《Patterns of culture 文化的模式》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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Patterns of culture

文化的模式

 

Custom has not commonly been regarded as a subject of any great moment.

风俗一般未被认为是什么重要的课题。

🎈commonly adj. 通常;广泛地usually; widely

例句

The disease is commonly known as mad cow disease.

这种病俗称疯牛病。

🎈moment n. 重要outstanding significance or value, importance

非常重要的… of great moment

一个非常重要的发现a discovery of great moment

🎈momentous adj. 重要的,重大的,关键的=vital, crucial, key, critical


 

The inner workings of our own brains we feel to be uniquely worthy of investigation, but custom, we have a way of thinking, is behaviour at is most commonplace.

我们觉得,只有我们大脑内部的活动情况才值得研究,至于风俗呢,只是些司空见惯的行为而已。

🎈we feel是主谓部分,The inner workings of our own brains是feel的宾语(宾语前置),to be uniquely worthy of investigation是宾语补足语。宾语前置通常是为了强调宾语部分。同时,也有宾语后置,这通常是考虑到长度问题,比如That John is a thief I can’t believe.意同 I can’t believe that John is a thief.

🎈工作方式,运作方式,运转方式the workings of sth.

政府的运作方式the workings of government

汽车马达的运作方式the workings of a car engine

🎈值得…

be worthy of n.

be worthy to do / to be done

be worth n. / doing

注意这个结构中的doing就是doing,不等于being done,即即便是被动,也要用主动表被动

例句

The day when Beijing won the right to host 2008 Olympic Games is worth being celebrated. ×

The day when Beijing won the right to host 2008 Olympic Games is worth celebration/ celebrating. √

句中的… to be uniquely worthy of investigation= … to be uniquely worthy to be investigated …/… to be uniquely worth investigation …/… to be uniquely worth investigating …

🎈往往,常常have a way of doing sth

例句

Ruth has a way of ignoring me that drives me mad.

🎈commonplace adj. 寻常的,司空见惯的,不足为奇的happening or existing in many places, and therefore not special or unusual

例句

All these computer uses have become commonplace.

计算机操作/以前是新鲜事儿,但现在已经不足为奇了

🎈处于……最……的状态 at one’s + 形容词最高级

例句

At the age of twelve years, the human body is at its most vigorous(最精力充沛的时候).


 

As a matter of fact, it is the other way around.

事实上,情况正好相反。

🎈正好相反/截然相反,相反,正相反

the other way around / round

the opposite/ the contrary/ the reverse/ the antithesis

例句

The other side of the picture is quite the opposite.

The teachers say my son is slow(迟钝), but I believe the reverse.

She is slim and shy―the very antithesis of her sister.(她的姐姐/妹妹和她正好相反)


 

Traditional custom, taken the world over, is a mass of detailed behaviour more astonishing than what any one person can ever evolve in individual actions, no matter how aberrant.

从世界范围来看,传统风俗是由许多细节性的习惯行为组成,它比任何一个养成的行为都更加引人注目,不管个人行为多么异常。

🎈全世界the world over

all over the world

throughout the world

around the world

🎈大量…a mass of… / masses of…

a lot of… / lots of…

🎈evolve v. 演变to develop and change gradually ;(生物)进化

演变成…evolve into…

由…演变而来 evolve from…

例句

Popular music evolved from folk songs(民歌).

The group gradually evolved into a political party(政党).

达尔文(生物)进化论Darwin’s theory of evolution

【词根】“volve”转

evolve 演变,进化

involve 涉及

revolve 旋转

🎈aberrant adj.异常的abnormal

例句

Taking drugs may result in aberrant behavior.

吸毒会导致异常的行为。


 

Yet that is a rather trivial aspect of the matter.

这只是问题的一个次要的侧面。

🎈 trivial adj. 微不足道的not serious, important, or valuable

微不足道的细节/一件小事/小问题 a trivial detail / matter / problem

例句

I know it sounds trivial, but I’m worried about it.

