《潍县署中与舍弟墨第二书》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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潍县署中与舍弟墨第二书

Second Letter To Brother Mo, From The Magistrate’s Residence at Weihsien
余五十二岁始得一子,岂有不爱之理!然爱之必以其道,虽嬉戏玩耍,务令忠厚悱恻,毋为刻急也。
平生最不喜笼中养鸟,我图娱悦,彼在囚牢,何情何理,而必屈物之性以适吾性乎!至于发系蜻蜓,线缚螃蟹,为小儿玩具,不过一时片刻便摺拉而死。夫天地生物,化育劬劳,一蚁一虫,皆本阴阳五行之气,氤氲而出。上帝亦心心爱念。而万物之性,人为贵。吾辈竟不能体天之心以为心,万物将何所托命乎?蛇蚖、蜈蚣、豺狼、虎豹,虫之最毒者也,然天既生之,我何得而杀之?若必欲尽杀,天地又何必生?亦惟驱之使远,避之使不相害而已。蜘蛛结网,于人何罪,或谓其夜间咒月,令人墙倾壁倒,遂击杀无遗。此等说话,出于何经何典,而遂以此残物之命,可乎哉?
我不在家,儿子便是你管束。要须长其忠厚之情,驱其残忍之性,不得以为犹子而姑纵惜也。家人儿女,总是天地间一般人,当一般爱惜,不可使吾儿凌虐他!凡鱼飧果饼,宜均分散给,大家欢嬉跳跃。若吾儿坐食好物,令家人子远立而望,不得一沾唇齿;其父母见而怜之,无可如何,呼之使去,岂非割心剜肉乎!
夫读书中举中进士作官,此是小事,第一要明理作个好人。可将此书读与郭嫂、饶嫂听,使二妇人知爱子之道在此不在彼也。
 
🎈背景知识:此书作于乾隆十四年(或稍前),郑板桥五十七岁。这一年,他五岁的独子在老家兴化入塾从师,然而也就在这一年病殁。此书书尾未署年月,但与写于十四年的第三书联系来看,估计此书写在儿子已经入塾或将要入塾的那一时刻。郑何时送子还乡难于考察,但从此书书尾提到的“可将此书读与郭嫂、饶嫂听,使二妇人知爱子之道在此不在彼也”,大约儿子是由郭、饶二妾直接抚养的(儿子系饶氏在山东所生,史有载)。知道了这种背景,就可以理解这封旨在向弟弟和二妾宣讲爱子之道的家书了。
 

余五十二岁始得一子,岂有不爱之理!
My only son was born to me in my fifty-second year. Of course, I love him.
🎈此处注意岁数的表达。
🎈“岂有不爱之理!”也可以用否定表肯定How could i not love him?

 
然爱之必以其道,虽嬉戏顽耍,务令忠厚悱恻,毋为刻急也。
But there is a correct way of loving one’s children. Even in games,he should be taught to show the heart of mercy and generosity, and avoid cruelty. 
🎈刻急:苛刻严峻。
🎈忠厚悱恻是为人忠诚宽厚内心悲苦凄切。
🎈毋,禁止,不要。

 
平生最不喜笼中养鸟。
What I hate most is to have caged birds.
🎈cage动词,将动物关进笼中,名词,笼子。鸟笼,a birdcage。
🎈也可以用I做主语,即I hate caging birds most in my whole life.

我图娱悦,彼在囚牢,何情何理,而必屈物之性以适吾性乎!
we enjoy them while they are shut up in prison. What justification is there that we are entitled to thwart the instincts of animals to please our own nature? 
🎈我贪图快乐,它在笼中,有什么情理,一定要让它的性情屈服来适应我的性情。
🎈“合情合理”即有什么道理呢,凭什么是这样。考试也可用is it reasonable/ is it right
🎈“屈物之性”thwart the instincts of animals,thwart阻碍,使受挫败。

