欧阳修《秋声赋》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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秋声赋

欧阳修

ODE TO THE SOUNDOF AUTUMN

OUYANG XIU

本文是作者晚年所作。虽仕途已入顺境,但长期的政治斗争也使他看到了世事的复杂,逐渐淡于名利。秋在古代也是肃杀的象征,一切生命都在秋天终止。作者的心情也因为屡次遭贬而郁闷,但他也借秋声告诫世人:不必悲秋、恨秋,怨天尤地,而应自我反省。这一立意,抒发了作者难有所为的郁闷心情,以及自我超脱的愿望。

 


 

欧阳子方夜读书,闻有声自西南来者,悚然而听之,曰:「异哉!」

While reading at night, I, Ouyang Zi, am terrified upon hearing a sound coming from the southwest. 「How strange it is!」 I cry.

🎈欧阳子是作者自称,在句中做了同位语。

🎈upon+…可做时间状语

🎈曰:「异哉!」译作了「How strange it is!」I cry,在英文中常将说话人和动词后置。


 

初淅沥以萧飒,忽奔腾而砰湃,如波涛夜惊,风雨骤至。

At first it is like the pattering of the rain and the whistling of the wind, but it quickly becomes violent like the roaring of the surging waves that alarm the sleepers at night and the sudden onslaught of a storm.

🎈文言词汇:「淅沥」,形容轻微的声音如风声、雨声、落叶声等。「以」,表并列,而。「萧飒」,形容风吹树木的声音。「砰湃」:同「澎湃」,波涛汹涌的声音。

🎈原文运用了比喻的修辞,译文中译出比喻义。

🎈「patter」释义为「If something patters on a surface, it hits it quickly several times, making quiet, tapping sounds. 急速拍打」,例句如下:

Rain pattered gently outside, dripping onto the roof from the pines.

雨在外面沙沙地下着,从松树上滴落在房顶上。

🎈「波涛夜惊」中惊醒的是梦中人,这一层意思要译出。


 

其触于物也,鏦鏦铮铮,金铁皆鸣;又如赴敌之兵,衔枚疾走,不闻号令,但闻人马之行声。

When it hits something, it becomes a metallic crunch like the clashing of weapons. It is also like the sound of the silent march of an army hurrying to the battlefield should the mouth of each soldier be gagged and there be no shouting from commands.

🎈文言词汇:「鏦鏦铮铮」:金属相击的声音。「衔枚」:古时行军或袭击敌军时,让士兵衔枚以防出声。「枚」,形似竹筷,衔于口中,两端有带,系于脖上。

🎈分号前后分别是两个比喻句,都在描写声音,两个比喻内容都较多,应从中间断句。

🎈「但闻人马之行声」就是在强调行军之静,译作了「the silent march of an army」,简洁又具体。


 

予谓童子:「此何声也?汝出视之。」

“What sound is this?” I inquire of the boy servant, 「Go and find out.」

🎈 inquire of询问,打听

🎈古文中的「僮仆」常译作「boy servant」

 


童子曰:「星月皎洁,明河在天,四无人声,声在树间。」

He comes back and says, 「The moon and the stars are shining bright and the Milky Way is high up. There is no sound but that of the forest.」

🎈「明河」:天河,Milky Way。

🎈「四无人声,声在树间」是说出了树林之中的声音四下都没有声音,译作了「There is no sound but that of the forest」


 

予曰:「噫嘻悲哉!此秋声也,胡为而来哉?

「How sad it is!」 I sigh. 「It is the sound of autumn. Is autumn already here?

🎈中文中直接引语的内容有两句话时,翻译时直接引语之前的内容常常插入在两句话之间。

🎈「胡为而来哉」字面意思为「它为何而来呢(它怎么突然就来了呢)」,是作者对秋风来临发出的感叹,译作了「Is autumn already here?」


 

盖夫秋之为状也,其色惨淡,烟霏云敛。

The form of autumn is this. Its color is pale and gloomy, as the smoke has diffused and the clouds have dispersed.

🎈「秋之为状」:秋天所表现出来的意气容貌。「状」,情状,指下文所说的「其色」、「其容」、「其气」、「其意」

🎈「惨淡」:黯然无色。「烟霏」:烟气浓重。「霏」,飞散。

🎈因为「烟霏云敛」所以才「其色惨淡」,这一层逻辑关系要体现。


 

其容清明,天高日晶。

Its countenance is clear and bright, as the sky is high and the air is fresh with the sun shining.

🎈「countenance」释义为「a person’s face or their expression 面容;脸色;面部表情」,这里是将秋天与人作比。

🎈「日晶」:日光明亮。「晶」,明亮。


 

其气栗冽,砭人肌骨。

Its breath is piercingly cold, as it pricks people’s skin and bones.

🎈文言词汇:「栗冽」:寒冷。「砭」:古代用来治病的石针,这里引用为刺的意思。

🎈寒冷刺骨piercingly cold

🎈「prick」是「to make a small hole in the skin so that it hurts or blood comes out 扎破,刺破(皮肤)」之意。


 

其意萧条,山川寂寥。

Its mood is desolate and bleak, as the mountains and rivers are cheerless and silent.