我知道它听起来不重要,但我还是有点担心。


 

The fact of first-rate importance is the predominant role that custom plays in experience and in belief, and the very great varieties it may manifest.

最重要的是,风俗在实践中和信仰上所起的举足轻重的作用,以及它所表现出来的极其丰富多彩的形式。

🎈…重要的… …of … importance

例句

The cultivation of a hobby and new forms of interest is therefore a policy of the first importance(头等重要的) to a public man.

🎈在…中起…作用/扮演…角色 play a … role / part in …

🎈variety n. 1. [C] 种类 2. [U] 千变万化,多样性

例句

There is so much variety that you never have to make do with second best(拿二等品凑合).

各种各样的a variety of …

🎈 manifest vt. 使……显露出来

例句

Musical talent usually manifests itself in childhood.

音乐天分通常在儿童时期就显现了出来。

manifest adj. 明显的

例句

Surely because progress of a particular kind(一种特殊类型的进步) is actually taking place around us and is becoming more and more manifest.

 


No man ever looks at the world with pristine eyes.

没有一个人是用纯洁而无偏见的眼光看待世界。

🎈pristine adj. 纯洁的,全新的extremely clean or new

例句

He has a pristine reputation.(名声没有污点)

The bike was in pristine condition.(处于全新状态)


 

He sees it edited by a definite set of customs and institutions and ways of thinking.

他所看到的是一个受特定风俗习惯、制度和思想方式剪辑过的世界。

🎈institution

1. [C] 大型机构

金融/教育/慈善机构a financial / educational / charitable institution

2. [C] 风俗习惯;习俗

例句

Drinking tea at 4 pm(喝下午茶) is a popular British institution.


 

Even in his philosophical probings he cannot go behind these stereotypes; his very concepts of the true and the false will still have reference to his particular traditional customs.

甚至在哲学领域的探索中,人们也无法超越这此定型的框框。人们关于真与伪的概念依然和特定的传统风俗有关。

🎈probe v. 打探,探究,调查to ask questions in order to find out secret or hidden information about sb./sth.

例句

He didn’t like the media probing into his past.

他不喜欢媒体打探他的过去。

🎈stereotype n. [C] 陈规,老一套,旧框框image, idea, character, etc. that has become fixed or standardized in a conventional form without individuality

例句

He doesn’t conform to the usual stereotype of the city businessman with a dark suit and rolled umbrella.

他不像典型的城市商人那样, 穿一身深色的西装、带一把收好的雨伞。

【形近词】prototype n. [C] 事物之原始形态,原型,雏形,模型,蓝本first or original example of sth. that has been or will be copied or developed; model or preliminary version

未来的学校建筑的模型the prototype for future school buildings

超音速飞机的样机 a prototype supersonic aircraft

🎈very adj. (used to emphasize a n. 用以加强名词的语气)

例句

He knows our very thoughts.

他了解我们内心深处的想法。

The very idea of going abroad delighted him.

他想到出国一事就很欢喜。

🎈与……有关have reference to …

例句

This has no reference to what we were discussing.

这和我们要讨论的事情无关。


 

John Dewey has said in all seriousness that the part played by custom in shaping the behaviour of the individual, as against any way in which he can affect traditional custom, is as the proportion of the total vocabulary of his mother tongue against those words of his own baby talk that are taken up into the vernacular of his family.

约翰·杜威曾经非常严肃地指出:风俗在塑造个人行为方面所起的作用和一个人对风俗的任何影响相比,就好像他本国语言的总词汇量和自己咿呀学语时所接纳的他的词汇量相比。

🎈John Dewey:American philosopher, psychologist and educator

🎈A和B相比就如同C与D相比一样A as against B is as C against D

例句

The military power of the US, as against that of DPRK(朝鲜), is as the strength of an elephant against that of a mouse.

🎈接受take sth⇔up

例句

Rob took up the invitation to visit.

🎈vernacular n. [C] 本地话,方言土语language or dialect spoken in a particular country or region, as compared with a formal or written language


 

When one seriously studies the social orders that have had the opportunity to develop autonomously, the figure becomes no more than an exact and matter-of -fact observation.

