《Of men and galaxies 人和星系》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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Of men and galaxies

人和星系

 
In man’s early days, competition with other creatures must have been critical.
在人类早期,人类与其他生物的竞争一定是必不可少的。
🎈man n.[U]人类
🎈当今,现如今these days/ today /nowadays
当年,想当初in those days
在…早期 in the early days of…
在起步阶段in the pioneering days
🎈critical adj. 重大的,关键的very important 
例句
Financial support is critical to the region’s development.
🎈phase n. 1.阶段,时期 2.月相
在第一个/下一个/最后一个阶段/时期 during the first / next / last phase
项目的初始/最终阶段the initial / final phase of the project

 
Indeed, we lack practice and experience nowadays in dealing with primitive conditions.
确实,我们今天缺乏对付原始环境的实践和经验。
🎈in dealing with primitive conditions介词短语作状语。
🎈indeed adv. 事实上used to introduce an additional statement that emphasizes or supports what you have just said 
例句
I didn’t mind at all. Indeed, I was pleased.  
我一点都不介意。事实上,我(还)很开心。

 
I am sure that, without modern weapons, I would make a very poor show of disputing the ownership of a cave with a bear, and in this I do not think that I stand alone.
我断定,如果没有现代化的武器,要我和一只熊去争洞穴,我会出洋相的;我也相信’出洋相者并非我一人。
🎈without modern weapons, I would make a very poor show of disputing the ownership of a cave with a bear作形容词sure的补足语。
🎈without结构(“如果没有…的话”)常代替if从句。
🎈出洋相make a very poor show 
make a fool / an exhibition of oneself
🎈孤立stand alone
例句
On this issue, Britain stands alone against the US.
在这个问题上,只有英国在反对美国。
【补充几组和stand相关的表达】
例句
So long as we stand together(团结一致), we’ll win.
Don’t stand there(袖手旁观)—give me a hand!
He’ll be standing down(引退,退位)as CEO at the end of the year.
She is going to stand trial(受审) for tax evasion.
No one is taller than those who are willing to stand corrected(接受他人指正).
There is no need to stand on ceremony(拘于礼节,拘谨)—come in and relax.
If you want to go abroad, we won’t stand in your way(阻拦你).

 
The last creature to compete with man was the mosquito. But even the mosquito has been subdued by attention to drainage and by chemical sprays.
能与竞争的生物最后只有蚊子,然而即使蚊子,也由于我们注意清理污水和喷洒化学药品而被制服了。
🎈the mosquito:“the+名词单数”表示一类人或事物。
🎈drainage 1. [U]排水process by which water or liquid waste is drained from an area
排水系统a drainage system
排水设备drainage facilities
🎈 [U] 排水系统a system of drains
例句
The drainage of the city is not good: some of the pipes are broken. 城市的排水系统很糟:一些管道已经破裂了。
🎈spray n. 喷雾liquid which is forced out of a special container in a stream of very small drops 
新型定型喷雾a new hair styling spray
杀虫剂喷雾pesticide sprays

 
Competition between ourselves, person against person, community against community, still persists, however; and it is as fierce as it ever was.
然而人类之间的战争,人与人,团体与团体,依然在进行着,而且和以前一样激烈。
🎈persist     v. 
1. (坏事)持续
if something bad persists, it continues to exist or happen 
例句
If the pain persists, consult a doctor. 
如果疼痛一直无法缓解,就去找医生。
2. 执意做某事
continue doing sth. in a determined but often unreasonable way 
执意… persist in doing sth.
例句
If he persists in asking awkward questions, then send him to the boss.
如果他一直问些让人尴尬的问题,直接把他送老板那儿。
🎈fierce adj. involving a lot of force or energy(竞争等)激烈的
例句
We face fierce competition from overseas competitors.
我们面临着海外竞争对手的激烈竞争。

 
But the competition of man against man is not the simple process envisioned in biology. It is not a simple competition for a fixed amount of food determined by the physical environment, because the environment that determines our evolution is no longer essentially physical.
但是,人与人的竞争并不像生物生物学中想象的那样是一个简单过程。争夺定量食物的竞争已经不是简单地由物理环境所决定的了,因为决定我们发展的环境不再是基础的物质了。
🎈为…的竞争competition for sth.
和…竞争… be in competition with …for…
例句
Competition for the job was intense.
以前的岗位竞争非常激烈。
🎈fixed adj. 固定不变的fixed times, amounts, meanings etc. cannot be changed 
固定价格a fixed price
例句
The interest rate on the loan(贷款利率) is fixed.
🎈physical adj. 物质的,实实在在的,真实而具体的,看得见摸得着的
connected with things that actually exist or are present and can be seen, felt, etc. rather than things that only exist in a person‘s mind 
物质世界/环境the physical world / environment
实实在在的武器physical weapons
实实在在的/确凿的证据physical evidence

