《雍正十年杭州韬光庵中寄舍弟墨》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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谁非黄帝尧舜之子孙,而至于今日,其不幸而为臧获,为婢妾,为舆台、皂隶,窘穷迫逼,无可奈何。非其数十代以前即自臧获、婢妾、舆台、皂隶来也。

一旦奋发有为,精神不倦,有及身而富贵者矣,有及其子孙而富贵者矣,王侯将相岂有种乎!而一二失路名家,落魄贵胄,借祖宗以欺人,述先代而自大。辄曰:彼何人也,反在霄汉;我何人也,反在泥涂。天道不可凭,人事不可问。嗟乎!不知此正所谓正道人事也。天道福善祸淫,彼善而富贵,尔淫而贫贱,理也,庸何伤?天道循环倚伏,彼祖宗贫践,今当富贵;尔祖宗富贵,今当贫贱,理也,又何伤?天道如此,人事即在其中矣。

愚兄为秀才时,检家中旧书簏,得前代家奴契券,即于灯下焚去,并不返诸其人。恐明与之,反多一番形迹,增一番愧恧。自我用人,从不书券,合则留,不合则去。何苦存此一纸,使吾后世子孙,借为口实,以便苛求抑勒乎!如此存心,是为人处,即是为己处。若事事预留把柄,使其入其网罗,无能逃脱,其穷愈速,其祸即来,其子孙即有不可问之事、不可测之忧。试看世间会打算的,何曾打算得别人一点,真是算尽自家耳!可哀可叹,吾弟识之。


 

雍正十年杭州韬光庵中寄舍弟墨

To Brother Mo, From Taokuang Temple,

Hangchow, Written In 1732

 

🎈背景知识

郑板桥(1693—1765)清代官吏、书画家、文学家。名燮,字克柔,汉族,江苏兴化人。一生主要客居扬州,以卖画为生。“扬州八怪”之一。其诗、书、画均旷世独立,,世称“三绝”,擅画兰、竹、石、松、菊等植物,其中画竹已五十余年,成就最为突出。著有《板桥全集》。

 


谁非黄帝尧舜之子孙,而至于今日,其不幸而为臧获,为婢妾,为舆台、皂隶,窘穷迫逼,无可奈何。

There is no one in the world who is not a descendant of the Yellow Emperor, and Yao and Shun. But today some have unfortunately become slaves, slave girls,concubines,drudge and lowly laborers, living in poverty and distress and unable to help themselves.

🎈臧获,汉语词语,拼音是zāng huò,意思是古代对奴婢的贱称。出自《荀子·王霸》。

🎈舆台,拼音是yú tái,汉语词语,意思是舆和台是古代奴隶社会中两个低的等级的名称,后来泛指奴仆及地位低下的人。

🎈皂隶,是汉语词语,拼音是zào lì,意思是指旧时衙门里的差役。

🎈文言文的翻译重点在于理解句子意思,不必追求辞藻华丽,因翻译初学者水平有限,反而弄巧成拙。


 

非其数十代以前即自臧获、婢妾、舆台、皂隶来也。

It would be wrong to assume that their ancestors were slaves, slave girls, concubines, drudge and lowly laborers in generations ago.

🎈would be 此处表推测,译为“大概,该是”。


 

一旦奋发有为,精神不倦,有及身而富贵者矣,有及其子孙而富贵者矣,王侯将相岂有种乎!

Once they make up their minds and are willing to work hard, some of them become rich and honored in their own life time, and others become so in the next generation. Is there such a thing as blood among kings, dukes, premiers and generals?

🎈”王侯将相岂有种乎”此处要考虑英美文化的不同,王侯将相可对比英语文化中的国王,公爵,总理和将军们。

🎈原文出现两次“富贵”,考虑中英语言差异,英文中要避免重复,因此“富贵”第二次出现用become so

🎈“富贵”包含两层含义,有钱有地位,所谓”非富即贵”


 

而一二失路名家,落魄贵胄,借祖宗以欺人,述先代而自大。

辄曰:彼何人也,反在霄汉;我何人也,反在泥涂。

Some scions of former noble or well -known families taunt others on their birth and brag about their previous generations, saying, “Who is he,and yet he is high up? I am such and such a person, and yet I am down and out. ”

🎈重点在中文古文理解,即“也有个别落魄的名家贵胄的子弟,借祖宗的名望以欺人,假先代的辉煌以自夸,会说:“他算什么东西,反而高高在上?我是谁?反倒处于泥涂之中?没有天理了,人间事没法说”。”

🎈“Who is he,and yet he is high up? I am such and such a person, and yet I am down and out. ”

彼何人也,反在霄汉;我何人也,反在泥涂。尤其要注意本句“霄汉”和“泥涂”不可按字面译“the heaven”和“mud”,而是要关注真正含义,即“高位”和“囧途”。


 

天道不可凭,人事不可问。

There is no justice in heaven or in the affairs of man.