当人们认真对有机会自发形成的社会制度进行研究时,这个比喻就成了确切而实事求是的评语。

🎈autonomous adj. 自治的,独立的

例句

He treated us as autonomous individuals (独立的个体)who had to learn to make up our own minds about important issues.

🎈figure n. 比喻figure of speech

例句

‘Get up with the lark’ is a figure (of speech), meaning ‘Get out of bed early’.(早鸟,早起)

🎈只不过no more than=only

例句

It will take no more than five days to read the book.

我只花了五天就读完了这本书。

🎈matter-of-fact adj. 不带个人情感的showing no emotion when you are talking about sth. exciting, frightening, upsetting etc.

例句

She told us the news of his death in a very matter-of-fact way.

🎈observation n. remark or comment 言语,评论

例句

She made one or two observations about the weather.

她对天气发表论一两句看法。


 

The life history of the individual is first and foremost an accommodation to the patterns and standards traditionally handed down in his community.

个人的生命史首先就是适应他的社团世代相传形成的生活方式和准则。

🎈首要地,主要 first and foremost

例句

First and foremost, we have to consider the morality of the enterprise(企业道德).

🎈对……的适应accommodation to sth.

适应……accommodate to sth.

使我和你的计划相吻合/根据你的计划调整我的计划the accommodation of my plans to yours

例句

Her eyes took a while to accommodate to the darkness.

她的眼睛过了一会儿才适应了黑暗。

🎈传递,传承 hand sth. down  [pass sth. from older people to younger ones]

例句

The recipe was handed down from an ancestor of the family.

🎈community n. 集体,群体a group of people who have the same interests, religion, race etc.


 

From the moment of his birth, the customs into which he is born shape his experience and behaviour. By the time he can talk, he is the little creature of his culture, and by the time he is grown and able to take part in its activities, its habits are his habits, its beliefs his beliefs, its impossibilities his impossibilities.

从他呱呱坠地的时刻起,他所生于其中的风俗就开始塑造他的经历和行为规范。到他能讲话时,他成为他所属的文化塑造的一个小生物,当他成长并能参与社会活动时,那种文化习惯就是他的习惯,那种文化信仰就是他的信仰,那种文化不可能做到的他也做不到。

🎈By the time …and by the time…its activities是时间状语。its habits are his habits, its beliefs his beliefs, its impossibilities his impossibilities相当于…its beliefs (are) his beliefs, its impossibilities (are) his impossibilities,省略了相同的部分。

🎈creature n. 产物,奴隶,傀儡someone who is controlled or influenced a lot by sth.

…的产物,奴隶,傀儡creature of …

例句

He is a creature of the government.

政府的傀儡


 

Every child that is born into his group will share them with him, and no child born into one on the opposite side of the globe can ever achieve the thousandth part.

每一个和他诞生在同一个社团中的孩子和他一样具有相同的习俗;而在地球的另一边,诞生在另一个社团的孩子与他就很少有相同的习俗。

🎈出生在… be born in / into … [in+大地点,into+家庭/家族]

例句

I was born in Tokyo.

Meg was born into a large family.

🎈share v. to have the same opinion, quality, or experience as sb. else 有一样的,有共同的

例句

I believe my view is widely shared.

我认为很多人和我有一样的看法。

和…分享… share sth. with sb.

例句

People often share their political views(政治观点) with their parents


 

There is no social problem it is more incumbent upon us to understand than this of the role of custom.

没有任何一个社会问题比风俗的作用更需我们责无旁贷地予以了解。

🎈这句话省略了很多东西,补充完整:There is no social problem (which) it is more incumbent upon us to understand than this (social problem) of the role of custom.

🎈某人有责任…it is incumbent upon / on sb. to do sth.

例句

It is incumbent upon parents to control what their children watch on TV.


 

Until we are intelligent as to its laws and varieties, the main complicating facts of human life must remain unintelligible.

