《潍县署中与舍弟第五书》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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潍县署中与舍弟第五书(节录)

Fifth Letter To Brother Mo, From The Magistrate’s Residence at Weihsien (excerpt)

 

写字作画是雅事,亦是俗事。

大丈夫不能立功天地,字养生民,而以区区笔墨供人玩好,非俗事而何?东坡居士刻刻以天地万物为心,以其余闲作为枯木竹石,不害也。若王摩诘、赵子昂辈,不过唐、宋间两画师耳!试看其平生诗文,可曾一句道着民间痛痒?设以房、杜、姚、宋在前,韩、范、富、欧阳在后,而以二子厕乎其间,吾不知其居何等而立何地矣!

门馆才情,游客伎俩,只合剪树枝、造亭榭、辨古玩、斗茗茶为扫除小吏作头目而已,何足数哉!何足数哉!愚兄少而无业,长而无成,老而穷窘,不得已亦借此笔墨为糊口觅食之资,其实可羞可贱。愿吾弟发愤自雄,勿蹈乃兄故辙也。

古人云:“诸葛君真名士。”名士二字,是诸葛才当受得起。近日写字作画,满街都是名士,岂不令诸葛怀羞,高人齿冷?

 

🔥自宋以后,文人画兴起,“写字作画”,从不登大雅之堂的“巧艺”“末伎”,渐成为文人雅艺,明清以来,更成为“名士”风范的标配,士大夫争先矜夸以为能。郑板桥本人,是职业画家出身,以江湖卖画为生,饱受世间风霜冷眼。直到中年才进入仕途,达成生平志愿,也完成了身份的转变。在这种出身背景之下,他对“写字作画”的看法和一般人不同,怀有着一种又爱又恨的复杂心态。

 


写字作画是雅事,亦是俗事。

Calligraphy and painting are considered fine arts, but are also vulgar occupations.

🎈写字作画,即书法和绘画,因此“写字”不能译成writing。

🎈fine arts美术作品、高雅艺术。


 

大丈夫不能立功天地,字养生民,而以区区笔墨供人玩好,非俗事而何?

Is it not a vulgar thing for a man who cannot do some service to the country and improve the life of the people to occupy himself with pen and ink for the amusement of other people?

🎈大丈夫,指有志气、有节操、有作为的男子。见《孟子·滕文公下》:“富贵不能淫,贫贱不能移,威武不能屈,此之谓大丈夫。”因此,不可译成husband。

🎈立功天地,报效国家。

🎈字养生民,为人民谋福祉。也可译成deliver benefits for the people


 

东坡居士刻刻以天地万物为心,以其余闲作为枯木竹石,不害也。

It was harmless for Su Tungp’o who took the entire universe into his heart to paint, in his spare time, a tree or a rock with a dry brush.

🎈 in his spare time做插入语。

🎈以天地万物为心,时刻心系天地万物,由此可引申到时刻心系百姓,即take the people into the heart。

🎈a dry brush毛笔。

🎈注意时态,因为东坡居士即苏轼为北宋人,而作者是清朝人,所以为过去时态。


若王摩诘、赵子昂辈,不过唐、宋间两画师耳!

But Wang Mochieh (Wang Wei) and Chao Tseang(Mengfu) were merely two painters in the times of T’ang and Sung.

🎈王维(701年—761年),字摩诘,号摩诘居士。河东蒲州(今山西永济)人,祖籍山西祁县。唐朝诗人、画家。王维出身河东王氏,于唐玄宗开元九年(721年)中进士第,为太乐丞。历官右拾遗、监察御史、河西节度使判官。天宝年间,拜吏部郎中、给事中。安禄山攻陷长安时,被迫受伪职。长安收复后,被责授太子中允。唐肃宗乾元年间任尚书右丞,世称“王右丞”。

 

王维参禅悟理,精通诗、书、画、音乐等,以诗名盛于开元、天宝间,尤长五言,多咏山水田园,与孟浩然合称“王孟”,因笃诚奉佛,  有“诗佛”之称。书画特臻其妙,后人推其为南宗山水画之祖。著有《王右丞集》《画学秘诀》,存诗约400首。北宋苏轼评云:“味摩诘之诗,诗中有画;观摩诘之画,画中有诗。”

🎈赵孟頫,字子昂,汉族,号松雪道人  ,又号水晶宫道人(一说水精宫道人  )、鸥波,中年曾署孟俯,吴兴(今浙江省湖州市)人,原籍婺州兰溪   ,南宋晚期至元朝初期官员、书法家、画家、诗人,宋太祖赵匡胤十一世孙、秦王赵德芳嫡派子孙。


 

试看其平生诗文,可曾一句道着民间痛痒?

If you examine their poetry and prose,you will not find a single line that has to do with the welfare of the people.