Our environment is chiefly conditioned by the things we believe. 
我们的环境主要条件是由我们信任的事物限定的。
🎈condition v. 对……有重要影响,决定have an important effect on sb. / sth., determine 
受到…的影响/由…决定 be conditioned by …
例句
What I buy is conditioned by the amount I earn. 
我买什么要看我挣多少。

 
Morocco and California are bits of the Earth in very similar latitudes, both on the west coasts of continents with similar climates, and probably with rather similar natural resources.
摩洛哥和加利福尼亚是地球上纬度极其相似的两个地方,两者都在各自大陆的西海岸,气候相似,自然资源也可能相似。
🎈both (being) on the west coasts of continents with similar climates, and probably with rather similar natural resources是独立主格结构。
🎈 latitudes n. [pl] 纬度地区an area at a particular latitude 
在…纬度地区in … latitudes
例句
The birds breed in northern latitudes(在北纬地区).
The plant grows best in cooler latitudes(在寒冷的纬度地区).
注意介词搭配,在…纬度地区用介词in;在…海岸(地区)则用介词on:
一个位于意大利东海岸的欣欣向荣的度假胜地a thriving holiday resort on the east coast of Italy

 
Yet their present development is wholly different, not so much because of different people even, but because of the different thoughts that exist in the minds of their inhabitants.
但是,它们目前的发展程度完全不一样。这倒不是因为人民不同,而是由于存在于居民头脑中的思想不同。
🎈与其说是……不如说是…… not so much … as … 
例句
She’s not so much poor as careless with money. 
她与其说是穷,不如说是花钱大手大脚。
【补充】语气副词的翻译:
The holidays ended< all> too soon.
假期结束得实在是太快了。
I’m <only> too ready to help you.
我实在是非常乐意帮助您。
I did <so> see him.
我确实看到他了。
No, I won’t help you, <so there>?
不,我不想帮助你,你拿我怎么样?

 
This is the point I wish to emphasize.
这是我要强调的论点。
🎈想… wish to do sth. (fml.) = want to do sth. = like to do sth.
例句
She wishes to be alone.
她希望一个人呆着。

 
The most important factor in our environment is the state of our own minds. It is well known that where the white man has invaded a primitive culture, the most destructive effects have come not from physical weapons but from ideas.
我们环境中最重要的因素就是我们的思想状况。众所周知,凡是白人侵入原始文化的地方,破坏作用最大的不是杀人的武器,而是思想。
🎈 man n. 人a person, either male or female (used esp. in formal situations or in the past )
例句
All men are equal in the eyes of the law.
法律面前人人平等。
🎈因为,是……的结果,来自于… come from / of (doing) sth
例句
His air of confidence came from his firm belief that he was the best candidate for the job.
That’s what comes of not practicing ― you’ve forgotten everything! 这就是不练习的结果——你把一切忘得一干二净!
 

Ideas are dangerous. The Holy Office knew this full well when it caused heretics to be burned in days gone by.
思想是危险的。宗教法庭对此是非常清楚的,因此从前它总是把异教徒烧死。
🎈宗教法庭the Inquisition / Holy Office :a Roman Catholic organization in the past whose aim was to find and punish people who had unacceptable beliefs.
🎈非常清楚…know sth. full well / very well / perfectly well 
例句
I knew perfectly well it was a trap.
我很清楚它是一个陷阱。
🎈cause v. 逼迫,迫使to compel by command, authority, or force 
迫使某人做某事cause sb. to do sth.
例句
The king caused him to resign.
国王迫使他辞职。
🎈在过去 in days / times / years gone by = in the past
例句
In times gone by, all crops were harvested by hand(手工收割).
不计前嫌,既往不咎let bygones be bygones

 
Indeed, the concept of free speech only exists in our modern society because when you are inside a community, you are conditioned by the conventions of the community to such a degree that it is very difficult to conceive of anything really destructive.
的确,言论自由的概念只存在于我们现代社会中,因为当你生活在一个社团中时,社团的风俗习惯会严格地制约你,使你很难有破坏性的想法。
🎈言论自由free speech = freedom of speech 
🎈到…程度以至于… to such a degree / extent that …
例句
Her condition deteriorated to such a degree that a blood transfusion was considered necessary. 
她的病恶化到了这个程度以至于必须输血。
🎈 conceive v. (fml.) 想象,设想to imagine a particular situation or to think about something in a particular way 
想象,设想…conceive of sth.
例句
Many people can’t conceive of a dinner without meat or fish.