直到我们理解了它的规律和多样性之后,我们才能明白人类生活中主要的复杂现象。

🎈intelligent

adj. 能够理解的,了解的showing powers of understanding

例句

The vast majority of us are not intelligent about the whole thing.

unintelligible

adj. 不可能理解的,难懂的impossible to understand

例句

What he said was completely unintelligible to me because he used many technical terms.

🎈关于,对于as to= about = with regard to

例句

He was uncertain as to which road to take.

 


The study of custom can be profitable only after certain preliminary propositions have been accepted, and some of these propositions have been violently opposed.

只有在某些基本的主张被接受下来、同时有些主张被激烈反对时,对风俗的研究才是全面的, 才会有收获。

🎈preliminary adj. 开端的,初步的,预备性的coming before a more important action or event, preparatory

几句开场白之后after a few preliminary remarks

初步调查/试验/谈判preliminary inquiries / experiments / negotiations

预赛a preliminary contest

🎈proposition n. 观点,见解,主张statement that expresses a judgement or an opinion, assertion

例句

The proposition is so clear that it needs no explanation.

这个观点太明了了,无需进一步解释。


 

In the first place, any scientific study requires that there be no preferential weighting of one or another of the items in the series it selects for its consideration.

首先,任何科学研究都要求人们对可供考虑的诸多因素不能厚此薄彼,偏向某一方面。

🎈首先In the first place

first / firstly first of all

to begin with to start with

例句

In the first place(首先), I’m too busy, and in the second(其次), I don’t really want to go.

🎈preferential adj. 优先的,给予优先的,得到优先的,优待的of, giving, receiving or showing preference

例句

Europe has given Caribbean(加勒比海地区的) banana growers preferential treatment(给予优待) for more than 20 years.

🎈weight vt. [esp passive 尤用于被动语态] 计划或组织(某事物)使之偏向某人或某集体,使偏袒plan or organize (sth.) in a way that favours a particular person or group, bias

对土地持有者不利的法规a law weighted against those owning land

对土地持有者偏袒的法规a law weighted in favour of those owning land


 

In all the less controversial fields, like the study of cacti or termites or the nature of nebulae, the necessary method of study is to group the relevant material and to take note of all possible variant forms and conditions.

在一切争议较小的领域里,如对仙人掌、白蚁或星云性质的研究,应采取的研究方法是收集有关资料,记下所有可能产生的变化形式和条件就可以了。

🎈group v. 使聚集,汇集to make sb./sth. form a group

例句

The children grouped themselves around their teacher.

孩子们聚集在老师身边

All the multiple choice questions will be grouped together(汇总) for convenience.

🎈注意… take note of sth. = pay attention to sth. = take notice of sth.

例句

People were beginning to take note of her talents as a writer.

🎈variant adj. having or exhibiting variation; differing 相异的,不同的

这个单词的另一种形式a variant form of the word (如英美式拼写)

variant n. [C] 变种,变体sth. which is slightly different from other similar things

…的变种 variant on / of …

 


In this way, we have learned all that we know of the laws of astronomy, or of the habits of the social insects, let us say.

通过这样做,可以说我们已取得了有关天文学定律或是群居性昆虫习惯等的所有知识。

🎈比如说,例如(let us) say= for example

例句

To see the problem here more clearly, let’s look at a different biological system, (let us) say, an acorn(橡子).


 

It is only in the study of man himself that the major social sciences have substituted the study of one local variation, that of Western civilization.

只是在研究人类本身时,主要社会科学才取代对一种地区性变化(例如西方文明)的研究。

🎈这句话根据上下文语境有所省略,补充完整是It is only in the study of man himself that the major social sciences have substituted the study of one local variation, that of Western civilization, (for the study of custom of all human beings).

🎈用A代替B substitute A for B=replace B with A

例句

You can substitute chicken for beef if you don’t like red meat.

You can replace beef with chicken if you don’t like red meat.


 

Anthropology was by definition impossible, as long as these distinctions between ourselves and the primitive, ourselves and the barbarian, ourselves and the pagan, held sway over people’s minds.