🎈「萧条」译作了「desolate and bleak」,「寂寥」译作了「cheerless and silent」,都用了两个并列形容词,实现前后结构的平衡。


 

故其为声也,凄凄切切,呼号愤发。

Thus the keynote of the sound of autumn is sad and plaintive, and at times wailing and yelling.

🎈keynote基调

🎈有时/偶尔at times/ sometimes now and then

🎈wailing是「哭号」之意。


 

丰草绿缛而争茂,佳木葱茏而可悦;

Before autumn comes, the verdant grass and the leafy trees vie to surpass each other, and the luxuriant vegetation is delightful to the eyes.

🎈竞争vie/ contend /compete

🎈形容草木茂盛的形容词verdant/ leafy/ luxuriant,英文中经常变换说法,同样的意思要使用不同的表达,避免重复,注意表达积累。


 

草拂之而色变,木遭之而叶脱。

When the autumn wind blows, the grass changes its color and the leaves of the trees fall.

🎈「之」指的都是「秋风」,主被动关系应是秋风拂过/略过草木,主被动关系要体现出来。


 

其所以摧败零落者,乃其一气之余烈。

It is the lingering mighty power of autumn that devastates the lush greenery and brings about this desolation.

🎈文言词汇:「一气」:指构成天地万物的混然之气。天地万物的变化都是「一气」运行的结果。「余烈」:余威。

🎈「一气」指的是秋气,结合「余烈」一词,译作了「mighty power of autumn」,其中「mighty」释义为「very strong and powerful 强而有力的」,其他表达和例句如下:

a mighty warrior 威猛的斗士

He struck him with a mighty blow across his shoulder.

他猛一下砸在他的肩膀上。


 

夫秋,刑官也,于时为阴;又兵象也,于行用金,是谓天地之义气,常以肃杀而为心。

Autumn is the executioner. It is the season of yin. It is a symbol of war and corresponds with the element jin. It is the belligerent power of the heaven and earth, aiming to destroy and kill.

🎈「刑官」:执掌刑狱的官。《周礼》把官职与天、地、春、夏、秋、冬相配,称为六官。秋天肃杀万物,所以司寇为秋官,执掌刑法,称刑官。译作了「executioner」

🎈「于行用金」意思是「在五行上属于金」

🎈「belligerent」释义为「unfriendly and aggressive 好斗的;寻衅的;挑衅的」,义同「hostile」。「义气」译作了「belligerent power」,这个词的翻译要结合「肃杀」来翻译。


 

天之于物,春生秋实。

The law of nature is growth in spring and harvest in autumn.

🎈这句话的意思是说「大自然的法则,是让万物在春天生长,在秋天结实」,在这句话的译文中「生」和「实」两个动词分别转译做了两个名词,属于词性转换。

 


故其在乐也,商声主西方之音,夷则为七月之律。

Autumn can also be explained by music. In tone it corresponds with shang which means 「west」. In tune it corresponds with yi, which means the month of July.

🎈「商声」和「夷」分别进行了具体化,「in tone」和「in tune」


 

商,伤也,物既老而悲伤,夷,戮也,物过盛而当杀。

Shang means sadness, as all things feel sad when they grow old. Yi means killing, as all things should be killed when they are overly abundant.

🎈在「物既老而悲伤」一句中,「物既老」处理做了时间状语,「when they grow old」

🎈「物过盛而当杀」是对前文的进一步解释,译作了as引导的原因状语从句。


 

嗟乎!草木无情,有时飘零。

Alas! Grass and trees have no feelings and they will wither in time.

🎈「有时」:有固定时限。译作了in time,适时之意。


 

人为动物,惟物之灵;百忧感其心,万事劳其形。

Man is an animal and is the paragon of all creatures. But a myriad of worries sadden his heart, and a myriad of chores exhaust his body.

🎈「paragon」释义为「a person who is perfect or who is a perfect example of a particular good quality 完人;典范」这里取「典范」之意。除此之外用作「完人」的例句如下:

I make no claim to be a paragon.

我没有说过自己是完人。

🎈大量的a myriad of/ plenty of/ abundant/a great deal of

🎈「劳形」意思是「使身体疲惫」,这里译作了「exhaust his body」,除此之外在《陋室铭》也有相关的表达,原文和译文如下:

无丝竹之乱耳,无案牍之(劳形)

Without the disturbance of the noisy tunes that jar on the ears,

or the solemn (burden)of reading official documents.


 

有动于中,必摇其精,而况思其力之所不及,忧其智之所不能。

What affects his heart will inevitably consume his energy. And he is often troubled by the thought that he lacks the energy to achieve things that he wants to accomplish, and lacks the wisdom to comprehend things that he wants to understand.