 
It is only someone looking on from outside that can inject the dangerous thoughts.
只有外部的旁观者才能灌输危险的思想。
🎈强调句。
🎈旁观look on = stand by …
旁观者onlooker = bystander 
把…看做…look on … as …
支持帮助某人stand by sb. 
例句
Only one man tried to help us, the rest just looked on / stood by in silence.
We look on her as a daughter.
🎈inject v. 注入…to add something new to a situation 
例句
Young staff are injecting new life into the company.
年轻的员工给公司注入了新生力量。

 
I do not doubt that it would be possible to inject ideas into the modern world that would utterly destroy us. I would like to give you an example, but fortunately I cannot do so. Perhaps it will suffice to mention the nuclear bomb. 
向现代世界灌输一种思想以便摧毁我们人类是可能的事,对此我并不怀疑。我愿为你举个例子,但幸亏我举不出。也许提一下核弹就足以证明了。
🎈utter v.说出 a.完全的,彻底的
例句
That’s utter nonsense.一派胡言。
She gazed at me in utter confusion. 
她用完全疑惑的神情盯着我看。

 
Imagine the effect on a reasonably advanced technological society, one that still does not possess the bomb, of making it aware of the possibility, of supplying sufficient details to enable the thing to be constructed. 
对一个仍未拥有核弹、但科技相当发达的社会,让它知道制造核弹的可能性,而且向它提供制 造核弹的足够的细节,那么可以设想,这将对这个社会产生何等的影响。
🎈one that still does not possess the bomb是a reasonably advanced technological society的同位语。on a reasonably advanced technological society属于状语前置,实则为effect of…on…
🎈reasonably adv. 
1. 合理地,合乎逻辑地in a reasonable way 
2. = fairly 相当地,颇为to a fairly high degree, level, or standard 
冷静合理地讨论着这件事discuss the matter calmly and reasonably 
相当好/精准/清楚reasonably good / accurate / clear
🎈…对…的影响 the effect / influence / impact of … on / upon …
父母对他们孩子的影响 the influence of parents on their children
肥料对庄稼的影响the effect of fertilizers on the crops
石油泄漏对海洋生物的影响the impact of the oil spill on marine life

 
Twenty or thirty pages of information handed to any of the major world powers around the year 1925, would have been sufficient to change the course of world history.
如果把二三十页的情报交给1952年前后的任何一个世界强国,就足以改变世界历史的进程。
🎈power n. 大国, 强国a country that is strong and important and can influence events, or that has a lot of military strength 
例句
Egypt is still a major power in the Middle East(中东). 
superpower n. 超级大国any of the most powerful nations in the world, esp. the USA or former USSR 
例句
Since the disintegration of the USSR(苏联解体), there has been only one superpower ― the USA.
🎈原文= If twenty or thirty pages of information had been handed to any of the major world powers around the year 1925, it would have been sufficient to change the course of world history.
= If twenty or thirty pages of information had been handed to any of the major world powers around the year 1925, the course of world history would have been changed.
=Had twenty or thirty pages of information been handed to any of the major world powers around the year 1925, it would have been sufficient to change the course of world history.
= Had twenty or thirty pages of information been handed to any of the major world powers around the year 1925, the course of world history would have been changed.
🎈足以… be sufficient to do sth.