只要我们同原始人、我们同野蛮人、我们同异教徒之间存在的区别在人们头脑中占支配地位,人类学按它的定义就不可能存在。

🎈从本质上来说by definition

例句

People say that students are by definition idealistic and impatient.

人们说学生本质上都是理想主义和缺乏耐心的。

🎈占主导地位hold sway

例句

The traditional idea of wearing new clothes on New Year’s day(新年穿新衣) seems no longer to hold sway.


 

It was necessary first to arrive at that degree of sophistication where we no longer set our own belief against our neighbour’s superstition.

我们首先需要达到这样一种成熟的程度:不用自己的信仰去反对我们邻居的迷信。

🎈使某人反对或敌视(朋友、亲戚等),挑拨离间 set … against …

例句

The civil war set brother against brother.

内战使兄弟反目。


 

It was necessary to recognize that these institutions which are based on the same premises, let us say the supernatural, must be considered together, our own among the rest.

必须认识到,这些建立在相同前提基础上的风俗,暂且可以说是超自然的东西,必须放在一起加以考虑,我们自己的风俗和其他民族的风俗都在其中。

🎈premise n. (推理所依据的)前提,假定statement or idea on which reasoning is based, hypothesis

例句

Advice to investors was based on the premise that interest rates(利率) would continue to fall.

🎈supernatural adj. 超自然的that cannot be explained by natural or physical laws [注:不等同于迷信]

超自然生物supernatural beings

(例如)angels and devils(天使和魔鬼)

witch-doctors(巫医,巫师) believed to have supernatural powers

🎈是…之一;包括在…之中be among …

例句

He was among the last to leave.

他是最后离开的人之一。

 

🔥必背词汇

predominant      adj. 显著的,主要的,多数的

例句

Research forms the predominant part of my job.

做研究是我的主要工作内容。

predominate v. 占多数,最重要,最显著

例句

In older age groups women predominate because men tend to die younger.

在老年人群体中,女性占大多数,因为男性死亡时间更早/寿命更短。

predominance n. 多数,优势

班上男生占多数a predominance of boys in the class

英国海军的优势Britain’s naval predominance

【词根】“dom” = rule

dominate v. 统治,支配,占优势

dominant adj. 最重要的,占支配地位的

domination n. 统治,支配

dominion n. 统治,管辖;领土,版图

predominate “pre” = before v. 占多数,最重要,最显著

predominant adj. 显著的,主要的,多数的

predominance n. 多数,优势

 

incumbent      adj. 有责任,有义务,必须履行的;现任的

某人应该… incumbent on / upon sb.

例句

It is incumbent upon all users of this equipment to familiarize themselves with the safety procedure.

所有设备使用者都应该熟知安全规范。

现任总统the incumbent president

【词根】“cumb” = lie down

incumbent “in” = into adj. 有责任,有义务,必须履行的;现任的

encumber “en” = in v. 妨碍,阻碍

cumbersome “some”(形容词后缀)adj. 笨重的

concubine “con” = together n. 妾,姨太太,小老婆

succumb “sub” = under v. 屈从,服从

recumbent “re” = back adj. 躺着的

 

cactus      n. 仙人掌

cactus → 复数 cacti / cactuses

stimulus → 复数 stimuli [刺激(物)]

bacillus→ 复数 bacilli [杆菌]

alumnus → 复数 alumni [校友(男女均可)]

 

nebula      n. 星云 [英义a mass of gas and dust among the stars, which often appears as a bright cloud in the sky at night]

nebula→ 复数 nebulae

larva → 复数 larvae [幼虫]

alumna→复数 alumnae [女校友]

 

barbarian       n. 野蛮人;没有教养的人

五世纪野蛮人的入侵barbarian invasions of the fifth century

例句

How can you call those barbarians your friends?

你怎么能把那些没有教养的人当作朋友呢?

barbarous = barbaric adj. 野蛮的→barbarism n. 野蛮

虐待战俘the barbarous treatment of these prisoners of war

例句

The terrorist attack(恐怖袭击) was condemned as an act of barbarism and cowardice(懦弱).

【反义词】civilized adj. 文明的→civilization n. 文明

 

sophistication     n.

