《说苑》《舌存齿亡》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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舌存齿亡

How The Tongue Survived The Teeth
《说苑》
Shuo Yuan
 
常枞有疾,老子往问焉,曰:“先生疾甚矣,无遗教可以语诸弟子者乎?”常枞曰:“子虽不问,吾将语子。”常枞曰:“过故乡而下车,子知之乎?”老子曰:“过故乡而下车,非谓其不忘故耶?”常枞曰:“嘻,是已。”
常摐曰:“过乔木而趋,子知之乎?”老子曰:“过乔木而趋,非谓敬老耶?”常枞曰:“嘻,是已。”
张其口而示老子曰:“吾舌存乎?”老子曰:“然。”“吾齿存乎?”老子曰:“亡。”常枞曰:“子知之乎?”老子 曰:“夫舌之存也,岂非以其柔耶?齿之亡也,岂非以其刚耶?”常枞曰:“嘻,是已。天下之事已尽矣,无以复语子哉!”
 
🎈说苑成书于西汉末年,是刘向辑录朝野藏书而成的杂着类编,体例类似《国语》、《战国策》,以记言为主兼採记事,主旨是通过书中歷史人物的言论事例来劝诫君臣,阐述儒家选贤尊贤的治国理念。此外,也载录其他学派人物的言谈事迹乃至许多「街谈巷议」的小说家言、可补《国语》《战国策》的不足,提供另一种角度来观察歷史人物的不同丰采。
 

常摐有疾,老子往问焉,曰:“先生疾甚矣,无遗教可以语诸弟子者乎?”
Ch’ang Ch’uang was sick and Laotse went to see him. The latter said to Ch’ang Ch’uang, “You are very ill. Have you not something to say to your disciple?”
🎈译文the latter代替Laotse,原因在于中文喜重复,而英文要避免重复,这是英汉极其重要的差异,这也是为什么我们经常在英文中会看到大量代词的使用。
🎈“弟子”即学生,文言文中我们经常用disciple,这个词也表示信徒、门徒。如果考场想不到,也可用student。

 
常摐曰:“子虽不问,吾将语子。”常摐曰:“过故乡而下车,子知之乎?”
“Even if you did not ask me, I was going to tell you,”replied Ch’ang Ch’ uang. “Do you know why one has to get down from one’s carriage when coming to one’s old village? ”
🎈“曰”前文用了said,避免重复,后面用reply。
🎈两句话都是“常摐曰”,因此可以作合并处理,即将说话人放在中间位置,但此时要注意标点符号的使用,特别提示,英文标点出错也会是扣分项。

 
老子曰:“过故乡而下车,非谓其不忘故耶?”
And Laotse replied, “Doesn’t this custom mean that one should not forget one’s origins? ”
🎈this custom代指前面的过故乡而下车,也可以译作this tradition。
🎈不忘故,不忘本。

 
常摐曰:“嘻,是已。”常摐曰:“过乔木而趋,子知之乎?”
“Ah, yes, ”said Ch’ang Ch’uang. Then the sick man asked again, “Do you know why one should run when passing under a tall tree? ”
🎈Then the sick man是“常摐”的指代说法,上文提过,英文要避免重复。
🎈when passing under a tall tree前后主语一致,可省略主语,后面直接加动词ing。此处when也可替换为while。

 
老子曰:“过乔木而趋,非谓敬老耶?”
“Doesn’t this custom mean we should respect what is old? ”
🎈“老”文中用的what is old,也可译作the elderly, 当指老年人这一群体,一般不用the old people,但如果指代,可以说the old man

 
常摐曰:“嘻,是已。”张其口而示老子曰:“吾舌存乎?”
“Ah, yes, ”said Ch’ang Ch’uang. Then Ch’ang Ch’uang opened his mouth wide and asked Laotse to look into it, and said, “Is my tongue still there? ”
🎈注意 then的用法,英文句与句之间要有连接词,而中文则可以一逗到底,这是因为英文是形合语言,而中文是意合语言,前者注重逻辑的外显,而后者则形散意不散。

 
老子曰:“然。”“吾齿存乎?”老子曰:“亡。”
“It is , ”replied Laotse. “Are my teeth still there? ”asked the old man. “No, ”replied Laotse.

 
常枞曰:“子知之乎?”
“And do you know why?”asked Ch’ ang Ch’ uang.

 
老子曰:“夫舌之存乎,岂非以其柔耶?齿之亡乎,岂非以其刚耶?”
“Does not the tongue last longer because it is soft? And is it not because the teeth are hard that they fall off earlier? ”replied Laotse. 
🎈“岂非”为反问语气,译成英文也要保留这种语气,表示强调。

 
常枞曰:“喜!是已。天下之事已尽矣,何以复语子哉?”
“Ah,yes, ”said Ch’ang Ch’uang. “There you have learned all the principles concerning the world. I have nothing else to teach you. ”
🎈“喜”语气词,相当于我们前面提到过的“嗟乎”。
🎈“何以复语子哉”如果不能理解这句话,就要结合上文,文章开始就是“无遗教可以语诸弟子者乎”,同时结合首尾呼应原则,就能推断出二者句意相似。
 
🔥重点词汇
disciple
n. 信徒,追随者;门徒,弟子;耶稣的信徒;[宗]耶稣十二门徒之一
a disciple of the economist John Maynard Keynes
经济学家约翰·梅纳德·凯恩斯的信徒
carriage
n. 马车;车厢;运费,运输;仪态
Canals were originally built for the carriage of coal.
运河原先是为运煤而修建的。
🔥重点表达
疾甚be very ill
无遗教可以语诸弟子
have nothing to say to your disciple
过故乡而下车
get down from one’s carriage when coming to one’s old village
过乔木而趋
one should run when passing under a tall tree
舌存齿亡How The Tongue Survived The Teeth
 
🔥表达对比
“常枞有疾”有关疾病的对比表达
 
她病得很严重,被戴上了人工呼吸器。
She was so ill that she was put on a respirator.
加勒比海地区的英国部队有大批的人病死。
British forces in the Caribbean were being decimated by disease.
他炫耀自己通过装病来逃避服兵役。
He boasts of dodging military service by feigning illness.
正当生活似乎一帆风顺的时候,她出人意料地得了一场重病
Just when it seemed life was going well, she was blindsided by a devastating illness.

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