《范县署中寄舍弟墨第四书》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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范县署中寄舍弟墨第四书

Fourth Letter To Brother Mo, From The Magistrate’s Residence At Fanhsien
 
十月二十六日得家书,知新置田获秋稼五百斛,甚喜。而今而后,堪为农夫以没世矣!要须制碓、制磨、制筛罗簸箕、制大小扫帚、制升斗斛。家中妇女,率诸婢妾,皆令习舂揄蹂簸之事,便是一种靠田园长子孙气象。天寒冰冻时,穷亲戚朋友到门,先泡一大碗炒米送手中,佐以酱姜一小碟,最是暖老温贫之具。暇日咽碎米饼,煮糊涂粥,双手捧碗,缩颈而啜之,霜晨雪早,得此周身俱暖。嗟乎!嗟乎!吾其长为农夫以没世乎!
我想天地间第一等人,只有农夫,而士为四民之末。农夫上者种地百亩,其次七八十亩,其次五六十亩,皆苦其身,勤其力,耕种收获,以养天下之人。使天下无农夫,举世皆饿死矣。我辈读书人,入则孝,出则弟,守先待后,得志泽加于民,不得志修身见于世,所以又高于农夫一等。今则不然,一捧书本,便想中举、中进士、作官,如何攫取金钱、造大房屋、置多田产。起手便错走了路头,后来越做越坏,总没有个好结果。其不能发达者,乡里作恶,小头锐面,更不可当。夫束修自好者,岂无其人;经济自期,抗怀千古者,亦所在多有。而好人为坏人所累,遂令我辈开不得口;一开口,人便笑曰:“汝辈书生,总是会说,他日居官,便不如此说了。”所以忍气吞声,只得捱人笑骂。
 
🎈背景知识:《范县署中寄舍弟墨第四书》是郑燮写给堂弟郑墨的一封家书。文中提出“天地间第一等人只有农夫,而士为四民之末”,是振聋发聩之语。这虽与中国农本主义的传统有关,但更是基于作者对当时读书做官、物欲横流的不良风气的深切痛恨及批判。作者指出应尊重“苦其身,勤其力”“以养天下之人”的农夫,批评了一心想做官发财的读书人,表现了极为可贵的进步思想。全文语言浅近贴切,叙事议论不加雕饰,明白如话,但“颇有言近指远之处”。
 

十月二十六日得家书,知新置田获秋稼五百斛,甚喜。
I received a letter from home on the twenty sixth of the tenth month,and was delighted to learn that we got twenty-five hundred bushels from the new fields at the autumn harvest.
🎈十月二十六日收到家里来信,知道新买的田地,秋季收获了五百斛的作物,我非常高兴。
🎈“斛”古代的量器,方形。
🎈bushel蒲式耳,美国的一种量器。

而今而后,堪为农夫以没世矣!
From now on I can afford to be a farmer during the remainder of my days.
🎈从今以后,我们可以做个农夫过一辈子了。

 
要须制碓制磨,制筛罗簸箕,制大小扫帚,制升斗斛。
We must have all sorts of things made mortars, grinding stones, sieves, bamboo pans, big and small brooms and rice measures of all kinds.
🎈现在需要制备碓、磨、筛罗、簸箕,制备大小扫帚,制备升、斗、斛等农具。
🎈本句的重点并不在于遣词造句,而在于农具对应的英文表达,这就要求我们日常增强积累。

 
家中妇女,率诸婢妾,皆令习舂揄蹂簸之事,便是一种靠田园长子孙气象。
The women of the family shall lead the maids in housework and all learn to pound rice, winnow grains and work with their hands and feet. It will give an atmosphere of living on land and bringing up children there.
🎈家中的太太小姐们,带领家中女佣,都让她们学习舂米、扬谷之类的农事,这才有一种靠田园抚养子孙的景象。
🎈“婢妾”此处的“妾”并非皇宫中帝王的妃子concubine,而和“婢”统一指家中的女佣。

 
天寒冰冻时,穷亲戚到门,泡一大碗炒米送手中,佐以酱姜一小碟,最是暖老温贫之具。
On a cold, icy day, when poor relatives come to our door, first give them a big bowl of (boiled)toasted rice, which, helped out with a small dish of pickled ginger, is the best means of warming up the aged and the poor.
🎈天寒冰冻时,穷亲戚朋友到门,先泡一大碗炒米送手中,再用一小碟酱姜佐餐,这是最能使老人穷人感到温暖的食品了。
🎈means作“方法”,并非mean的复数,此处二者容易混淆。
🎈“酱姜”即腌制的姜片,现在在我国江西湖南一带也有吃腌制姜片的习俗,有祛湿功效,英文中和腌制有关的食品,用pickled表示。
🎈“暖老温贫”除了用warm up,也可用comfort