1高级,复杂,先进;

例句

Given the sophistication of modern machines, there is little that cannot be successfully washed at home.

(暗示自动化程度很高,比如洗衣机、洗碗机等)

2老练,世故

例句

She spoke simply and directly, without sophistication.

她说话单纯又直白,一点都不老练。(类似于too young too simple)

3聪明,有经验,理解力强

有高度理解力的计算机用户computer users with a high degree of sophistication

sophisticated adj.

1. (of machine, device, or method)高级的,复杂的,先进的

2. 老练的,世故的

3.聪明的,有经验的,理解力强的

先进的现代武器sophisticated modern weapons

例句

He was older than me and from London and I thought him very sophisticated.

他年龄比我大,又来自伦敦,(所以)我觉得他肯定非常知世故。

Consumers are getting more sophisticated and more demanding.

消费者正变得越来越聪明,也越来越苛刻。

 

🔥重点表达

班上男生占多数a predominance of boys in the class

英国海军的优势Britain’s naval predominance

某人应该… incumbent on / upon sb.

现任总统the incumbent president

有高度理解力的计算机用户computer users with a high degree of sophistication

一个非常重要的发现a discovery of great moment

工作方式,运作方式,运转方式the workings of sth.

往往,常常have a way of doing sth

处于……最……的状态 at one’s + 形容词最高级

正好相反/截然相反,相反,正相反 the other way around / round

大量…a mass of… / masses of…

演变成…evolve into…

由…演变而来 evolve from…

微不足道的细节/一件小事/小问题 a trivial detail / matter / problem

头等重要的of the first importance

各种各样的a variety of …

在…中起…作用/扮演…角色 play a … role / part in …

金融/教育/慈善机构a financial / educational / charitable institution

未来的学校建筑的模型the prototype for future school buildings

超音速飞机的样机 a prototype supersonic aircraft

与……有关have reference to …

A和B相比就如同C与D相比一样A as against B is as C against D

接受take sth⇔up

只不过no more than=only

首要地,主要 first and foremost

对……的适应accommodation to sth.

适应……accommodate to sth.

传递,传承 hand sth. down

…的产物,奴隶,傀儡creature of …

出生在… be born in / into …

和…分享… share sth. with sb.

某人有责任…it is incumbent upon / on sb. to do sth.

关于,对于as to= about = with regard to

几句开场白之后after a few preliminary remarks

初步调查/试验/谈判preliminary inquiries / experiments / negotiations

预赛a preliminary contest

首先In the first place

对土地持有者不利的法规a law weighted against those owning land

对土地持有者偏袒的法规a law weighted in favour of those owning land

…的变种 variant on / of …

比如说,例如(let us) say= for example

从本质上来说by definition

用A代替B substitute A for B=replace B with A

占主导地位hold sway

使某人反对或敌视(朋友、亲戚等),挑拨离间 set … against …

是…之一;包括在…之中be among …

 

🔥复盘测试

班上男生占多数

英国海军的优势

某人应该…

现任总统

有高度理解力的计算机用户

一个非常重要的发现

工作方式,运作方式,运转方式

往往,常常

处于……最……的状态

正好相反/截然相反,相反,正相反

大量…

演变成…

由…演变而来

微不足道的细节/一件小事/小问题

头等重要的

各种各样的

在…中起…作用/扮演…角色

金融/教育/慈善机构

未来的学校建筑的模型

超音速飞机的样机

与……有关

A和B相比就如同C与D相比一样

接受

只不过

首要地,主要

对……的适应

适应…

传递,传承

…的产物,奴隶,傀儡

出生在…

和…分享…

某人有责任…

关于,对于

几句开场白之后

初步调查/试验/谈判

预赛

首先

对土地持有者不利的法规

对土地持有者偏袒的法规

…的变种

比如说,例如

从本质上来说

用A代替B

占主导地位

使某人反对或敌视(朋友、亲戚等),挑拨离间

是…之一;包括在…之中

 

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《Patterns of culture 文化的模式》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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