🎈“国事”“家事”“国际事务”都用affairs,不用things,比如中美谈判,杨洁篪敦促美国管好家务事,就用的manage your domestic affairs well


 

嗟乎!不知此正所谓正道人事也。

Alas! they do not know that this is exactly the justice of heaven and of human affairs.

🎈“人间正道是沧桑”以及“天道”都译the justice of heaven

🎈中文经常出现无主句,而英文严格遵循主谓结构,因此译成英文时必须要结合上下文表明主语。


 

天道福善祸淫,彼善而富贵,尔淫而贫贱,理也,庸何伤?

Heaven rewards the good and punishes the licentious; it is in accordance with reason that he is good and therefore rewarded, and you are licentious and therefore poor. What is wrong with that?

🎈天理是让行善的获福,为恶的遭殃。他做好事就能富贵平安,你做坏事就会困窘受苦。这就是天理,何必伤心抱怨?

🎈the good and the licentious,冠词加形容词,表示一类人。

🎈最后一句“理也”并没有译成principle或philosophy,原因在于此处“理”指的是上文出现的“天道福善祸淫,彼善而富贵,尔淫而贫贱”,避免重复,所以用that代替。

 


天道循环倚伏,彼祖宗贫践,今当富贵;尔祖宗富贵,今当贫贱,理也,又何伤?

For the way of Heaven goes in a cycle. His ancestors were poor, and now it is his turn to be rich and honored; your ancestors were rich and honored, and now it is your turn to be poor. Again,what is wrong about that?

🎈天理是循环的,祸兮福之所倚,福兮祸之所伏。他的祖宗从前贫贱轮到他就要富贵;你的祖宗富贵轮到你就要贫贱,这就是天理,何必伤心?

🎈倚伏,汉语词汇。释义:祸与福互相依存,互相转化。“循环”和“倚伏”意思相同,译cycle

🎈“又何伤”,旨在告诫兄弟,“祸兮福之所倚,福兮祸之所伏”,顺其自然,坦然接受,无需纠结。what is wrong about that?反问句加强语言。


 

天道如此,人事即在其中矣。

This is the way of heaven and also of human affairs.


 

愚兄为秀才时,检家中旧书簏,得前代家奴契券,即于灯下焚去,并不返诸其人。

After I,your foolish brother, became a government graduate (hsiuts’ai), whenever I found in the old trunks at our home some deed of a slave sold into our family in the former generation, I at once burned it over the oil lamp. I did not even return it to the person concerned.

🎈我做秀才时,在偶尔翻家中书架时看见早年间家中仆人的卖身契,当即就在灯下烧了,并未拿给当事人看。

🎈愚兄,古人谦称,也可译为your stupid brother

🎈your foolish brother为I 的同位语,类似表达“we, Chinese people”

🎈秀才,也可做注释,即Xiucai, one who passed the imperial examination at the county level in the Ming and Qing dynasties


 

恐明与之,反多一番形迹,增一番愧恧。

For I felt if I did,it would be an obvious act and increase the man’s embarrassment.

🎈我是怕让人家看了反倒多了一事,让人家感到难堪。

🎈恐,也可译I am afraid that


 

自我用人,从不书券,合则留,不合则去。

Since I began to employ people, I have never required contracts. If we can get along with the servant, we keep him;and if not, we send him away.

🎈书券,此处指用人合同


 

何苦存此一纸,使吾后世子孙,借为口实,以便苛求抑勒乎!

Why keep such a piece of paper to provide a pretext for our next generations to use it as a claim or a means of extortion?

🎈何苦要留这么个契约,让后世子孙以此为口实对人家颐使气指。

🎈“口实”即话柄,pretext注意介词搭配

The incident was used as a pretext for intervention in the area.

这次事件成了干涉那个地区的借口。

He left the party early on the pretext of having work to do.

他借口有事要处理,早早离开了聚会。


 

如此存心,是为人处,即是为己处。

To act with such a heart is to have consideration for others, which is to have consideration for ourselves.

