柳宗元《愚溪诗序》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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愚溪诗序

柳宗元

Prologue to the Foolish Creek Poem

Liu Zongyuan

 

《愚溪诗序》是柳宗元为他的《八愚诗》所写的序。《八愚诗》是柳宗元被贬到永州以后,为了排遣他淤积在心中的愤懑不平而写的一组寄情于山水的诗。《八愚诗》已经亡佚。一般说来,序有两种,一种是书序,一种是别序。书序一般用来陈述著作者的旨趣,多放在篇首;别序一般用来为朋友赠别。《愚溪诗序》是书序,是柳宗元陈述他写作《八愚诗》的旨趣的。

 

灌水之阳有溪焉,东流入于潇水。

There is a creek to the north of the Guan River. It flows eastward into the Xiao River.

🎈「creek」释义为「a small river or stream」,指的是小河;小溪。

🎈方位介词in/on/to的区别:

①to表示一个地方在另一个地方的范围之外

②on表示相邻或接壤

③in表示一个地方在另一个地方的范围之内


 

或曰:冉氏尝居也,故姓是溪为冉溪。

It is said that a Ran family once lived there so that the creek was named after the family and was called the Ran Creek.

🎈命名为/被叫做be named after/be called


 

或曰:可以染也,名之以其能,故谓之染溪。

It is also said that the water of the creek could be used to dye cloth so that it was also called the Dye Creek due to its function.

🎈结构分析:因为溪水可以用于染色,所以得名染溪,这个名字是由其功能而来。逻辑关系有两处:…so that…和due to。

🎈「可以染也」是指溪水可以用于染色,这个主语要明确补出来「the water of the creek」


 

予以愚触罪,谪潇水上。

I was punished for being foolish and was exiled to the Xiao River.

🎈「谪潇水上」意思是「被贬到潇水」,被贬官译作「be exiled to」


 

爱是溪,入二三里,得其尤绝者家焉。

I liked the creek. Walking two or three li along it, I came to a place with extremely beautiful scenery. I took my abode there.

🎈文言词汇:「尤绝」:更好的,指风景极佳美的。「家」:居住。

🎈「尤绝者」指的是「绝佳的风景」,extremely beautiful scenery。

🎈「abode」是住所的意思,「took my abode there」就是定居在那里。


 

古有愚公谷,今余家是溪,而名莫能定,

In ancient times there was a Foolish Old Man Valley. When I settled down by the creek, its name was still in dispute.

🎈「家」在这里还是个动词,是「居住」、「定居」之意,译作「settled down」,与上文的「took my abode」属变换说法。

🎈「名莫能定」就是「名字尚未确定下来」,就是「仍有争议」,译作「be in dispute」


 

士之居者,犹龂龂然,不可以不更也,故更之为愚溪。

The local people were bogged down in endless argument. Since the name had to be changed, I called it the Foolish Creek.

🎈文言词汇:「龂龂然」:争辩的样子。

🎈「be bogged down」是陷入困境之意,结合原文「龂龂然」和「不可以不更也」足见这个名字给人们带来了困扰,所以这里属于增词不增义。


 

愚溪之上,买小丘,为愚丘。

Overlooking the creek is a hillock, which I bought and named the Foolish Hillock.

🎈结构分析:愚溪之上,有一个小丘,我买下了这个小丘,命名为愚丘。


 

自愚丘东北行六十步,得泉焉,又买居之,为愚泉。

Walking sixty paces northeast from the Foolish Hillock I found a spring. I bought it too and named it the Foolish Spring.

🎈「自愚丘东北行六十步」译作「walking sixty paces northeast from the Foolish Hillock」,分词短语状语,逻辑主语与主句相同。


 

愚泉凡六穴,皆出山下平地,盖上出也。

The spring has six mouths, and they are all on the ground at the foot of the hillock. The water gushing upwards from the six mouths converges into a stream.

