《范县署中寄舍弟墨》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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刹院寺祖坟,是东门一枝大家公共的。我因葬父母无地,遂葬其傍,得风水力,成进士,作宦数年无恙,是众人之富贵福泽,我一人夺之也。于心安乎?不安乎?可怜我东门人取鱼捞虾,撑船结网,破屋中吃秕糠啜麦粥,搴取荇叶蕴头蒋角煮之,旁贴养麦锅饼,便是美食。幼儿女争吵,每一念及,真含泪欲落也。汝持俸钱南归,可挨家比户,逐一散给,南门六家,竹横港十八家,下佃一家,派虽远,亦是一脉,皆当有所分惠。骐驎小叔祖今安在?无父无

母孤儿,村中人最能欺负,宜访求而慰问之。自曾祖父至我兄弟四代亲戚,有久而不相识面者,各赠二金,以相连续,此后便好来往。徐宗于、陆自义辈,是旧时同学,日夕相征逐者也。犹忆谈文古庙中,破廊败叶飕飕,至二三鼓不去;或又骑石狮子脊背上,论兵起舞,纵言天下事。今皆落落未遇,亦当分俸以敦夙好。凡人于文章学问,辄自谓己长,科名唾手而得,不知俱是侥幸。设我至今不第,又何处叫屈来?岂得以此骄倨朋友?敦宗族,睦亲姻,念故交,大数既得;其馀邻里乡党,相赒相恤,汝自为之,务在金尽而止,愚兄更不必琐琐矣。

 

范县署中寄舍弟墨

To Brother Mo, From The Magistrate’s Residence At Fanhsien

 

🎈背景知识:博施济众、扶危济困、热心公益是我们中华民族的优良传统。历代的许多思想家、政治家以及民间士绅、百姓都是这种观念的倡导、力行者。中国传统家训中就有极为丰富的公益教化内容。古代的思想家们无不强调仁与爱的统一。仁爱的根本要求是爱人、助人、利人。这一传统在家训文化中可以说是得到了淋漓尽致的阐释和发挥。


 

刹院寺祖坟,是东门一枝大家公共的,我因葬父母无地,遂葬其傍。

The family cemetery at Ch’ayüansze belongs in common to the East Gate branch of our clan. Because there was no other place, I buried our parents there.

🎈“枝”通“支”,此处指派别。


 

得风水力,成进士,作宦数年无恙。是众人之富贵福泽,我一人夺之也,于心安乎?不安乎?

And thanks to its power, I have become a Chinshih. For several years now I have occupied without any mishap,which means that I have an official post robbed the clan of its luck and monopolized it all myself. Can my heart feel at ease?

🎈“风水” the location of a house or tomb, supposed to have an influence on the fortune of a family。

🎈“进士”中国古代科举制度中,通过最后一级中央政府朝廷考试者,称为进士。

🎈“恙”此处指不幸之事,而非病痛。

🎈official post此处指官职。

He enjoys popular trust, so he can get the official post.

他能当上这个官也算是民望所归了。


 

可怜我东门人,取鱼捞虾,撑船结网;破屋中吃秕糠,啜麦粥,搴取荇叶蕴头蒋角煮之,旁贴荞麦锅饼,便是美食。

It is pitiful to see our relatives at East Gate catch fish and shrimps, working on their boats and repairing nets, living in huts and eating chaff and wheat gruel. They pick water mallow, radish and water bamboo and boil them and if they have buckwheat cakes to go along with them,they consider them delicacies.

🎈“啜”chuai,引用。希尔斯登啜了一口茶,但茶是冰冷的。Hillsden took a sip of tea, but it was stone cold.