 
至于发系蜻蜓,线缚螃蟹,为小儿顽具,不过一时片刻便折拉而死。
As for tying up a dragonfly by hair or tying a crab with a piece of string, it affords the children some fun only for a little while, and soon the little thing is dead.
🎈“至于”as for
🎈蜻蜓dragonfly
🎈the little thing is dead,the little指发系蜻蜓或线缚螃蟹,避免重复。
🎈至于用头发系住蜻蜓,用线捆住螃蟹,作为小孩的玩具,不到一会儿拉扯就死了。

 
夫天地生物,化育劬劳,一蚁一虫,皆本阴阳五行之气缊而出。
Now nature creates all things and nourishes them all. Even an ant or an insect comes from the combination of forces of the yin and yang and the five elements.
🎈化育,释义是化生长育,教化培育。
🎈劬劳,释义:劳苦、苦累的意思,也指父母抚养儿女的劳累(例:哀哀父母,生我劬劳;念劬劳之恩,星夜前来,以全孝道)出自《诗经·小雅·蓼莪》
🎈阴阳、五行 the yin and yang and the five elements

 
上帝亦心心爱念。
God also loves them dearly in his heart.

 
而万物之性人为贵,吾辈竟不能体天之心以为心,万物将何所托命乎?
And we who are supposed to be the crown of all creation cannot even sympathize with God’s heart. How then is the animal world going to have a place of refuge?
🎈sympathize同理心
🎈creation(宗教)创世,天地万物。在许多宗教文化中,creation指的是上帝创造宇宙、地球、以及天地万物,一般大写,比如,the Creation of the universe by God

 
蛇蚖蜈蚣豺狼虎豹,虫之最毒者也,然天既生之,我何得而杀之。
Snakes and centipedes, tigers, leopards and wolves are most dangerous animals. But since Heaven has given birth to them,what right have we to take their lives?
🎈蚖(yuán):蝮蛇。也称“虺(huǐ)”
🎈虫是汉语常用字 ,读作chóng或huǐ。虫和它的繁体本是两个不同的字。简体“虫”本读huǐ,初文见于商代甲骨文 [2]  。甲骨文的“虫(huǐ)”状似一条蛇,本义为较小的毒蛇。古籍中多写作“虺”。繁体“虫”读chóng,最早见于战国 [3]  ,字形由三个“虫(huǐ)”组成,表示各种类型的虫子,又是动物的通称,也专指昆虫。后来“虫(huǐ)”被用作“虫(chóng)”的简化字。
🎈此处“虫”指animal,而非insect
🎈“杀”考场上用kill也可以。

 
若必欲尽杀,天地又何必生。
If they were all meant to be killed, then why in the first place did Heaven give them life?
🎈were为虚拟语气。

 
亦惟驱之使远,避之使不相害而已。
All we can do is to drive them far away so that they shall not harm us.
🎈我们所能做的就是把它们分开,以免它们伤害我们。

 
蜘蛛结网,于人何罪,或谓其夜间咒月,令人墙倾壁倒,遂击杀无遗。
What wrong has the spider committed by spinning its web? Some kill them without mercy on the fairy tale that they curse the moon or that they may make the walls crumble down.
🎈What wrong has the spider committed by spinning its web? Commit wrong/crime 犯罪,wrong在此处为名词。
🎈“或谓”有人说。

 
此等说话,出于何经何典,而遂以此残物之命,可乎哉?
On what authority is such a statement based, by which we kill animals’ lives? Will this do? Will this do?
🎈你说的这些话,这些言论出自哪部经典之作,于是就作为依据残害生灵的性命,这样可以吗?
🎈be based on authority 权威依据
🎈by which 为非限制定语从句。

 
我不在家,儿子便是你管束。要须长其忠厚之情,驱其残忍之性,不得以为犹子而姑纵惜也。
As I am away from home,you should watch over my son. Develop his heart of kindness and stop his cruelties. Don’t spare him because he is your nephew, and not your son. 
🎈我不在家,请照看好我的儿子。培养他善良的心,停止他的残忍。不要因为他是你的侄子,而不是你的儿子而饶恕他。
🎈spare him,可以联想到“棍棒出好子,娇养忤逆儿”spare the rod and spoil the child。

