柳宗元《小石城山记》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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小石城山记

柳宗元
The Mountain of the Little Rock City
Liu Zongyuan
 
柳宗元因参加王叔文革新运动,于唐宪宗元和元年(807年)被贬到永州担任司马。到永州后,其母病故,王叔文被处死,他自己也不断受到统治者的诽谤和攻击,心情压抑。永州山水幽奇雄险,许多地方还鲜为人知。柳宗元在这漫长的戴罪期间,便到处游览,搜奇探胜,借以开拓胸襟,得到精神上的慰藉。《永州八记》就是这种心态之下的游历结晶,此文是其中的最后一篇,作于元和七年(812年)。

 
自西山道口径北,逾黄茅岭而下,有二道:
Heading directly northward from the mountain pass at the western mountain and going downhill after crossing Huangmao Hill, you will come to two mountain paths. 
🎈山口mountain pass
🎈「有二道」意思是「有两条路」,译作「two mountain paths」
🎈原文中没有主语,译文中用「you」做了主语,前面的分词结构作状语,两个分词结构的逻辑主语都是「you」

 

其一西出,寻之无所得;其一少北而东,不过四十丈,土断而川分,有积石横当其垠。
One path leads westward and there is not much to see. The other path turns a little northward and then eastward, but forty zhang further, the path ends, as it is cut into halves by a river. Standing along the bank of the river is a hill of rocks.
🎈文言词汇:「少北而东」:稍向北又向东去。「少」,通「稍」。「土断而川分」:土路中断,出现分流的河水。「横当其垠」:横着挡在路的尽头。
🎈「土断而川分」意思是「这条路被水流切断」,这句话以「the other path」作主语,先讲「这条路断了,」再将「川分」处理做了as引导的原因状语,层次清晰。
🎈切成两半cut into halves

其上为睥睨梁欐之形,其旁出堡坞,有若门焉。
On it some rocks are piled like the parapets of a city wall, and some like beams. Beside them protrudes a rock in the shape of a fort, on which there is a door-like cave.
🎈文言词汇:「睥睨」:城墙上如齿状的矮墙。「梁欐」:栋梁,这里指架支着的梁栋。「欐」,栋,正梁。「堡坞」:小城堡,此处是指由山石天然形成的。
🎈「其上为睥睨梁欐之形」翻译这句话时要增译动词,译文选用了「pile」一词,意为「石头堆积成…的形状」
🎈「parapet」释义为「a low wall along the edge of a bridge, a roof, etc. to stop people from falling 防护矮墙」
🎈「有若门焉」意思是「有一个像门的洞」,门洞与堡坞是有位置关系的,译文中要体现出来。
🎈呈…形状in the shape of

 

窥之正黑,投以小石,洞然有水声,其响之激越,良久乃已。
The cave is dark inside, and should you throw a stone into it, you will clearly hear a 「dong, dong」 sound, which reverberates for a long while.
🎈文言词汇:「洞然」:深深的样子。「激越」:声音高亢清远。
🎈「窥之正黑」意思是「从洞往里看去一片漆黑」,这句话的重点信息在于「黑」,「窥」这个动词不是重点信息,译文转换角度,以「the cave」作主语,将这一小句译作「The cave is dark inside」
🎈「should you throw a stone into it」是个倒装句,用法如下:
在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有were, had, should等词,可将if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。
🎈「reverberate」释义为「to be repeated several times as it is reflected off different surfaces 回响;回荡」,例句如下:
Her voice reverberated around the hall. 
她的声音在大厅里回荡。

 

环之可上。望甚远。
Go up round the fort, and you can reach the hill-top, where you can see into the distance.
🎈「环之可上」意思是「沿着石山,可以绕到山顶」
🎈「望甚远」是指「站在山顶可以望得很远」,与前一小句有逻辑关系,译文用「where」做关系副词引导定语从句,体现了这一关系。定语从句在翻译衔接中的运用非常广泛,要有这样的意识。

 

无土壤而生嘉树美箭,益奇而坚。
There is no soil, but this makes the beautiful tees and arrow bamboos growing on it look all the more unusual and sturdy.
🎈箭:指竹子。
🎈「无土壤」与「奇而坚」之间形成对比,译文用「but」来体现这一关系。
🎈「sturdy」释义为「strong and not easily damaged 结实的;坚固的」,例句如下:
The leather is supple and sturdy enough to last for years. 
这种皮革质地柔软结实,足以用上好多年。

 

其疏数偃仰,类智者所施设也。
They are well spaced and their heights vary in an appropriate way as if their placement were designed by a clever man.
🎈这句话意为「那些嘉树美箭,疏密相宜,起伏有致,好像是聪明人精心设置的」。「数」,密。「堰」,倒伏。「类」:好像。
🎈「疏数」是在空间上进行描述,「偃仰」是在高度上进行描述,翻译时要进行具体化。
🍒「类智者所施设」有被动语态,翻译的时候要译出。

