刘基《卖柑者言》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

朗读这篇文章

卖柑者言

WHAT THE ORANGEVENDOR SAID

刘基

LiuJI

《卖柑者言》是元末明初文学家刘基所写的一篇政治寓言。讲述由买卖坏了的柑橘的小事引起议论,假托卖柑者的一席话,深刻讽刺了有名无实者的丑恶嘴脸。

 

杭有卖果者,善藏柑,涉寒暑不溃。出之烨然,玉质而金色。

There was a fruit vendor in Hangzhou. He knew quite well how to preserve oranges. They did not rot even after a year of storage, and looked fresh and shining when taken out to the market. They were jasper-like, as bright as gold.

🎈「涉」:经过,经历。

🎈「烨然」:光彩鲜明的样子。

🎈善于使用原级、比较级、最高级的句型。as bright as gold比单独的一个形容词golden要更形象。


 

置于市,贾十倍,人争而鬻之。

People would rush to buy them even the price was ten times higher than the usual one.

🎈「贾(jià)」:同“价”,价格。

🎈「鬻(yù)」:这里是买的意思。


予贸得其一,剖之,如有烟扑口鼻,视其中,干若败絮。

I also bought one. But when cut up, the orange gave off a kind of smoke and the middle was dried like waste cotton.

🎈「贸」:买卖,这里是买的意思。

🎈「败絮」:破败的棉絮。

🎈学会断句。

🎈变换主语。如“视其中”并未一一对应译出,而是将主语变为“柑子里面”,从而使语句更为连贯。

 


予怪而问之曰:“若所市于人者,将以实笾豆,奉祭祀,供宾客乎?将炫外以惑愚瞽乎?甚矣哉!为欺也!”

I felt curious and asked him, “Do you mean to sell them to people who will put them in a tray to offer as the sarifices to the gods, or to entertain their guests? Or do you want to show off their outward appearance to delude the silly and the blind into buying them? It is too shameful a thing to cheat others!”

🎈「笾(biān)豆」:古代祭祀时盛祭品用的两种器具。笾,竹制的食器。豆,木制、陶制或铜制的食器。

🎈「愚瞽(gǔ)」:愚蠢的人和瞎子。瞽,瞎子。

🎈「It is too shameful a thing to cheat others!」 too+adj.+n. to…是一个很好的表达。这句话意思是,这样欺骗人的行为实在是太过分了。


 

卖者笑曰:“吾业是有年矣,吾业赖是以食吾躯。

The fruit vendor replied, laughing, “I have been doing this job for many years and have been depending on it for a living.

🎈「业」:以……为职业。

🎈「赖」:依赖,依靠。

🎈「食(sì)」:同“饲”,这里有供养、养活的意思。这里的译法为中文动词转化为英文介词短语。


 

吾售之,人取之,未闻有言,而独不足子所乎?

I do the selling and people do the buying. Never have I heard any one complain. But you alone are not satisfied!

🎈「do the selling」「do the buying」比「sell」「buy」的用法更让人眼前一亮,应该学习这种译法。

🎈在翻译否定句的时候可以采用倒装句译法,起到强调作用。

🎈中文为反问,英文可以是陈述句,也可以是反问句。


世之为欺者不,而独我也乎?

How can I be the only one who cheats with so many people doing similar things?

🍒英文语句顺序颠倒,从而将两个短句结合。


 

吾子未之思也!

Haven’t you thought of that?

🎈「未之思」实为「未思之」,没想过这个问题。


 

今夫佩虎符、坐皋比者,洸洸乎干城之具也,果能授孙、吴之略耶?

Can those majestic looking city defenders, who are holding tiger-shaped tallies and sitting in the chairs covered with the tiger skin, master the art of war advocated by Sun Wu? and Wu Qi?

🎈「虎符」:虎形的兵符,古代调兵用的凭证。

🎈「皋(gāo)比(pí)」:虎皮,指将军的坐席。比,通“皮”,毛皮。

🎈「洸(guāng)洸」:威武的样子。

🎈「干城之具」:捍卫国家的将才。干,盾牌,文中意为捍卫。干和城都用以防御。具,将才。

🎈「孙、吴」:指古代著名军事家孙武和吴起。

🎈「略」:谋略。

🎈长句应该分析主次关系,随后对每个动词都有恰当的安排。


 

峨大冠,柁长绅者,昂昂于庙堂之器也,果能建伊、皋之业耶?

Can those arrogant looking pillars of society, who wear tall hats on their heads and long girdles around their waists, accomplish great deeds like Yi Yin and Gao Yao?