🎈「穴」指的是「泉眼」,译作了「mouth」

🎈「盖上出也」意思是「泉水都是往上涌出的」,「涌」这个动词译作「gush」释义为「to flow or pour suddenly and quickly out of a hole in large amounts (从…中)喷出,涌出,冒出」,注意积累。

🎈「converges into a stream」是下一句的内容,此处进行了语序调整,避免下一句有多个动词。


 

合流屈曲而南,为愚沟。

It flows southward tortuously and I named it the Foolish Gully.

🎈「tortuously」是「弯曲地」之意。


 

遂负土累石,塞其隘,为愚池。

Then I had soil carried there and stones piled up to block the outlet. A pond was formed and I named it the Foolish Pond.

🎈「塞其隘」意思是「堵住狭窄的泉水通道」,译作「block the outlet」

🎈「愚池」不是本来存在的,而是「我」认为建造出来的,所以要用被动语态,译作「a pond was formed」


 

愚池之东为愚堂。其南为愚亭。

To its east is the Foolish Hall and to its south is the Foolish Pavilion.

🎈在东/西/南/北面介词要用to。


 

池之中为愚岛。

In the middle of the pond is the Foolish Isle.

🎈地点介词短语放句首要用倒装。


 

嘉木异石错置,皆山水之奇者,以予故,咸以愚辱焉。

Beautiful trees and strange rocks scatter about in graceful disorder. All these contribute to the beauty of the landscape, but they are being humiliated by such an abusive epithet for my sake.

🎈「错置」译作「scatter about in graceful disorder」,是「参差错落」之意,注意表达积累。

🎈「咸以愚辱焉」意思是「因为我的缘故都用愚字玷污了它们」,结合语境也就是说「我」给它们取的名字中都带有「愚」字,因而玷污了它们。「epithet」释义为「an offensive word or phrase that is used about a person or group of people别称;绰号;诨名」

 


夫水,智者乐也。

Water is liked by all wise men.

🎈「乐」:喜爱,爱好。「水」与「智者」的关系是「被喜爱」,被动关系要译出。


 

今是溪独见辱于愚,何哉?

But why does the creek here suffer humiliation by being called 「foolish”?

🎈「见辱于愚」意思是「被愚字辱没」,这里要注意的有两点,一是被动语态,而是对「愚」字的具体化,它们被以「愚」命名。


 

盖其流甚下,不可以溉灌。又峻急多坻石,大舟不可入也。

It is because its water level is very low and cannot be used to irrigate farmland; its current is rapid and there are many shoals and rocks which make navigation of large ships impossible;

🎈「峻急多坻石」意思是「险峻湍急,有很多浅滩和石头」,其中「浅滩」译作「shoal」

🎈「大舟不可入」意思就是大船无法通行,翻译时进行词性转换,「入」字由动词译作名词,译作「navigation of large ships」


 

幽邃浅狭,蛟龙不屑,不能兴云雨,无以利世,

and it is so dark, long, narrow, and shallow that a dragon would disdain to live here to do good things for the benefit of the people by summoning wind and rain with its magic powers.

🎈「蛟龙不屑,不能兴云雨,无以利世」三个小句间是有逻辑关系的,蛟龙不屑于停留于此地,造福于于人民,而蛟龙造福人民的方式是通过其神力来呼风唤雨。这几层逻辑关系分别处理做了不同的介词词组,使得译文层次清晰,结构分明。


 

而适类于予,然则虽辱而愚之,可也。

Hence this creek and I are very much alike. It is all right to humiliate it by calling it 「foolish”.

🎈「而适类于予」意思是「像我一样」,译作了「this creek and I are very much alike」,前面增加了衔接词hence,表因果关系。


 

宁武子「邦无道则愚」,智而为愚者也;

Ningwutse was a wise man, but he pretended to be foolish when there was no justice in the country.

