《列子》《华子病忘》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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华子病忘

The Man Who Forgot
《列子》
Liehtse
宋阳里华子中年病忘,朝取而夕忘,夕与而朝忘,在途则忘行,在室则忘坐,今不识先,后不识今;阖室毒之。谒史而卜之,弗占;谒巫而祷之,弗禁;谒医而攻之,弗已。鲁有儒生,自媒能治之,华子之妻,予以居产之半,请其方。
儒生曰:“此固非卦兆之所占,非祈请之所祷,非药石之所攻;吾试化其心,变其虑,庶几其胶乎!”
于是试露之而求衣,饥之而求食,幽之而求明。
儒生欣然告其子曰:“疾可已也。然吾子方密传世,不以告人。试屏左右,独与居室七日”。
从之,莫知其所施为也,而积年之疾,一朝都除。
华子既悟,乃大怒,黜妻罚子,操戈逐儒生。宋人执而问其以。
华子曰:“曩吾忘也,荡荡然不觉天地之有无,今顿识既往数十年存亡、得失、哀乐、好恶,扰扰万诸起矣,吾恐将来之存亡、得失、哀乐、好恶乱吾心如此也,须臾之忘,可复得乎?”
 
🎈宋国的阳里华子中年得了健忘症,早晨拿了东西晚上忘记,晚上给了东西早晨忘记;在路上忘记行走,在屋里忘记坐下;现在记不起从前,以后又记不得现在。全家都为他的病在苦恼。鲁国有个儒生自荐能治他的病,华子的老婆儿女情愿拿出一半家产来求取他的方术。华子清醒了过来,就大发雷霆,斥责老婆,惩罚儿子,拿起戈来驱逐儒生。邻居们捉住他,问他这样做的缘故。华子说道:“从前我健忘,渺渺茫茫地不觉得天地是有是无。现在突然记起了往事,几十年的存亡、得失、哀乐、好恶,纷纷乱乱,千头万绪地涌上心头。我恐怕将来的存亡、得失、哀乐、好恶还会像这样扰乱我的心境,再想忘记哪怕短短一刻,难道还办得到吗?”
 

宋阳里华子中年病忘,朝取而夕忘,夕与而朝忘;在途则忘行,在室则忘坐;今不识先,后不识今。
There was a man in Yang Li of the country of Sung by the name of Huatse, who developed in his middle age a peculiar malady of forgetting everything. He would take a thing in the morning and forget about it at night, and receive a thing at night and forget about it in the morning. While in the streets he forgot to walk,and while standing in the house,he forgot to sit down. He could not remember the past in the present,and could not remember the present in the future. 
🎈宋阳里华子,可以处理成名词加定语或者同位语,如Huatse, a man in Yang Li of the country of Sung或者像原文一样,by the name of 修饰 a man in Yang Li。
🎈“朝取而夕忘,夕与而朝忘;在途则忘行,在室则忘坐;今不识先,后不识今”时态首先是过去时。While后面直接加动词ing原因在于前后主语一致,此时while也可换成when。此外,在表达通顺的情况下,要注意译文的结构整齐。
🎈“生病”原文用的是动词develop,也可用suffer/be afflicted by。

 
阖室毒之。谒史而卜之,弗占;谒巫而祷之,弗禁;谒医而攻之,弗已。
And the whole family were greatly annoyed by it. They consulted the soothsayer and they could not divine it, and they consulted the witch and prayers could not cure it, and they consulted the physician and the physician was helpless.
🎈「毒」深受干扰,并非poison。
🎈弗,不。
🎈谒,请求,咨询。
🎈“谒史而卜之,弗占;谒巫而祷之,弗禁;谒医而攻之,弗已”三句话中每句话都有两个并列小句,且第二个小句没有主语。中文喜无主句,但英文一个完整句子必须要遵循主谓宾,此处必须添加主语。
🎈“弗X”可如原文处理成并列,也可处理成定语从句。

 
鲁有儒生自媒能治之,华子之妻子以居产之半请其方。
But there was a Confucian scholar in the country of Lu who said he could cure him. So Huatse’s wife offered him half of their property if he should cure him of this strange malady.
🎈自媒,自荐。
🎈我们前文讲过英文讲求避免重复,因此malady此处可以替换为illness,且illness可数。
🎈注意half of前面不加冠词,英文要注意冠词的使用,如使用不当也是错误。

