范仲淹《岳阳楼记》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

朗读这篇文章

岳阳楼记

范仲淹

The Yueyang Tower

Fan Zhongyan

 

《岳阳楼记》是作者应好友巴陵郡太守滕子京之请为重修岳阳楼而创作的一篇散文。这篇文章通过写岳阳楼的景色,以及阴雨和晴朗时带给人的不同感受,揭示了「不以物喜,不以己悲」的古仁人之心,也表达了自己「先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐」的爱国爱民情怀。这篇文章表现作者虽身居江湖,心忧国事,虽遭迫害,仍不放弃理想的顽强意志,同时,也是对被贬战友的鼓励和安慰。


 

庆历四年春,滕子京谪守巴陵郡。

In the spring of the fourth year of Qingli, Teng Zijing was exiled to Baling Prefecture to be the governor there.

🎈被贬官be exiled

🎈刺史prefecture governor


 

越明年,政通人和,百废具兴。

In the second year of his office, because of his excellent administration, people lived in peace and contentment, and all previously neglected matters were taken care of.

🎈「office」在这句话中的释义为「an important position of authority, especially in government; the work and duties connected with this 要职;重要官职;重要职务」,常见的搭配有be in office 任职;take office上台执政;seek/run for office 谋求╱竞选公职。

🎈「人和」和「百废具兴」是滕子京勤于政事的结果,因果关系要译出。

🎈「人们安居乐业」译作「people lived in peace and contentment」,除此之外在《种树郭橐驼传》中也有相关的表达,原文和译文如下:

吾小人辍飧饔以劳吏者,且不得暇,又何以蕃吾生而(安吾性)耶?

We are so busy entertaining him that we don’t even have time for our meals. How can we support a thriving family and (enjoy a peaceful life).


 

乃重修岳阳楼,增其旧制,刻唐贤今人诗赋于其上,

The Yueyang Tower was renovated and enlarged, and inscribed on its walls were the poetry and the rhymed prose of learned men of the Tang and the present dynasties.

🎈文言词汇:「增」:扩大。「制」:规模。

🎈题写/雕刻inscribe


 

属予作文以记之。

I was invited to record this restoration effort in writing.

🎈这句话意思是「嘱托我写一篇文章来记述这件事情」,翻译时转换角度,以「I」做主语,使用被动语态。

🎈「之」指代的是上一句的内容,这里对上文内容进行简要概括,译作了「this restoration effort」,其中「restoration」释义为「the work of repairing and cleaning an old building, a painting, etc. so that its condition is as good as it originally was 整修;修复」

例句

The palace is closed for restoration.

王宫因整修而停止开放。


 

予观夫巴陵胜状,在洞庭一湖。衔远山,吞长江,

The beauty of Baling centers round the Dongting Lake, which holds the mountain ranges in the distance and swallows the water of the Yangtze River.

🎈「衔远山」意思是「连接着远处群山」,译作「holds the mountain ranges in the distance」,其中「山脊」译作「mountain ranges」,「在远处」译作「in the distance」


 

浩浩汤汤,横无际涯;朝晖夕阴,气象万千。

It is so vast and mighty that it seems boundless. Dazzling in the morning sun and fading in the gray evening mist, it offers a myriad of scenes.

🎈文言词汇「朝」:在早晨,名词做状语。「晖」:日光。「气象」:景象。「万千」,千变万化。

🎈朝阳morning sun

🎈暮霭evening mist

🎈大量的a myriad of/ plenty of/ abundant/a great deal of


 

此则岳阳楼之大观也,前人之述备矣。

This is the magnificent view that the Yueyang Tower commands, of which many descriptions have been written.

🎈「command」在这里释义为「to be in a position from where you can see or control sth 居高临下地掌控;俯瞰」,这种用法在之前的古文《永州韦使君新堂记》也出现过,原文和译文如下:

迩延野绿,远混天碧,咸会于谯门之内。

The green fields stretch far into the distance in union with the blue sky. The watchtower of the hall commands a good view of this scenery.在这句话中,「command a good view of」是「…一览无余/尽收眼底」之意。

🎈「备」,详尽,完备。


 

然则北通巫峡,南极潇湘,

This beautiful scenic spot is linked with the Wu Gorge in the north and the Xiao and Xiang rivers in the south.