🎈如果怀有这样的想法与人相处,既是为自己着想,也是为他人着想。

🎈Which此处引导非限制性定语从句。


 

若事事预留把柄,使其入其网罗,无能逃脱,其穷愈速,其祸即来,其子孙即有不可问之事、不可测之忧。

If one tries always to obtain a legal hold, traps others into the meshes of legality, not allowing them to get out again, one will only become poor more quickly and disaster will follow immediately. The posterity of such people will soon be involved in scandals and meet with unexpected disasters.

🎈如果事事都想着抓别人的把柄,用这种方法把控别人,让人无法摆脱。他走投无路你的祸就来了。这样做事会让子孙有极坏和不可测的忧患。

🎈A legal hold, also known as a litigation hold, is the process by which an organization advises personnel when information must be preserved for potential litigation matters or investigations.

法律持有,也被称为诉讼持有,是当必须为潜在的诉讼事项或调查保存信息时,一个组织向工作人员提供建议的过程。

🎈Posterity n. 后代,后世;子孙;后裔;儿孙,和上文descendant均为“子孙后代”,避免重复。


 

试看世间会打算的,何曾打算得别人一点,真是算尽自家耳!

You just look at the people of the world who are shrewd at calculations; do they ever succeed in overcoming others by their shrewd calculations? They are only calculating toward their own ruin.

🎈“机关算尽太聪明,反误了卿卿性命/聪明反被聪明误”都可以借鉴本句的译文。

🎈“be shrewd at calculations”工于心计,精于算计

🎈“do they ever succeed in overcoming others by their shrewd calculations?”保留了原文“何曾”的反问句式,起增强语气的作用。


 

可哀可叹,吾弟识之。

What a pity! Remember this,my younger brother.

 

🎈重点词汇

Concubine

n. 妾,妃子

例句

The sultan’s wives and concubines live in the harem.

苏丹的妻妾住在后宫.

Drudge

n. 做苦工的人,劳碌的人 复数:drudges

例句

Money can only be the useful drudge of things immeasurably higher than itself.

钱只是一种能创造出比它本身价值大得多的劳动工具.

scion

n. 接穗,幼枝;(尤指富家)子孙

例句

Grafting can join scions with desirable qualities to root stock that is strong and resistsand insects.

嫁接能够将理想质量的接穗嫁接到强有力抗病虫害的砧木上.

taunt

vt. 嘲笑,奚落;用嘲笑刺激

n. 嘲弄,奚落;讥讽;嘲弄的对象,笑柄

例句

‘And he’ll believe you, will he?’ Maria taunted.

“他会相信你的,对吧?”玛丽亚嘲讽道。

licentious

adj. 放荡的,淫乱的;猖狂自恣;猖;荒淫

名词:licentiousness

例句

alarming stories of licentious behaviour.

关于放荡淫乱行为的骇人听闻的故事

deed 

n. 行为,行动;房契

a mortgage deed

抵押证书

例句

Everyone sins at some time, in thought if not in deed.

人人都会犯罪,不是在行动上就是在思想上。

 

shrewd 

adj. 精明的,敏锐的;奸诈的,狡猾的;有眼光的;精于盘算的

例句

Malcolm is a shrewd businessman.

马尔科姆是个精明的商人。

 

Extortion

n. 敲诈,勒索;被勒索的财物;敲诈者;[法]恐吓取财

例句

He has been charged with extortion and abusing his powers.

他被控犯有敲诈勒索罪和滥用职权罪。

 

🎈重点表达

窘穷迫逼,无可奈何

living in poverty and distress and unable to help themselves

奋发有为,精神不倦

make up their minds and are willing to work hard

王侯将相岂有种乎?

Is there such a thing as blood among kings, dukes, premiers and generals?

失路名家,落魄贵胄

scions of former noble or well -known families

天道不可凭,人事不可问。

There is no justice in heaven or in the affairs of man.

嗟乎!不知此正所谓正道人事也。

Alas! they do not know that this is exactly the justice of heaven and of human affairs.

福善祸淫

rewards the good and punishes the licentious

 

🔥表达对比

「天道」的表达

天道难知.

Inscrutable are the ways of Heaven.

璀璨的流星划破天空, 刹那间的闪耀, 天道破碎.

Bright meteor across the sky, a flash of sparkle, broken Heaven.

天道不可凭,人事不可问。

There is no justice in heaven or in the affairs of man.

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