but it was not carried out. Liu died soon afterwards, and after his death, no one else made any attempt to find it.
🎈「未果」要结合前文来翻译,是指他制定的计划未能实现,所以译文将上一句「欣然规往」中的「规」移到了此处,译作了「He devised a plan to find the village, but it was not carried out」,若不这样安排,容易出现指代不明。
🎈「carry out」有三层意思:
(1)to bring to a successful issue贯彻
(2)to put into execution执行,实行
(3)to continue to an end or stopping point实现,完成
🔥重点词汇
prefecture       n.(法、意、日等国的)地方行政区域;省;县
英义
an area of local government in some countries, for example France, Italy and Japan 
例句
He was born in Yamagata prefecture, north of Tokyo. 
他出生于东京以北的山形县。
 
behold    v. 看;看见
英义
to look at or see sb/sth 
例句
They beheld a bright star shining in the sky. 
他们看到了一颗明亮的星在天空中闪闪发光。
 
accommodate      v. 容纳;为…提供空间
英义
to provide enough space for sb/sth
例句
Over 70 minutes of music can be accommodated on one CD. 
一张激光唱片可以容纳70多分钟的音乐。
 
entertain      v. (尤指在自己家中)招待,款待
英义
to invite people to eat or drink with you as your guests, especially in your home
例句
Michael left his sickbed to entertain his house guests. 
迈克尔走下病床去招待客人。
 
hospitality      n. 好客;殷勤
英义
friendly and generous behaviour towards guests
例句
Thank you for your kind hospitality.
感谢您的热情款待。
 
entreat       v.恳求;乞求
英义
( formal ) to ask sb to do sth in a serious and often emotional way 
例句
She entreated him not to go. 
她恳求他不要走。
🔥重点表达
鸡鸣狗吠the crowing of cocks and the barking of dogs
忙于…be busy with
农活,耕作farm work
离开take one’s leave
太守prefect
努力做某事,尝试做某事made any attempts to 
carry out:
(1)贯彻
(2)执行,实行
(3)实现,完成
与世隔绝been cut off from the outside world 
🔥表达对比
动乱/动荡有几种表达方式?
 
1. 自云先世避秦时(乱),率妻子邑人来此绝境,不复出焉,遂与外人相隔。
They told him that their ancestors had come to this isolated haven, bringing their families and the village people, to escape the turmoil during the Qin Dynasty and that from then onwards, they had been cut off from the outside world.
 
2. 臣本布衣,躬耕于南阳,苟全性命于(乱世),不求闻达于诸侯。
I was originally a commoner who had to wear clothes made of hemp, and tilled land in Nanyang. I merely managed to survive in times of turbulence and had no intention of seeking fame and position from princes.
 
3. 对于(经济动荡),爱荷华州得梅因的市民并不陌生。
The people of Des Moines, Iowa, are no strangers to economic upheaval.
 
4. 然而,这种做法可能需要付出很高的代价:比如,失业率升高、不良贷款增加、企业亏损,甚至可能引发(社会动荡)。 
However, such an approach may come with significant costs: for example, rising unemployment, rising non-performing loans, loss-making firms, and maybe even social unrest.

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 陶渊明《桃花源记》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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