🎈这句话的意思是「只要内心被外物触动,就一定会动摇他的精神。更何况常常思考自己的力量所做不到的事情,忧虑自己的智慧所不能解决的问题?」

🎈「思」和「忧」在译文中合并为了一个动词词组「troubled by the thought that..」,这样的表达更简洁。


 

宜其渥然丹者为槁木,黟然黑者为星星。

Thus his ruddy complexion is withered like the dried up bark and his black hair turns white, like a starry sky.

🎈文言词汇:「渥」:红润的脸色。「黟然」:形容黑的样子。「星星」:鬓发花白的样子。

🎈「宜」是「自然」之意,是与上文的衔接词,译文用「thus」来衔接。

🎈「complexion」释义为「the natural color and condition of the skin on a person’s face 面色;肤色;气色」,例句如下:

My complexion remained pale and pasty.

我的脸色依旧苍白憔悴。

🎈形容枯槁dried-up appearance


 

奈何以非金石之质,欲与草木而争荣?念谁为之戕贼,亦何恨乎秋声!」

Since man is not made of metal or stone, how can he compete with grass and trees? Since he is the victim of his own worries, why should he blame the sound of autumn?」

🎈文言词汇:「奈何」:为何。「非金石之质」:指人体不能像金石那样长久。「戕贼」:残害。

🎈「念谁为之戕贼,亦何恨乎秋声」意思是「(人)应当仔细考虑究竟是谁给自己带来了这么多残害,又何必去怨恨这秋声呢?」

 


童子莫对,垂头而睡。

The boy has fallen into a doze, and is silent.

🎈打盹儿fall into a doze

🎈睡着了肯定无法回答,所以「莫对」的含义已经包含在「fallen into a doze」之中。


 

但闻四壁虫声唧唧,如助予之叹息。

Only the insects are chirping at the foot of the wall, as if they were sighing with me.

🎈「如助予之叹息」意思是「像在附和我的叹息」

🎈「chirp」是「虫鸣声/鸟叫声」之意。

🔥重点词汇

patter     v.急速拍打

英义

If something patters on a surface, it hits it quickly several times, making quiet, tapping sounds.」

例句

Rain pattered gently outside, dripping onto the roof from the pines.

雨在外面沙沙地下着,从松树上滴落在房顶上。

 

crunch    n.压碎声;碎裂声

英义

a noise like the sound of sth firm being crushed

例句

The car drew up with a crunch of gravel.

那辆汽车在沙砾路上嘎吱一声停了下来。

 

gag     v.捂住,塞住(某人的嘴)

英义

to put a piece of cloth in or over sb’s mouth to prevent them from speaking or shouting

例句

The hostages were bound and gagged.

人质被绑起来并被用东西塞住了嘴。

 

diffuse      v.(使光)模糊,漫射,漫散

英义

to make light shine less brightly by spreading it in many directions

例句

The moon was fuller than the night before, but the light was diffused by cloud.

月亮比头一天晚上更圆,但因云层遮掩而月光朦胧。

 

countenance    n.面容;脸色;面部表情

英义

a person’s face or their expression

例句

There was joy in his speech and countenance.

他欣喜之情,形于辞色。

 

plaintive      adj.(声音)悲伤的,哀怨的

英义

sounding sad, especially in a weak complaining way

例句

They lay on the firm sands, listening to the plaintive cry of the seagulls.

他们躺在坚实的沙滩上,听着海鸥的哀鸣。

 

verdant      adj.嫩绿的;碧绿的;青翠的

英义

fresh and green

例句

There is a verdant lawn in front of the dormitory.

宿舍前是绿茵茵的草坪。

 

mighty     adj.强而有力的

英义

very strong and powerful

例句

He struck him with a mighty blow across his shoulder.

他猛一下砸在他的肩膀上。

🔥重点表达

询问,打听inquire of

僮仆boy servant

银河Milky Way

寒冷刺骨piercingly cold

基调keynote

有时/偶尔at times/ sometimes now and then

竞争vie/ contend /compete

形容草木茂盛的形容词verdant/ leafy/ luxuriant

适时in time

大量的a myriad of/ plenty of/ abundant/a great deal of

形容枯槁dried-up appearance

打盹儿fall into a doze

🔥表达对比

为…而烦恼有几种表达方式?

 

1.有动于中,必摇其精,而况(思)其力之所不及,(忧)其智之所不能。

What affects his heart will inevitably consume his energy. And he is often troubled by the thought that he lacks the energy to achieve things that he wants to accomplish, and lacks the wisdom to comprehend things that he wants to understand.

 

2. 不过,在古典史诗中发现的许多历史错误和迷信幻想令单田芳(感到烦恼)。曾研究历史的他很快就开始根据自己对历史的细致研究进行诠释和表演。

But bothered by what he felt were the many historical inaccuracies and superstitious fantasies found in the classical epics, Mr. Shan, who had studied history, soon began performing his own interpretations based on his meticulous historical research.

 

3. 如今,令他们(烦恼)的是资本流入和货币升值。

Today they fret about excessive inflows and strengthening currencies.

 

4. 承受着如此多的关注,他真的没有(感到烦恼)吗?

Is he really not perturbed by the weight of so much attention?

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