🎈“搴”qian,采摘。

🎈“秕糠”秕子和糠,均属糟粕,也常用作比喻没有价值的东西。Chaff

🎈“荇叶” 荇菜属浅水性植物。茎细长柔软而多分枝,匍匐生长,节上生根,漂浮于水面或生于泥土中。叶片形睡莲,小巧别致,鲜黄色花朵挺出水面,花多且花期长,是庭院点缀水景的佳品。

🎈“蒋角”又称“茭白”。

🎈 It is pitiful to 表态度,英文要置于句首。

🎈可怜我东门人,取鱼捞虾,撑船结网;破屋中吃秕糠,啜麦粥,中文是多个动词短语组成的流水句,但英文每句中一般只有1到2个动词,其他的处理成从句,介词短语或者ing等。


 

幼儿女争吵,每一念及,真含泪欲落也。

And the young children fight for them. Whenever I think of them, tears fill my eyes.

🎈“落泪”,还可译作shed tears。此外,英语中有多个和“哭”有关的词汇,如Weep/sob/wail/blubber,其中blubber指的是放声大哭,甚至有点儿惹人讨厌。

🎈“每一念及,真含泪欲落也”中文没有明确给出主语,翻译成英文首先要搞明白逻辑主语,然后可添加主语或者是译成被动语态。


 

汝持俸钱南归,可挨家比户,逐一散给:南门六家,竹横港十八家,下佃一家,派虽远,亦是一脉,皆当有所分惠。

When you bring money from my salary home,you should distribute it from house to house. Although the six families at the South Gate,the eighteen families at Chuhuengchiang and the lone family at Hsiat’ien are more distant relatives,they are of the same blood,and should be given something also.

🎈“俸钱”即“薪水”,salary指月薪和年薪,wage指周薪,二者均为可数名词。

🎈“南门”“竹横港”“下佃”均为地名,音译即可。


 

麒麟小叔祖亦安在?

Where is young granduncle Ch’ilin?

🎈“叔祖”,指的是祖父的弟弟,爸爸的叔叔。


 

无父无母孤儿,村中人最能欺负,宜访求而慰问之。

Such an orphan without parents to depend upon is often bullied by the people of the village. You should find out where he is and comfort him.

🎈“孤儿”orphan而非orphanage,后者指的是孤儿院,注意区分。

🎈“无父无母孤儿”中文为单独句子,英文处理成中心词加修饰语。


 

自曾祖父至我兄弟四代亲戚,有久而不相识面者,各赠二金,以相连续,此后便好来往。

All relatives in the four generations counting from our great-grandfather should be given each two dollars,and it will be easier later for us to get along with them.

🎈“曾祖父”great-grandfather

🎈“来往”即“交往”“相处”。

🎈“自曾祖父至我兄弟四代亲戚,有久而不相识面者”中文为时间状语加主句的形式,但结合后文,将“亲戚”作为中心词,其他作修饰语。

🎈英文喜被动语态,表示礼貌或正式,而中文不喜被动语态,且被动语态在中文中常指不好的事情。


 

徐宗于、陆白义辈,是旧时同学,日夕相征逐者也。

Hsü Tsungyü and Lu Poyi are my college friends,and we used to go about daily together.

🎈“日夕相征逐者也”指整天一起嬉笑打闹,译hang out/go about,文言文中的“者也”相当于英文中的定语从句,可译成定语,也可译成并列。


 

犹忆谈文古庙中,破廊败叶飕飕,至二三鼓不去;或又骑石狮子脊背上,论兵起舞,纵言天下事。

I still remember discussing literature with them in an old temple deep into the night with the falling leaves flying about. Sometimes we sat on the stone lions and discussed ancient warfare and all topics in the universe.

🎈“至二三鼓不去”指一指畅谈到深夜,和drum无关,这更突显出翻译要译的是“意”而非“行”。

🎈“论兵起舞”此处“舞”并非日常谈及的舞蹈,指的是大家在谈论战争兵器激动之时,会比划几下,就像“闻鸡起舞”。


 

今皆落落未遇,亦当分俸以敦夙好。

They have had no success at government examinations, and must also be given a share of my money for old friendship’s sake.