🎈道着民间痛痒,即有关人民福祉。

🎈诗文,诗歌和散文。

🎈有关,have to do with/about

🎈中文为无主句,英文要添加主语。


 

设以房、杜、姚、宋在前,韩、范、富、欧阳在后,而以二子厕乎其间,吾不知其居何等而立何地矣!

Place these two persons among Fang(Hsuanling), Tu (Juhwei) , Yao (Ts’ung) and Sung(Ching), and among Han (Ch’i),Fan (Chungyen),Fu(Pi) and Ouyang(Hsiu) ‘, and where will they be ?

🎈中文中的人名直接音译即可。

🎈厕乎其间,此处“厕”和厕所无关,指参与在内。


 

门馆才情,游客伎俩,只合剪树枝、造亭榭、辨古玩、斗茗茶,为扫除小吏作头目而已,何足数哉!何足数哉!

The talents of protégés of officials’ homes and the skills of friends of leisure are good only for trimming flowers, building pavilions and terraces,and examining curios and tasting tea. They are worthy to give orders to the doormen and butlers, but what are they? They are not worth mentioning!

🎈protégés法语词汇,门徒。

🎈门馆,官员家中的门徒。

🎈curios,小件珍奇物品( curio的名词复数 )


 

愚兄少而无业,长而无成,老而穷窘,不得已亦借此笔墨为糊口觅食之资,其实可羞可贱。

Your stupid brother had no profession in youth, achieved nothing in middle age and lives in poverty in old age. I have therefore been forced to earn a living by my writing brush, but in reality it may be regarded a shame and a disgrace.

🎈我年轻时没有工作,中年没有成就,年老时生活贫困。因此,我被迫靠卖画写字谋生,但实际上,这可能被认为是一种耻辱。

🎈糊口觅食earn a living


 

愿吾弟发愤自雄,勿蹈乃兄故辙也。

I hope you will have some higher ambition and not fall into my footsteps.

🎈发愤自雄,奋发图强,心怀远大志向,be ambitious/have ambition。


 

古人云:”诸葛君真名士。” 名士二字,是诸葛才当受得起。

The ancient people said of Chuko Liang that he was“indeed a famous scholar” which means that the term“famous scholar”could be applied worthily only to him.

🎈是诸葛才当受得起,译文用的被动,也可译成主动,only xxx deserves this title/term。


 

近日写字作画,满街都是名士,岂不令诸葛怀羞,高人齿冷?

Now the city is full of painters and writers of calligraphy who are called“famous scholars”. Would this not make Chuko Liang’s cheeks burn and turn the high-minded ones’ teeth cold (make them sneer) ?

🎈怀羞,心怀羞愧;感到耻辱。唐·赵嘏《下第》诗:“南溪抱瓮客,失意自怀羞。”

🎈齿冷,耻笑,讥笑  。指不光彩,不正当的行为让人鄙视耻笑。露齿笑人,久之觉冷,极言讥笑嘲讽之甚。

 

🔥重点词汇

vulgar

adj. 庸俗的,俚俗的,粗俗的;一般大众的,老百姓的;粗野的,下流的

vulgar behaviour

粗俗的行为

 

amuse

v. 使开心;给…提供娱乐

He made funny faces to amuse the children.

他做鬼脸逗孩子们开心。

 

sneer

vi. 讥笑,冷笑

n. 嘲笑,冷笑;讥笑的表情(言语)

Canete’s mouth twisted in a contemptuous sneer.

卡内特傲慢而轻蔑地撇了撇嘴。

 

 

🔥重点表达

写字作画是雅事,亦是俗事。

Calligraphy and painting are considered fine arts, but are also vulgar occupations.

刻刻以天地万物为心

taking the entire universe into his heart to paint

民间痛痒the welfare of the people

门馆才情,游客伎俩

the talents of protégés of officials’ homes and the skills of friends of leisure

发愤自雄 have some higher ambition

令诸葛怀羞,高人齿冷

make Chuko Liang’s cheeks burn and turn the high-minded ones’ teeth cold

 

🔥表达对比

“令诸葛怀羞,高人齿冷?”中有关“讥讽、嘲笑”的对比表达

 

他的眼里是不是闪过一丝讥讽?

Was there a glint of mockery in his eyes?

他们讥讽着,喊叫着,打破了惯常的那一分钟沉默。

They interrupted the customary one minute’s silence with jeers and shouts.

“你可得做得比那好,”乔安娜讥讽地说。

“You’ll have to do better than that,” Joanna scoffed.

我觉得他们嘲笑我是因为我长得丑。

I thought they were laughing at me because I was ugly.

他仍然因出身低微而被人无情嘲笑。

He is still the butt of cruel jokes about his humble origins.

他看着我,冷酷的眼神里闪过一丝嘲笑。

He looked at me, a flicker of amusement in his cold eyes.

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