 
家人儿女,总是天地间一般人,当一般爱惜,不可使吾儿凌虐他。
The children of our servants are also a part of humankind. We should be equally kind to them and should not permit our children to bully them.
🎈“家人”此处结合语境并非family members,而是指家中的仆人。

 
凡鱼飧果饼,宜均分散给,大家欢嬉跳跃。
When there are fish or eatables, we must also share them with their children and see them happy and jump about.
🎈飧,读作:sūn。该字的主要字义是指晚饭,亦泛指熟食,饭食。也指晚餐,如:谁知盘中餐(飧),粒粒皆辛苦。
🎈eatables食物。

 
若吾儿坐食好物,令家人子远立而望,不得一沾唇齿;其父母见而怜之,无可如何,呼之使去,岂非割心剜肉乎!
If our own children are eating delicacies and let the servants’ children stand far away looking on, not having a taste of the food, their parents will see it and, while pitying them and being unable to help them, will shout to them to go away. Is this not heart-rending for the parents?
🎈如果我们自己的孩子吃美食,让仆人的孩子站在远处看着,没有品尝食物,他们的父母会看到它,同时怜悯他们,无法帮助他们,会喊他们离开。这难道不是让父母感到心碎吗?
🎈“割心剜肉”heart-rending or heart-broken
🎈“美食”delicacies or fine food

 
夫读书中举中进士作官,此是小事,第一要明理作个好人。
Now to be a scholar and be a college graduate or a doctor is a small thing; the important thing is to be reasonable and be a good man.
🎈“中举中进士”scholar 和 government graduates/college graduate,进士一词在前面几篇文章中反复提到,要注意复习。
🎈“明事理”be reasonable

 
可将此书读与郭嫂、饶嫂听,使二妇人知爱子之道在此不在彼也。
Read this to sister-in-law Kuo and sister-in -law Jao, and let them know that there is a proper and an improper way of loving their children.
🎈中文“嫂子”sister-in -law,由此可以延伸小叔子,小姨子,小姑子等特色词汇的译法。
 
🔥重点词汇
magistrate
地方法官,治安官;文职官员;治安推事
例句
Cheng Anthe state in the past , county magistrate the official editing history the Academy straight degree.
承安进士,历任州录事 、 县令、国史编修官、翰林直学士.
 
entitle
v. 使符合资格;给…命名;给予…权利
例句
If the warranty is limited, the terms may entitle you to a replacement or refund.
如果保修有限制,根据条款你也许可以要求退换或者退款。
 
justification
n. 辩解;无过失;正当的理由
例句
He was getting angry─and with some justification.
他生气了——而且不是没有道理的。Sympathize
 
crumble
v. (使)破碎;坍塌;崩溃;无力应付
n. 酥皮水果甜点
例句
The fall leaves crumbled in my fingers.
秋叶在我指间碎裂了。
 
🔥重点表达
忠厚悱恻show the heart of mercy and generosity
笼中养鸟have caged birds
发系蜻蜓,线缚螃蟹,为小儿顽具
tying up a dragonfly by hair or tying a crab with a piece of string, it affords the children some fun only for a little while
而万物之性人为贵,吾辈竟不能体天之心以为心,万物将何所托命乎?
And we who are supposed to be the crown of all creation cannot even sympathize with God’s heart. How then is the animal world going to have a place of refuge?
 
🔥表达对比
「不可使吾儿凌虐他」中「凌虐、欺辱」的对比表达
 
在测试产品时凌虐动物这一方面,工业是无独有偶的.
Industry is not alone in its abuse of animals in product testing.
 
他经常凌虐自家的小猫小狗.
He often abuses the puppies, and kittens in his home.
 
被监禁的人时时受到严刑苦打与凌虐.
Detainees are routinely subjected to severe beatings, torture and other ill – treatment.
 
欺辱这些手无寸铁的平民,这些人真是丧尽天良.
They are utterly devoid of conscience , they even humiliated these defenseless civilians.
 
海在风的蛊惑下, 欺辱 、 吞噬 、 伤害着忠贞不二的峭石.
Confused by the sea in the wind, the bullied , engulfed, injuries are the steep stone loyalty.

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