🎈中文为无主句,译成英文首先明确主语,然后选择添加主语或者译成被动语态,且注意用代词等避免重复。


 

凡人于文章学问,辄自谓已长,科名唾手而得,不知俱是侥幸。

People usually think a great deal of their own writings and scholarship and believe that getting degrees is an easy matter for them,but do not realize it is all due to luck.

🎈“辄自谓已长”,“辄”总是,对应英文中的频率副词。

🎈“侥幸”全靠运气。

🎈“科名”getting degrees/ passing the government examinations


 

设我至今不第,又何处叫屈来,岂得以此骄倨朋友!

Suppose I should happen to be still unsuccessful in the examinations, to whom could I complain? This is therefore not something to make one conceited toward friends.

🎈注意词句要用虚拟语气。

🎈“叫屈”即鸣冤,感到委屈,向他人抱怨。

🎈suppose的基本意思是指在证据不全、情况未确定时所作的猜想。可指缺乏确切的事实但可根据一些现象来推测,也可指提出合乎逻辑推理的假设来论证某事,还可指委婉地提出建议。


 

敦宗族,睦亲姻,念故交,大数既得;其馀邻里乡党,相赒相恤,汝自为之,务在金尽而止。愚兄更不必琐琐矣。

The principal thing is to cement goodwill among relatives and members of the clan and remember old friends;for the rest,you can do what you think fit in the way of helping the neighbors and people of the village. Spend it all; I shall spare the details.

🎈“大数既得”前面提及过,态度观点词英文置于句首,中文恰恰相反,要置于句末。

🎈“敦宗族,睦亲姻,念故交”由此可见郑公有着宗族概念,他并未将所得俸银留作自家使用,而是要堂弟分给亲友、乡邻。

 

🔥重点词汇

Clan

家族

例句

The whole clan will be here over Christmas.

一大家子人圣诞节都要来这里。

warring clans

交战的各氏族

the Campbell clan

坎贝尔家族

 

mishap

n. 灾祸;不幸事故

例句

a series of mishaps

一连串的倒霉事

a slight mishap

小小的不幸

a series of mishaps

一连串的倒霉事

 

monopolize

vt. 独占,垄断;拥有…的专卖权

例句

The company has monopolized the soft drinks market.

该公司垄断了软饮料市场。

He monopolized the conversation all evening.

整个晚上都是他一个人在说话。

Virtually all her time and energy is now monopolized by the children.

现在她几乎所有的时间和精力都被孩子们占去了。

 

orphan

n. 孤儿

vt. 使成为孤儿

例句

The war has left thousands of children as orphans.

这场战争使成千上万的孩子成为孤儿。

She was orphaned when her parents died in a plane crash.

父母死于空难后,她便成了孤儿。

He was an orphan and lived with his uncle.

他是个孤儿,和他叔叔一起生活。

 

🔥重点表达

取鱼捞虾,撑船结网

catch fish and shrimps, working on their boats and repairing nets

破屋中吃秕糠,啜麦粥

living in huts and eating chaff and wheat gruel

搴取荇叶蕴头蒋角煮之

pick water mallow, radish and water bamboo and boil them

欲落shed tears

日夕相征逐go about daily

论兵起舞,纵言天下事

discuss ancient warfare and all topics in the universe

 

🔥表达对比

Suppose的用法对比

Getting a visa isn’t as simple as you might suppose.

认为、推断、料想

办签证不像你想的那么容易。

Prices will go up, I suppose .(认为、推断、料想)

我觉得物价将会上涨。

This combination of qualities is generally supposed to be extremely rare.(认为、推断、料想)

一般认为,同时具有这样一些品质极为罕见。

Suppose I should happen to be still unsuccessful in the examinations, to whom could I complain? This is therefore not something to make one conceited toward friends.(假设,虚拟语气)

设我至今不第,又何处叫屈来,岂得以此骄倨朋友!

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