🎈宁武子的典故:宁武子是春秋时卫国大夫宁俞,「武」是谥号。此句语出《论语•公冶长》:子曰:「宁武子,邦有道则智,邦无道则愚。其智可及也,其愚不可及也。」意谓宁武子乃佯愚,并非真愚。

🎈「邦无道」意思是「国家动荡不安」,译作「there was no justice in the country」

🎈「智」与「愚」的关系是智者假装愚蠢,pretend要译出。


 

颜子「终日不违如愚」,睿而为愚者也。

Yantse, like a foolish man, did not say a word contrary to the views of Confucius through the day. He was also a wise man pretending to be foolish.

🎈颜子的典故:颜回,字子渊,孔子学生。此句语出《论语•为政》:子曰:「吾与回言终日,不违如愚。退而省其私,亦足以发,回也不愚。」意谓颜回听孔子讲学,从不提不同看法,好象很愚笨。但考察他私下的言行,发现他不但懂得孔子的话,而且还有所发挥,可见他不愚。

🎈「不违」是指「不提与老师不同的见解」,这里吧具体的内容译出,否则读者会无法理解。


 

皆不得为真愚。

Neither of them was genuinely foolish.

🎈「真愚」翻译时进行了词性转换,「愚」译作形容词,相应地「真」译作了修饰其的副词,这样翻译更符合英语的表达习惯。


 

今余遭有道而违于理,悖于事,故凡为愚者,莫我若也。

Now there is justice in the country, but I am doing things against reason. I am the greatest fool of all fools.

🎈「有道」意思就是「政治清明」,译作「there is justice in the country」

🎈「违于理」和「悖于事」同义,意思就是「做出有违事理的事」,译作「doing things against reason」

🎈「凡为愚者,莫我若也」在原文中是个比较级,用「我」和「所有的愚者」作比较,其实表达的是最高级的含义,译文中要用形容词最高级。


 

夫然,则天下莫能争是溪,余得专而名焉。

Therefore, no one in the world would contend with me for this creek, and I have the right to call it the Foolish Creek.

🎈文言词汇:「争」:与…相争。「专」:专利,权利。

🎈contend with sb for sth竞争,争夺。

 


溪虽莫利于世,而善鉴万类,

Though the creek cannot be of any good to the people, it can mirror all varieties of things.

🎈「利世」也就是世人获益,译作「be of good to the people」,与上文的「to do good things for the benefit of the people」属变换说法。获益还可译作profit by/benefit。

🎈「鉴」:照,这里用了「mirror」这个动词,释义为「to show the image of sb/sth on the surface of water, glass, etc. 映照;反射」,生动形象,注意积累。


 

清莹秀澈,锵鸣金石,能使愚者喜笑眷慕,乐而不能去也。

It is crystal clear and the flowing water gives out a metallic sound. It makes foolish men brim with smiles and they feel attached to it and loathe leaving it.

🎈「metallic」意思是「金属般的,有金属声音的」

🎈「brim with smiles」意思是笑容满面,注意表达积累。

🎈「眷慕」就是心生依恋之情之意,译作「feel attached to」


 

予虽不合于俗,亦颇以文墨自慰,

Though I am at odds with the trend of the world, I somehow find comfort in writing.

🎈be at odds with与…不和/与…有差异

🎈「文墨」意即「写文章」,译作「writing」


 

漱涤万物,牢笼百态,而无所避之。

With my writing brush I cleanse all things on the earth and describe them in all their disguises without evading anything.

🎈文言词汇:「漱涤」:洗涤。「牢笼」:包罗,概括。

🎈「无所避之」中不被避开的东西是各种各样的伪装,翻译时对译文进行这样的具体化会给译文增色。


 

以愚辞歌愚溪,则茫然而不违,

I am singing the praises of the Foolish Creek with foolish words. I am feeling all blank, without knowing that I am doing things against reason.

🎈「feeling blank」是大脑空白之意。

🎈「不违」译作了一个介词短语,表伴随。


 

昏然而同归,超鸿蒙,混希夷,寂寥而莫我知也。

In a daze I arrive at the same end as the Creek. There I transcend the vulgar conventional world and melt into the chaos, the primeval state of the universe, where no one knows me.