噫!吾疑造物者之有无久矣。
Ah! I have long been skeptical about the existence of God.
🎈「造物者」:指创世上帝。
🎈「疑造物者之有无久」是说怀疑造物者是否存在,「有无」只需要译出「有/存在」之意即可。
🎈怀疑…be skeptical about

及是,愈以为诚有。
Now I cannot help but believe that there is a God.
🎈文言词汇:「愈」:更是。「诚」:确实是,的确是。
🎈「愈以为诚有」译作了「cannot help but believe that…」,正说反译,体现出原文的强调语气。「cannot help but」不得不。

 

又怪其不为之中州,而列是夷狄。更千百年不得一售其伎,是固劳而无用。
But I am puzzled as to why God did not set this beautiful scenery in the prosperous midland, choosing instead this remote secluded place where its beauty has been concealed from human appraisal for thousands of years and wasted.
🎈文言词汇:「中州」,中原地区。「售其伎」,贡献其技艺,其技艺得到赏识。「伎」,通「技」。「售」,出售,这里是显露的意思。
🎈原文无主语,翻译时要补出,「又怪…」是说「我感到奇怪」,故主语为「I」
🎈「我」感到奇怪是因为中原地区人多繁华,而蛮夷之地偏僻荒凉,提到这两个地点中国人都会明白是什么意思,但是英文读者不了解这些就会觉得疑惑,所以翻译时要译出这些信息,将「中原」和「夷狄」分别译作了「prosperous midland」和「remote secluded place」
🎈(被)隐藏be concealed from

 

神者傥不宜如是,则其果无乎?
God would not have done such a silly thing. Is there a God then?
🎈文言词汇:「傥」,通「倘」,倘若。「不宜」,不合适。如是,如此,指「不为之中州,而列是夷狄」的现象。「果」,真的。
🎈「不宜如是」翻译时要进行具体化,也就是「不会有这样的不明智之举」,译作「done such a silly thing」

 

或曰:「以慰夫贤而辱于此者。」
Some would say, 「God did this in order to comfort those virtuous people who are exiled here.”
🎈would在这里表推测。
🎈「辱于此」是说「被贬逐在此地的贤人」,被贬逐译作「be exiled」

或曰:「其气之灵,不为伟人,而独为是物,
Others say, 「The spirit of ingenuity did not breed great men, but created this scenery of peculiar charm instead.
🎈「不为伟人」意思是「不孕育伟人」,孕育译作了「breed」
🎈「是物」指的就是这里的胜景,译作「this scenery of peculiar charm」

 

故楚之南少人而多石。」
This is why in the south of the Kingdom of Chu there is a scarcity of virtuous and talented men but an abundance of rocks.”
🎈贤才virtuous and talented men,「贤」指的是道德和才能两个方面,这个词在古文翻译中非常常见,注意表达积累。
🎈少量a scarcity of
🎈大量an abundance of

 

是二者,余未信之。
I doubt the truth in either of these sayings.
🎈「余未信之」反说正译,译作「doubt the truth」,其中「truth」是「真实性」之意。
🔥重点词汇
reverberate     v.回响;回荡
英义
to be repeated several times as it is reflected off different surfaces
例句
Her voice reverberated around the hall. 
她的声音在大厅里回荡。
 
sturdy      adj.结实的;坚固的
英义
strong and not easily damaged
例句
The leather is supple and sturdy enough to last for years. 
这种皮革质地柔软结实,足以用上好多年。
 
appraisal      n.评价;估价;估计;鉴定
英义
a judgement of the value, performance or nature of sb/sth 
例句
He had read many detailed critical appraisals of her work. 
他读了许多详细评论她的作品的文章。
🔥重点表达
山口mountain pass
切成两半cut into halves
呈…形状in the shape of
怀疑…be skeptical about
不得不cannot help but
(被)隐藏be concealed from
被贬逐be exiled
贤才virtuous and talented men
少量a scarcity of
大量an abundance of
🔥表达对比
怀疑有几种表达方式?
1. 噫!吾(疑)造物者之有无久矣。
Ah! I have long been skeptical about the existence of God.
 
2.是二者,余(未信)之。
I doubt the truth in either of these sayings.
 
3.他们用(怀疑)而又惊异的目光,对我自上而下地望了几遍,就同声命令地说:「走吧!」
They eyed me up and down with suspicion and amazement before barking out in chorus, 「Come along!」
 
4.当我想起这个故事的时候,使我对「耳闻不如目见」这句成语不能不有所(怀疑)。
When I think of the story, I cannot help having doubts about the validity of the proverb, 「Seeing is better than hearing.」
 
5.那个男人鬼鬼祟祟的样子,引起警察(怀疑)盗窃案是他作的案。
The man’s furtive manner gave rise to the suspicion of the theft among the policemen. 

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