🎈这句话未出现主语,主语和上句相同,指的是「岳阳楼之大观」,翻译时要补出。


 

迁客骚人,多会于此,览物之情,得无异乎?

Exiled officials and poets often gather here. How could there be no difference in their feelings?

🎈文言词汇:「迁客」,被贬谪流迁的人。「骚人」,诗人。战国时屈原作《离骚》,因此后人也称诗人为骚人。「得无」:恐怕/是不是

🎈被贬官员exiled officials


 

若夫霪雨霏霏,连月不开,阴风怒号,浊浪排空,日星隐曜,山岳潜形;

In the rainy season, an unbroken spell of wet weather lasts for months. Chilly winds howl and turbid waves surge sky high. The sun and the stars lose their luster, and the mountain ranges are scarcely visible.

🎈文言词汇:「淫雨霏霏」:连绵不断的雨。「霏霏」:雨(或雪)繁密的样子。「开」:解除,这里指天气放晴。「排空」,冲向天空。日星隐曜:太阳和星星隐藏起光辉。「曜」:光辉;日光。「岳」,高大的山。「潜」,隐没。

🎈「unbroken」在这里释义为「not interrupted or disturbed in any way 连续的;不间断的」,例句如下:

We’ve had ten days of almost unbroken sunshine.

我们已经有10天几乎完全没有中断过的艳阳天。

🎈雨季rainy season

🎈「山岳潜形」意思是「山岳隐没了形体」,也就是说群山的轮廓难以看到,译文将这句译作「the mountain ranges are scarcely visible」。


 

商旅不行,樯倾楫摧;薄暮冥冥,虎啸猿啼。

Merchants and travelers have to put off their voyage, for the masts of the ships have collapsed and their oars broken. It is dark towards evening, and the roaring of tigers and the cry of monkeys can be heard.

🎈文言词汇:「樯倾楫摧」:桅杆倒下,船桨折断。「樯」,桅杆。「楫」,船桨。「倾」,倒下。「摧」,折断。「薄暮冥冥」:傍晚天色昏暗。「薄」,迫近。「冥冥」:昏暗的样子。

🎈「不行」要进行具体化,是说因为「樯倾楫摧」,商人和旅客不得不推迟自己的行程,译作了「put off their voyage」

🎈桅杆mast;船桨oar


 

登斯楼也,则有去国怀乡,忧谗畏讥,满目萧然,感极而悲者矣。

At such a time anyone ascending the Tower will be filled with nostalgia for the imperial court and his home as well as fears of calumny and derision against him. Around him is a scene of desolation. Emotions well up in him so strongly that he feels pain at heart.

🎈文言词汇:「国」,国都,指京城。「去国」,离开京都,也即离开朝廷。「谗」,谗言。「讥」,批评指责。「萧然」,萧条的样子。「感极」,感慨到了极点。

🎈「登斯楼也」是说「这时登上这座楼」,要译出「at such a time」,这样上下文衔接才会更加自然。

🎈「nostalgia」释义为「a feeling of sadness mixed with pleasure and affection when you think of happy times in the past 怀旧;念旧」,注意表达积累。

🎈朝廷imperial court

🎈「感极而悲者矣」意思是「感慨到了极点而感到悲伤」,译作「Emotions well up in him so strongly that he feels pain at heart」,其中「well」是个动词,释义为「( of an emotion 情感 ) to become stronger 涌起;迸发」

例句

Hate welled up inside him as he thought of the two of them together.

他一想到他们俩在一起就恨得咬牙切齿。


 

至若春和景明,波澜不惊,上下天光,一碧万顷;

In springtime it is warm and the sun is bright. The lake is tranquil and it merges with the azure sky into a vast expanse of blue.