🎈恍恍惚惚中in a daze

🎈「超鸿蒙」:指超越天地尘世。鸿蒙,指宇宙形成以前的混沌状态。译作了「the vulgar conventional world」

🎈「混希夷」:指与自然混同,物我不分。希夷:虚寂玄妙的境界。语出《老子》:「视之不见名曰夷,听之不闻名曰希,搏之不得名曰微。此三者,不可致诘,故混而为一。」这是道家所指的一种形神俱忘、空虚无我的境界。

🎈「混希夷,寂寥而莫我知也」结构分析:与原始宇宙这一混乱世界融为一体,在这个宇宙中没人知晓我。其中「原始宇宙」译作了「the primeval state of the universe」,做「chaos」的同位语,「在这个宇宙中没人知晓我」译作了where引导的定语从句。


 

于是作《八愚诗》,记于溪石上。

Therefore, I write a poem “In Praise of the Eight Foolish Things” and have it inscribed on a tablet by the Foolish Creek.

🎈「tablet」是碑石之意,碑石的位置是在溪边,介词用by。

🔥重点词汇

exile     v.流放;放逐

英义

to force sb to leave their country, especially for political reasons or as a punishment; to send sb into exile

例句

They threatened to exile her in southern Spain.

他们威胁要把她放逐到西班牙南部。

 

abode    n.住所;家

英义

( formal or humorous ) the place where sb lives

例句

Thirty percent of psychiatric hospital beds are occupied by people of no fixed abode.

精神病院百分之三十的床位被无固定住所的人所占用。

 

gush     v.(从…中)喷出,涌出,冒出

英义

to flow or pour suddenly and quickly out of a hole in large amounts

例句

In a moment more, the crowd began to gush forth from the doors of the church.

过了一会儿,人群便开始从教堂的大门蜂拥而出。

 

epithet      n.别称;绰号;诨名

英义

an offensive word or phrase that is used about a person or group of people

例句

Racial epithets were scrawled on the walls.

墙上涂写着一些带有种族歧视的称谓。

 

mirror      v.映照;反射

英义

to show the image of sb/sth on the surface of water, glass, etc.

例句

She saw herself mirrored in the window.

她看到自己在窗玻璃上照出的影像。

 

cleanse      v. 使免除(罪过);使净化

英义

to take away sb’s guilty feelings or sin

例句

Christ was a Divine Being who had sacrificed his life to cleanse the world of sin.

基督是神,牺牲了他的生命清洗世人的罪。

 

primeval       adj. 远古的;原始的

英义

from the earliest period of the history of the world, very ancient

例句

The railway cuts through a primeval forest.

铁路穿越原始森林。

🔥重点表达

命名为/被叫做be named after/be called

被贬官be exiled to

有争议be in dispute

竞争,争夺contend with sb for sth

获益profit by/benefit

笑容满面brim with smiles

眷恋feel attached to

与…不和/与…有差异be at odds with

🔥表达对比

笑容满面/面带笑容有几种表达方式?

 

1.清莹秀澈,锵鸣金石,能使愚者(喜笑)眷慕,乐而不能去也。

It is crystal clear and the flowing water gives out a metallic sound. It makes foolish men brim with smiles and they feel attached to it and loathe leaving it.

 

2.这个爆炸性新闻的历史不那么复杂,封面上是一张老照片,笑容满面的詹妮弗•安妮斯顿和布拉德•皮特注视着读者,上方的黑体标题是:「我们要有女儿了!」

It was a blast from a less complicated past, with its vintage photograph of a beaming Jennifer Aniston and Brad Pitt staring out at readers from above the bold headline: 「We’re Having a Girl!」

 

3.冰心《记萨镇冰先生》

我们走了出去,果然看见他穿着青呢袍,(笑容满面)的站在门口。

As soon as we stepped out, we saw him already standing at the gate as expected. Dressed in a black woollen gown, he was all smiles.

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 柳宗元《愚溪诗序》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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