🎈「峨」:高高地,指高戴。

🎈「柁长绅」:拖着长长的腰带。绅,古代士大夫束在外衣上的带子。

🎈「昂昂」:器宇轩昂的样子。

🎈「庙堂」:指朝廷。

🎈「器」:才能,本领,这里指“有才能的人”。

🎈「伊、皋(gāo)」:指古代著名政治家伊尹和皋陶。

🎈「业」:功业。


 

盗起而不知御,民困而不知救,吏奸而不知禁,法斁而不知理,坐糜廪粟而不知耻。

They don’t know how to resist when bandits rise up, nor do they know how to provide relief when people are poverty-stricken, nor do they know how to suppress the misbehavior of corrupt officials, nor do they know how to rectify the situation when laws and disciplines are in disorder,nor do they know shame when they recklessly squander the national revenue.

🎈「起」:兴起。

🎈「御」:抵御。

🎈「斁(dù)」:败坏。

🎈「坐」:坐在高位的意思,指那些在高位上却不干正事。

🎈「糜」:通“靡”,浪费。

🎈「廪(lǐn)粟」:国家发的俸米。

🎈善于使用倒装句,并且注意中英文语序的差异。


观其坐高堂,骑大马,醉醉醴而饫肥鲜者,孰不巍巍乎可畏,赫赫乎可象也,又何往而不金玉其外,败絮其中也哉!

Look at them! They are sitting in great halls, riding on big horses, intoxicated with good wine, and stuffed with delicious food. Aren’ t they so awe-inspiring as to intimidate the common people and so imposing as to call forth people’s admiration? Aren’t they all having a foul interior beneath a fair exterior?

🎈「饫(yù)」:饱食。

🎈「巍巍」:高大的样子。

🎈「赫赫」:显赫的样子。

🎈「象」:模仿。

🎈「金玉其外、败絮其中」:比喻虚有其表,及外表好而实质坏的人

🎈「类」:像。

🎈「so… as to…」 :太……以至于。


 

今子是之不察,而以察吾柑!

Now you are complaining about the oranges instead of these people!”

🎈中文中动词常重复,而英文中相同动词会省略,本句省略了第二个动词“察”。


 

予默默无以应。

I was speechless and unable to reply.

🎈「应答」常用reply。


 

退而思其言,类东方生滑稽之流。

But back at home, pondering over his words, I thought he might be a witty and humorous person like Dongfang Shuo.

🎈「东方生」:指东方朔。汉武帝时曾任太中大夫,性格诙谐,善于讽谏。

滑稽(古书中读作gǔ jī)之流:指诙谐多讽、机智善辩的人。

🎈分清主次,在众多动词中寻找谓语,其他做非谓语、介词等处理。

 


岂其忿世嫉邪者耶,而托于柑以讽耶?

Isn’t he a misanthrope who detests social injustices and is making use of the orange to satirize?

🎈「忿世疾邪」:激愤、痛恨世间邪恶的现象。

🎈「托」:假托。

🔥重点词汇

majestic      adj.壮丽的

英义

If you describe something or someone as majestic, you think they are very beautiful, dignified, and impressive.

例句

She was attracted by the majestic scenery.

她被这壮丽的景色所吸引。

 

foul      adj.难吃的;肮脏的;恶臭的

英义

If you describe something as foul, you mean it is dirty and smells or tastes unpleasant.

例句

…foul polluted water…

恶臭的脏水

 

misanthrope     n.遁世者;厌恶世人者

英义

A misanthrope is a person who does not like other people.

例句

He is totally a misanthrope.

他是一个彻头彻尾的愤世嫉俗之人。

 

pillars     n.支柱

英义

If you describe someone as a pillar of society or as a pillar of the community, you approve of them because they play an important and active part in society or in the community.

例句

My father had been a pillar of the community.

我父亲一直是社区的顶梁柱。

🔥重点表达

散打 give off

生计 for a living

卖东西do the buying

奸吏之举 the misbehavior of corrupt officials

败坏 in disorder

金玉其外败絮其中have a foul interior beneath a fair exterior

假托make use of

🔥表达对比

形容一个人高高在上有几种表达?

今夫佩虎符、坐皋比者,(洸洸乎)干城之具也,果能授孙、吴之略耶?

Can those majestic looking city defenders, who are holding tiger-shaped tallies and sitting in the chairs covered with the tiger skin, master the art of war advocated by Sun Wu? and Wu Qi?

 

峨大冠,柁长绅者,昂昂于庙堂之器也,果能建伊、皋之业耶?

Can those arrogant looking pillars of society, who wear tall hats on their heads and long girdles around their waists, accomplish great deeds like Yi Yin and Gao Yao?

 

观其(坐高堂,骑大马),醉醉醴而饫肥鲜者,(孰不巍巍乎可畏,赫赫乎可象也,又何往而不金玉其外,败絮其中也哉)!

Look at them! They are sitting in great halls, riding on big horses, intoxicated with good wine, and stuffed with delicious food. Aren’ t they so awe-inspiring as to intimidate the common people and so imposing as to call forth people’s admiration? Aren’t they all having a foul interior beneath a fair exterior?

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 刘基《卖柑者言》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

赞 (0)