 

🎈与…融为一体merge with

🎈蔚蓝的天空azure sky,「azure」释义为「bright blue in color like the sky 天蓝色的;蔚蓝色的」


 

沙鸥翔集,锦鳞游泳,岸芷汀兰,郁郁青青。

The water-birds are playing, some fluttering in the sky, some gathering together on the sandbars. Fishes of varied hues are swimming merrily in the water. The sweet-smelling grass by the banks and the faintly scented orchids on the sandy beaches are lush and green.

🎈文言词汇:「翔集」:时而飞翔,时而停歇。「集」,栖止,鸟停息在树上。「锦鳞」,指美丽的鱼。「游泳」:或浮或沉。「游」:贴着水面游。「泳」,潜入水里游。「芷」:香草的一种。「汀」:小洲,水边平地。

🎈「flutter」是「振翅/鼓翼」

🎈「faintly scented orchids」香气幽微的兰花

🎈「郁郁」是指「草木茂盛」,译作了「lush」,「青青」是「青翠欲滴」之意,译作「green」


 

而或长烟一空,皓月千里,浮光耀金,静影沉璧;

Sometimes, when the mist over the lake vanishes, the glorious moon shines over the vast land, its brightness glistening with golden light on the lake. The reflection of the moon is like a piece of jade in the depths of the water.

🎈文言词汇:「长」:大片。「一」,全。「空」:消散。「浮光跃金」:波动的光闪着金色。「静影沉璧」:静静的月影像沉入水中的璧玉。这里是写无风时水中的月影。「璧」,圆形正中有孔的玉。

🎈「glisten」是「闪光」之意,注意表达积累。

🎈「静影沉璧」暗含一个比喻,翻译时要把比喻译出,帮助读者理解,译文用「like」将其处理成了明喻,译作了「The reflection of the moon is like a piece of jade in the depths of the water」,其中「静影」指的是月亮在水中的倒影。


 

渔歌互答,此乐何极!

The fishermen’s songs chime in with each other. How delightful they are!

🎈chime in with与…协调一致


 

登斯楼也,则有心旷神怡,宠辱皆忘,

On ascending the Tower at such a time, one will feel a spiritual uplift, caring for neither glory nor shame.

🎈心旷神怡feel a spiritual uplift

🎈「宠辱皆忘」译作「caring for neither glory nor shame」,分词短语做伴随状语。


 

把酒临风,其喜洋洋者矣。

With a cup of wine in the gentle breeze, he will enjoy the greatest happiness in life!

🎈本句有「把」「临」「喜洋洋」三个动词,翻译时要选好主要动词,其他动词处理成介词、分词等次要结构,译文将「把」「临」译成了两个介词结构。

🎈微风gentle breeze


 

嗟夫!予尝求古仁人之心,或异二者之为。何哉?

Ah! I have tried to study the minds of people of lofty ideals in ancient times. Perhaps they were different from the people I mentioned above. Why is this?

🎈文言词汇:「尝」,曾经。「求」,探求。「古仁人」,古时品德高尚的人。「心」,思想感情。

🎈「mind」在这里是「心思」之意,可数名词。

🎈崇高的志向lofty ideals

 


不以物喜,不以已悲。

The reason is that they were not thrown into ecstasies over their success, nor felt depressed over their failures.

🎈这句话是对上文问题的自问自答,解释了「或异二者之为」 ,增译了「the reason is that」来与上文衔接。

🎈这句话是我们耳熟能详而古文名句,可以积累背诵,在翻译考试和写作中都有可能遇到。


 

居庙堂之高,则忧其民;处江湖之远,则忧其君:是进亦忧,退亦忧。

When they were in high positions at court, they were concerned about the people. When they were in remote places, they were concerned about their emperor. They worried when they got promoted or when they were sent into exile.

🎈「居庙堂之高」是指「在朝廷里做高官」,译作了「when they were in high positions at court」,「at court」是「在朝廷」之意。

🎈心系…/关心…be concerned about

🎈「进」和「退」在原文中都没有体现被动,实则是「被提拔」或者「被贬官」,要译出被动。

🎈exile既可做名词也可做动词。


 

然则何时而乐耶?