 
儒生曰:“此固非卦兆之所占,非祈请之所祷,非药石之所攻。吾试化其心,变其虑,庶几其瘳乎!”
And the Confucian scholar said: “His malady is not something which can be cured by soothsaying or prayer or medicine. I shall try to cure his mind and change the objects of his thought, and maybe he’ll be cured. ”
🎈“鲁有儒生”“儒生曰”如果仔细观察就会发现中文两次都是“儒生”并无差异,而英文冠词则发生变化,因为前面提到了“ a Confucian scholar”,再次提到就得用the,表示特指。
🎈something等不定代词做先行词引导定语从句语法书一般会说后面加that,但同样可以加which引导的定语从句。

 
于是试露之,而求衣;饥之,而求食;幽之,而求明。
So he exposed Huatse to cold and Huatse asked for clothing, exposed Huatse to hunger, and Huatse asked for food, and shut Huatse up in a dark room, and Huatse asked for light.
🎈中文几个句子都是无主句,译成英文定要添加主语。
🎈试露之,饥之,幽之,三者主语相同,后面两个直接省略主语。

 
儒生欣然告其子曰:“疾可已也。然吾之方密,传世不以告人。试屏左右,独与居室七日。”
The Confucian scholar elatedly told Huatse’s son"Your father’s malady can be cured, but my method is a secret and I do not want others to know. Please ask every one to go away and I alone shall stay with him in this room for seven days. ”
🎈可已,可以结束。
🎈elatedly,兴高采烈,比happily的感情色彩更加浓厚。

 
从之,莫知其所施为也,而积年之疾一朝都除。
The family followed the instructions. They had no inkling of what the Confucian scholar did but Huatse’s illness of years was suddenly cured.
🎈had no inkling of,对某事一无所知,也可简单译为have no idea /have no clue that,注意二者后面加从句。
🎈Huatse’s illness为malady的同义替换,目的是避免重复。

 
华子既悟,乃大怒,黜妻罚子,操戈逐儒生。宋人执而问其以。
When Huatse was cured, he was furious. He scolded his wife and punished his children and drove away the Confucian scholar from his house with a spear. The people of the country stopped him and asked Huatse for his reasons.
🎈“华子既悟,乃大怒,黜妻罚子,操戈逐儒生”原文为流水句,多个动词并列,但英文一句话一般只有一到两个动词,其他的要处理成从句、非谓语、介词短语。要学会举一反三。如清楚英汉差异,会事半功倍。
🎈The people of the country,定冠词表特指,避免重复。

 
华子曰:“曩吾忘也,荡荡然不觉天地之有无。今顿识既往,数十年来存亡、得失、哀乐、好恶,扰扰万绪起矣。吾恐将来之存亡、得失、哀乐、好恶之乱吾心如此也,须臾之忘,可复得乎?”
Huatse replied: “When I was submerged in the sea of forgetfulness, I did not know whether the heaven and earth existed or not. Now I can suddenly recall all the gains and losses and successes and disappointments and joys and sorrows and loves and hatreds of the past decades and thousands of matters start to worry me. I am afraid that in the future, the gains and losses and sucesses and disappointments and joys and sorrows and loves and hatreds will continue to oppress my mind as they are oppressing me now. Can I ever recover a moment of forgetfulness? ”
🎈曩,读作音曩(nǎng),其本义指以往,从前,过去的。
🎈原文是直接引语,如果是间接引语注意时态要根据主句时态变化。
🎈gains and losses and successes and disappointments and joys and sorrows and loves and hatreds,注意可数名词一定要加冠词a/an或者用复数。
 
🔥重点词汇
peculiar
adj. 奇怪的,古怪的;异常的;特有的,特殊的
There was a peculiar smell in the kitchen.
厨房里有一股怪味。
malady
n. (制度或机构的)弊病,弊端;疾病;病症;弊害
Violent crime is only one of the maladies afflicting modern society.
暴力犯罪仅仅是困扰现代社会的严重问题之一。
 
divine
adj. 天赐的,上帝的;绝妙的
v. 猜测;探测
n. 专门研究神学的牧师
She could divine what he was thinking just by looking at him.
她一看就知道他在想什么。
 
elated
adj. 兴高采烈的,得意洋洋的
For my part, I feel elated and close to tears.
就我而言,我感到非常高兴,都快落泪了。
🔥重点表达
朝取而夕忘,夕与而朝忘
take a thing in the morning and forget about it at night
阖室毒之
And the whole family were greatly annoyed by it.
谒医而攻consult the physician
自媒能治之sb who says he could cure him
然吾之方密,传世不以告人
My method is a secret and I do not want others to know.
🔥表达对比
「兴高采烈」多种表达
 
elated
They were elated at the result.
他们对这一结果感到欢欣鼓舞。
exultant
The exultant crowds were dancing in the streets.
欢欣的人群在大街上跳起了舞.
jubilant
Radicals were jubilant at getting rid of him.
激进分子因为除掉了他而欣喜若狂。

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