 
It is a strange thought, but I believe a correct one, that twenty or thirty pages of ideas and information would be capable of turning the present-day world upside down, or even destroying it.
这是个离奇的想法,不过我认为这个想法是正确的。二三十页材料中的思想和情报会便当今的世界翻天覆地,甚至毁灭这个世界。
🎈present-day adj. 当今的existing now 
例句
The amount of money is small by present-day standards.
这笔钱按当今标准来看是笔小钱。
🎈upside down adv. 颠倒,翻转with the top at the bottom and the bottom at the top 
upside-down adj. 上下翻转过来(的)with the upper part underneath instead of on top 
例句
That picture is upside-down. 
这张图片挂反了。

 
I have often tried to conceive of what those pages might contain, but of course I cannot do so because I am a prisoner of the present-day world, just as all of you are.
我常常试图想象这些纸上可能包含什么内容,不过我是做不到的,因为我和你们大家一样,是当今世界的囚徒(凡人)。
🎈just as all of you are是方式状从。

 
We cannot think outside the particular patterns that our brains are conditioned to, or, to be more accurate we can think only a very little way outside and then only if we are very original.
我们不能脱离我们大脑所限定的模式去思考,或者更确切地说’我们只能稍微离开一点儿去思考,就这也需要我们非常有创意。
🎈condition v. 1. 对……有重要影响,决定have an important effect on sb. / sth., determine 
🎈训练或影响…使习惯或适应…to train or influence a person or animal mentally so that they do or expect a particular thing without thinking about it 
让…做… condition sb. to do sth.
例句
Pavlov conditioned dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell. 
巴普洛夫训练小狗听到铃响就流口水/分泌唾液。
让某人适应…condition sb. to sth.
例句
It didn’t take them long to become conditioned to the new environment. 
他们没花多长时间就适应了新环境。
conditioning   n. 潜移默化的影响
例句
Social conditioning makes crying more difficult for men. 
社会环境使得男性更难流眼泪。
🎈then此外,而且adv. used to add sth. to what you have just mentioned 
此外,而且and then
例句
We have to invite your parents and my parents, and then there’s your brother.
🎈只有… only if …
例句
The missiles can be fired only if the operator types in a six-digit code. 
只有操作员输入六位数的密码,导弹才能发射。
🎈only if位于句首,句子要部分倒装
例句
she will go only if he goes.→Only if he goes will she go.
🎈original adj. 有创见的,有创造力的able to produce new ideas, creative 
有创造力的思想家/作家/画家an original thinker / writer / painter
非常有创意的产品the product of a highly original mind
 
🔥必背词汇
dispute      v. 争夺,捍卫;争论,争执;质疑
例句
Our soldiers disputed every inch of ground.(捍卫每一寸土地)
The issue remains hotly disputed.(被激烈争执)
The election result was disputed.选举结果被质疑。
dispute n.争议,争执,纠纷
…无可置疑/无可争辩 be beyond dispute
…尚有争议be open to dispute / question / debate
例句
China’s claims of sovereignty over the Diaoyu Islands(对钓鱼岛的主权) are beyond dispute.
It’s open to dispute / question / debate whether the new government is any better than the old one.
 
subdue      v. 征服,制伏,击败
例句
Police managed to subdue the angry crowd.
警方设法制服了愤怒的人群。
【词根】“duct” / “duce” / “due” = lead
subdue “sub” = under v. 征服,制伏,击败
abduct “ab” = away v. 诱拐,绑架
abduction n. 诱拐,绑架
abductor n. 绑匪
deduce “de” = down v. 推理,演绎
deductive adj. 演绎的,推断的
deduction n. 推理,演绎;结论
induce “in” = into v. 诱使,引起,造成
inductive adj. 归纳的
induction n. 归纳法;诱导;引发
introduce “intro” = inward v. 介绍,引进
produce “pro” = forward v. 生产,制造;产生,引起
reduce “re” = back v. 减少
seduce “se” = apart v. 色诱,勾引
seduction n. 色诱,勾引
traduce “tra” / “trans” = across v. 诋毁
conduct “con” = together v. 领导,指导;指挥 n. 行为,品德
viaduct “via” = road n. 高架桥
ventiduct “venti” = wind n. 通风管
oviduct “ovi” = egg n. 输卵管
 
envision       v. 设想,想象 =imagine
例句
They envision an equal society, free of poverty and disease.
他们设想一个平等的社会,没有贫穷,也没有疾病。
【相关词】
①forecast v. & n.(公开地)预测,预报
天气预报weather forecast
公司年度销售预报the company’s annual sales forecast
例句
Rain has been forecast for tomorrow.
明天预报有雨。
②predict / foretell v. 预言;foretell 预示
例句
Timely snow foretells a bumper harvest.
瑞雪兆丰年。
③forebode v. 预示(不好的事情)
④prophesy v. 预言(尤指靠魔力或神力)
例句
Jesus(耶稣) prophesied that one of his disciples(信徒) would betray(背叛) him.
 