Then, when were they happy?

🎈「然则」是「既然这样」之意,译作了衔接词「then」


 

其必曰:「先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐」

They would say, 「To be the first in the country to worry about the affairs of the state and the last in the county to enjoy oneself.”

🎈would在这里表推测。

🎈「先天下之忧而忧」这里担忧的是国家事务,要进行具体化,国务affairs of the state。

🎈这句话也是我们非常熟悉的古文名句,建议积累背诵。


 

欤!噫!微斯人,吾谁与归?

Alas! Who else should I seek company with save them?

🎈文言词汇:「微」,没有。「斯人」,这样的人。「谁与归」,就是「与谁归」。「归」,归依。

🎈与…作伴seek company with。

🔥重点词汇

restoration    n. 整修;修复

英义

the work of repairing and cleaning an old building, a painting, etc. so that its condition is as good as it originally was

例句

The palace is closed for restoration.

王宫因整修而停止开放。

 

myriad      n.无数;大量 英义

英义

( literary ) an extremely large number of sth

例句

Designs are available in a myriad of colors.

各种色彩的款式应有尽有。

 

command      v.居高临下地掌控;俯瞰

英义

to be in a position from where you can see or control sth

例句

The hotel commands a fine view of the valley.

从这家旅馆俯瞰下面的峡谷一览无余。

 

unbroken     adj. 连续的;不间断的

英义

not interrupted or disturbed in any way

例句

We’ve had ten days of almost unbroken sunshine.

我们已经有10天几乎完全没有中断过的艳阳天。

 

nostalgia     n. 怀旧;念旧

英义

a feeling of sadness mixed with pleasure and affection when you think of happy times in the past

例句

She is filled with nostalgia for her own college days.

她对自己的大学时代充满了怀念之情。

 

azure     adj.天蓝色的;蔚蓝色的

英义

bright blue in color like the sky

例句

High above in the azure heaven the eagle floated peacefully.

雄鹰在高高的蓝天上安然地飞翔。

🔥重点表达

任职be in office

上台执政take office;

谋求╱竞选公职seek/run for office

人们安居乐业 people lived in peace and contentment

题写/雕刻inscribe

山脊mountain ranges

在远处in the distance

朝阳morning sun

暮霭evening mist

大量的a myriad of/ plenty of/ abundant/a great deal of

…一览无余/尽收眼底command a good view of

被贬官员exiled officials

桅杆mast;

船桨oar

朝廷imperial court

与…融为一体merge with/into

与…协调一致chime in with

微风gentle breeze

崇高的志向lofty ideals

在朝廷at court

心系…/关心…be concerned about

国务affairs of the state

与…作伴seek company with

🔥表达对比

心旷神怡有几种表达方式?

1. 登斯楼也,则有(心旷神怡),宠辱皆忘,

On ascending the Tower at such a time, one will feel a spiritual uplift, caring for neither glory nor shame.

 

2. 轻快的散步经常能(使人心旷神怡)。

Taking a brisk walk can often induce a feeling of well-being.

 

3.《毫无愧疚》弗朗西斯•斯布福特(Francis Spufford)

Written in a Costa coffee bar, unburdened by research, this “report from the inside of my head” is witty, bracing and boldly personal.

本书是作者在咖世家喝咖啡时写成的,全书妙语横生,读来(令人心旷神怡),而且还大胆地使用了亲切的个人语调叙述。

 

4. 每当夏夜,我起床以后,立刻就闻到院子里那些高大的马缨花树散发出来的阵阵幽香,这些香气破窗而入,我于此时(神清气爽),乐不可支,连手中那一支笨拙的笔也仿佛生了花。

In summer, the moment I got out of bed before daybreak, I would smell the delicate fragrance of the giant silk trees coming from outside my window. Thereupon, I would feel refreshed and joyful, and the clumsy pen in my hand would seem to have become as agile as it could.

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 范仲淹《岳阳楼记》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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