 
暇日咽碎米饼,煮糊涂粥,双手捧碗,缩颈而啜之,霜晨雪早,得此周身俱暖。
In our leisure days, we can eat cakes of broken rice and cook “muddle coneeg”, and eat it sinking our head into the bowl held between the hands. On a frosty or snowy morning, this makes the whole body warm.
🎈闲暇的日子吃碎米饼,煮一锅烂粥,双手捧着碗,缩着脖子喝,即使是霜雪浓重的寒冷早晨,喝上这样的热粥,也会全身暖和。
🎈“糊涂粥”就是用玉米面煮的粥,如果不知道“muddle coneeg”,可以模糊处理成gruel,我们前面提到过“荞麦粥”即wheat gruel。

 
嗟乎!嗟乎!吾其长为农夫以没世乎!
Alas! I hope to be a farmer until the end of my days!
🎈唉!唉!我们可以长久地做农夫过一辈子了!

 
天地间第一等人,只有农夫,而士为四民之末。
I think the best class of people in the world are the farmers. Scholars should be considered the last of the four classes. 
🎈天地间第一等人,就只有农夫,而读书人只能在士、农、工、商四民中居末等。
🎈中国古代重农轻商,那么“重农轻商”怎么译呢,prioritize agriculture while dismissing commerce

 
农夫上者种地百亩,其次七八十亩,其次五六十亩,皆苦其身,勤其力,耕种收获,以养天下之人。
The well-to-do farmers have a hundred(about sixteen acres) ,the second seventy eighty mu,and the next fifty or sixty mu. They all toil and labor to feed the rest of the world.
🎈农夫中耕种最多的有百亩,少一点的七八十亩,再少一点的五六十亩,都是自己辛辛苦苦,勤奋地付出劳动,耕种田地,收获庄稼,来养活天下的人。
🎈“亩”一般情况下会换算成英文中的acre,比如,已经有数千英亩森林和灌木丛林地被烧毁。Thousands of acres of forests and scrubland have been burnt. 此处直接译成mu,也省去了单位换算的过程。
🎈“皆苦其身,勤其力”文中用toil and labor,我们也可以用简单的表达work hard。

 
使天下无农夫,举世皆饿死矣。
Were it not for the farmers, we should all starve. 
🎈假使天下没有农夫,那么世上所有人都要饿死了。
🎈此句为虚拟语气。
were to do和should do都可用在表示对将来情况的虚拟,但是should do 还可以用在其他的虚拟语气句式里,比如说suggest +that从句,insist+that从句中。should do还有本应该做某事却没有做,表示责备和遗憾的用法。
虚拟语气用来表示假想,而不表示客观存在的事实,所说的是一个条件,不一定是事实,或与事实相反。虚拟语气通过谓语动词的特殊形式来表示。英语中的语气分为陈述语气、祈使语气、虚拟语气三类。虚拟语气表示说话者所说的话并非事实,或难以实现的,甚至表达相反的概念。另外表示主观愿望或表达某种强烈的感情时,也用虚拟语气。
虚拟语气表示说话人的主观愿望、猜疑、建议或与事实不符的假设等,而不表示客观存在的事实。虚拟语气是由句中的谓语从句的特殊形式表示出来的。如:
If I were a bird,I would be able to fly in the air.
如果我是一只小鸟,我就能在空中飞行。

我辈读书人,入则孝,出则弟,守先待后,得志泽加于民,不得志修身见于世,所以又高于农夫一等。
We scholars are considered one class higher than the farmers because we are supposed to be good sons at home and courteous abroad, and maintain the ancient tradition of culture;in case of success, we can serve and benefit the people, and in case of failure, we can cultivate our personal lives as an example to the world.
🎈我们这些读书人,在家孝敬父母,出外尊敬兄长,奉守先人的美德,以待传扬于后世。实现了心志,施恩泽给百姓;不能达到心愿时,就修养身心,将美德显露于世;所以又比农夫高了一等。
🎈「入则孝,出则弟」原文是「入则孝,出则悌」
子曰:弟子,入则孝,出则悌,谨而信,泛爱众,而亲仁。行有余力,则以学文。
译文:孔子说:为人弟为人子的人进家要孝顺父母,出外要顺从兄长,行为时常谨慎、守信,博爱大众,而亲近仁者。在上述几点全部做到之后,若有余力,则可研习六艺之文。
🎈 in case of如果,在……情况下。
 