heretic      n.
① 异教徒(和宗教相关)a person who belongs to a particular religion, but whose beliefs or actions seriously disagree with the principles of that religion
②异端邪说者someone whose beliefs or actions are considered wrong by most people, because they disagree with beliefs that are generally accepted
例句
Thousands of heretics were burned at the stake.
数千异教徒在木桩上被烧死。
He was considered a heretic and was ridiculed(被嘲弄) for his ideas.
heresy n. ①异教观念②异端邪说
对某人来说简直是异端邪说be heresy to sb.
例句
The idea is heresy to most employees of the firm.
 
suffice      v. 足够
例句
Generally a brief note or a phone call will suffice. 
通常来说,一个简短的便条或者一通电话就足够了。
对…来说是足够的 suffice for sth.
例句
Will $10 suffice for the trip? 
这趟旅途10美元够用吗?
足够…suffice to do sth.
例句
One example will suffice to illustrate the point.
一个例子足以说明这点了。
只须说……就够了suffice (it) to say (that) 
例句
I won’t go into all the depressing details; suffice it to say that the whole affair was an utter disaster.
我没必要赘述让人压抑的细节,只说整个事件是个彻头彻尾的灾难就够了。
 
🔥重点表达
…无可置疑/无可争辩 be beyond dispute
…尚有争议be open to dispute / question / debate
天气预报weather forecast
公司年度销售预报the company’s annual sales forecast
对…来说是足够的 suffice for sth.
足够…suffice to do sth.
只须说……就够了suffice (it) to say (that) 
当今,现如今these days/ today /nowadays
当年,想当初in those days
在…早期 in the early days of…
在起步阶段in the pioneering days
在第一个/下一个/最后一个阶段/时期 during the first / next / last phase
项目的初始/最终阶段the initial / final phase of the project
出洋相make a very poor show
孤立stand alone
排水系统a drainage system
排水设备drainage facilities
新型定型喷雾a new hair styling spray
杀虫剂喷雾pesticide sprays
为…的竞争competition for sth.
和…竞争… be in competition with …for…
固定价格a fixed price
物质世界/环境the physical world / environment
实实在在的武器physical weapons
实实在在的/确凿的证据physical evidence
受到…的影响/由…决定 be conditioned by …
在…纬度地区in … latitudes
与其说是……不如说是…… not so much … as … 
因为,是……的结果,来自于… come from / of (doing) sth
非常清楚…know sth. full well / very well / perfectly well
在过去 in days / times / years gone by = in the past
不计前嫌,既往不咎let bygones be bygones
迫使某人做某事cause sb. to do sth.
言论自由free speech = freedom of speech 
到…程度以至于… to such a degree / extent that …
想象,设想…conceive of sth.
旁观look on = stand by …
旁观者onlooker = bystander 
把…看做…look on … as …
支持帮助某人stand by sb. 
冷静合理地讨论着这件事discuss the matter calmly and reasonably 
相当好/精准/清楚reasonably good / accurate / clear
…对…的影响 the effect / influence / impact of … on / upon …
足以… be sufficient to do sth.
让…做… condition sb. to do sth.
让某人适应…condition sb. to sth.
此外,而且and then
只有… only if …
有创造力的思想家/作家/画家an original thinker / writer / painter
非常有创意的产品the product of a highly original mind
 
🔥复盘测试
…无可置疑/无可争辩 
…尚有争议
天气预报
公司年度销售预报
对…来说是足够的 
足够…
只须说……就够了
当今,现如今
当年,想当初
在…早期 
在起步阶段
在第一个/下一个/最后一个阶段/时期 
项目的初始/最终阶段
出洋相
孤立
排水系统
排水设备
新型定型喷雾
杀虫剂喷雾
为…的竞争
和…竞争… 
固定价格
物质世界/环境
实实在在的武器
实实在在的/确凿的证据
受到…的影响/由…决定 
在…纬度地区
与其说是……不如说是…… 
因为,是……的结果,来自于…
非常清楚…
在过去 
不计前嫌,既往不咎
迫使某人做某事
言论自由
到…程度以至于…
想象,设想…
旁观
旁观者
把…看做…
支持帮助某人
冷静合理地讨论着这件事
相当好/精准/清楚
…对…的影响
足以… 
让…做… 
让某人适应…
此外,而且
只有…
有创造力的思想家/作家/画家
非常有创意的产品
 

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《Of men and galaxies 人和星系》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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