今则不然,一捧书本,便想中举中进士作官,如何攫取金钱,造大房屋,置多产田。
But this is no longer true. As soon as a person takes a book in hand, he is thinking of how to pass the examinations and become a chüjen or chinshih, how to become an official and get rich and build fine houses and buy large property.
🎈可是现在的读书人却不是这样,一捧起书本,便想要考中举人、考中进士,然后做官,想着怎样捞取金钱,建造大房子,买很多田产。
🎈“今则不然”也可以翻译成things are different today
🎈我们前文提到过“秀才”government graduates

 
其不能发达者,乡里作恶,小头锐面,更不可当。
It is all wrong from the very start,and the further one goes,the more wicked one becomes. It will all come to a bad end. Those who are not successful at the examinations are still worse; they prey upon the people of the village, with a small head and thievish eyes.
🎈而那些不能飞黄腾达的,便在乡里为非作歹,削尖了脑袋到处钻营,更令人受不了。
🎈“发达” 科举失败,无法飞黄腾达,be not successful at the exams or fail the exam or fail in the exams
🎈prey upon, 掠夺,压榨,捕食,He saw that they sought to prey upon his riches and his youth.
他知道他们在千方百计地诈取他的财富,损害他的青春。

 
夫束修自好者,岂无其人;经济自期,抗怀千古者,亦所在多有。
True, there are many who hold firm to their principles, and there are everywhere some who set the highest standards for themselves. 
🎈而约束言行、自爱自重的人,难道没有了吗?希望自己能经世济民,志向高远能比得上古人的人,也到处都有啊。
🎈“约束言行、自爱自重”hold firm to their principles

 
而好人为坏人所累,遂令我辈开不得口;一开口,人便笑曰:“汝辈书生,总是会说,他日居官,便不如此说了。”
But the good suffer on account of the bad, with the result that we have to shut up. The moment we open our mouths, people will say, “All you scholars know how to talk. As soon as you become officials, you will not be saying the same things. “
🎈但是好人总是被坏人所牵累,这就使我们这些人也开不得口。一开口,人们便讥笑说:“你们这些读书人,总是只会说,将来做了官,就不这样说了。”
🎈 the good suffer on account of the bad ,on account of由于,也可以换成because of

 
所以忍气吞声,只得捱人笑骂。
That is why we have to keep quiet and accept the insults.
🎈所以忍气吞声,只能忍受别人的笑骂。
 
🔥重点词汇
remainder
n. 剩余物;其他人员;差数;廉价出售的图书
vt. 廉价出售(书);廉价出售
例句
The remainder of the works would wait until after Dickinson’s death.
有关工程的其余部分将等到狄金森死亡.
pickled
adj. 烂醉如泥的,盐渍的,腌制的
v. 腌( pickle的过去式和过去分词)
例句
The pickled vegetable of bottled coriander heart is convenient and high quality.
瓶装香菜心酱菜,香味浓郁,脆爽可口,是方便佐餐之佳品.
courteous
adj. 有礼貌的;谦恭的;殷勤的;客气
例句
They must provide a courteous and efficient service to the passengers.
他们必须为乘客提供礼貌而高效的服务.
 
🔥重点表达
率诸婢妾,皆令习舂揄蹂簸之事
lead the maids in housework and all learn to pound rice, winnow grains and work with their hands and feet
天寒冰冻时 On a cold, icy day
使天下无农夫,举世皆饿死矣
Were it not for the farmers, we should all starve. 
中举中进士作官,如何攫取金钱,造大房屋,置多产田
how to pass the examinations and become a chüjen or chinshih, how to become an official and get rich and build fine houses and buy large property
忍气吞声,捱人笑骂
keep quiet and accept the insults
 
🔥表达对比
「捱人笑骂」译成insult,即侮辱、冒犯
有关侮辱、冒犯的表达有多少呢?
 
一有机会,同事们就会侮辱他们。
Their colleagues insulted them whenever the opportunity presented itself.
 
其中一名学徒对着一名路过的警官说了一句侮辱他的话。
One of the apprentices made an insulting remark to a passing officer.
 
她将我的询问当成了人身侮辱。
She has taken my enquiry as a personal affront.
 
这番冒犯性的话实际上是一名观众的诘难。
The offending comment was in fact a heckle from an audience member.
 
他假装受到了冒犯,但其实内心很高兴。
He pretended to be affronted, but inwardly he was pleased.
 
他本想表现得风趣一点,却弄巧成拙地冒犯了别人。
In a misguided attempt to be funny, he manages only offensiveness.

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