《The process of ageing 衰老过程》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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The process of ageing

衰老过程

 
At the age of twelve years, the human body is at its most vigorous. 
人体在12岁时是生命力最旺盛的时期。
🎈最多at most 
至少at least
充其量,最好at best 
最差也就… at worst
🎈处于…状态
1 at one’s + 形容词最高级 [one’s有时也可换作sth’s,形容物]
在某人状态最好/状态最差/效率最高/最脆弱时at one’s best/worst/effective/vulnerable
2 on + the + noun. 
在前进中on the move
处于警觉中on the alert
忙忙碌碌on the go
正在康复on the recovery
上升之中on the rise
[是否加定冠词the要看具体的表达,只能不断积累,见一个背一个]
在售on sale
罢工on strike
在度假on vacation
办事/出差on business
值班on duty
听候召唤on call
3 under+ noun
在修under repair
遭受进攻under attack
正在讨论中under discussion
正在考虑中under consideration
被捕under arrest
正在观察中under observation
正在调查中under investigation
正在建造中under construction
正在整修中under renovation

 
It has yet to reach its full size and strength, and its owner his or her full intelligence; but at this age the likelihood of death is least.
虽然这个时期人的身材、体力和智力还有待发展和完善,但在这个年龄死亡的可能性最小。
🎈and its owner his or her full intelligence相当于and its owner (has yet to reach) his or her full intelligence,并列句省略了重复的谓语动词部分。
🎈还没有…;有待于…have yet to do
例句
I have yet to make a decision.
我还没有做决定。
只需…就可以…have only to do … to do …
例句
You have only to press the button to call the nurse.
你只需要按下按钮就能叫来护士。
🎈 the likelihood of death is least:自己和自己比较时,最高级前不用加the。
例句
We are busiest on Mondays.
我们周一最忙。

 
Earlier, we were infants and young children, and consequently more vulnerable; later, we shall undergo a progressive loss of our vigour and resistance which, though imperceptible at first, will finally become so steep that we can live no longer, however well we look after ourselves, and however well society, and our doctors, look after us.
再早一些,我们是幼儿和小孩子,身体较脆弱;再迟一些,我们就要经历生命力和抵抗力逐步衰退的过程。虽然这个过程起初难以觉察,但最终会急转直下,不管我们怎样精心照料我们自己,我们也无法再活下去了。
🎈though imperceptible at first是让步状从,相当于though (the loss is) imperceptible at first。此外,注意时态:Earlier, we were…; later, we shall undergo…
🎈undergo (underwent, undergone) v.经历 [强调主语发生了变化]
经历外科手术undergo surgery (患者做了手术)
例句
Mankind has undergone no general improvement. 
人类自身在进步
近义词experience /go through/ know /see/ witness[只是表明某事发生了]
经历磨难experience difficulties
经历危机go through a crisis
例句
He has seen / known so much misery.
他经历了太多磨难。
🎈progressive adj.1进步的,开明的 2逐步的,逐渐的
进步的思想progressive ideas
逐步的降低/减少/上升/丧失progressive decline / reduction / increase / loss
记忆力的逐步减退progressive loss of memory

 
This decline in vigour with the passing of time is called ageing. It is one of the most unpleasant discoveries which we all make that we must decline in this way, that if we escape wars, accidents and diseases we shall eventually ‘die of old age’, and that this happens at a rate which differs little from person to person, so that there are heavy odds in favour of our dying between the ages of 65 and 80. 
生命力随着时间的流失而衰退叫做衰老。人类发现的最不愉快的一个事实是:人必然会衰老。既使我们能避开战争、意外的事故和各种 疾病,我们最终也会“老死”;衰老的速度在人与人之间相差甚微,我们最可能死亡的年龄在65 至80岁之间。
🎈if we escape wars, accidents and diseases要理解成让步状从,译成“即使…”
复习:“ if ”引导让步状语从句
1、= even if …即使,就算
例句
If he noticed the fact, he didn’t care.
就算他注意到了这个事实,也不会在意。
2、= although perhaps 尽管可能…
例句
Mary’s essays are always interesting, if sometimes poorly written.
玛丽的文章内容总是很有趣,尽管有时候文笔可能差一些。
🎈decline v. 1恶化=deteriorate;2婉言拒绝
婉拒邀请decline an invitation
例句
His health has been declining / deteriorating progressively for several months. 
几个月来,他的健康状况一直在恶化。
🎈区别很小/区别微乎其微 differ little
有一丁点区别 differ a little
区别巨大differ greatly / significantly / enormously
🎈因人而异vary from person to person
日益提高improve from day to day
通读… read sth. from cover to cover
挨门挨户卖… sell sth. from door to door

 
Some of us will die sooner, a few will live longer—on into a ninth or tenth decade. But the chances are against it, and there is a virtual limit on how long we can hope to remain alive, however lucky and robust we are.
有些人会死得早一些,少数人寿命会长一些——活到八十几岁或九十几岁,但这种可能性很小。不管我们多么幸运,多么健壮,我们所希望的长寿实际上是有限度的。
🎈非常(不)可能…There are heavy / overwhelming odds in favor of / against …
不大可能… the chances are against…
…可能性很大one’s chances of doing …/the chances that …+ are good / high.
…可能性渺茫one’s chances of doing …/the chances that …+ are small / slight / remote.
例句
His chances of winning the game are remote. 
他赢得这次比赛的可能性很小。
🎈…事实上是有限度的 there is a virtual limit / restriction on …
例句
There is a virtual restriction on the rate of economic growth in a specific country.
对一个具体的国家来说,其经济增长的速度事实上是有限度的。

 
Normal people tend to forget this process unless and until they are reminded of it.
衰老的过程,不经提起,正常人容易忘记;一经提醒,才会记起。
🎈除非,直到… unless and until [既表示条件,也可表示时间]
例句
No credits will be awarded unless and until we receive official notification from the testing service.
除非受到考试机构的正式通知,我们才会授予学分。

 
We are so familiar with the fact that man ages, that people have for years assumed that the process of losing vigour with time, of becoming more likely to die the older we get, was something self-evident like the cooling of a hot kettle or the wearing-out of a pair of shoes.
我们对人总是要衰老的现象并不陌生,多年来就已认识到。生命随着时间流失而丧失活力,人随着年龄的增长而接近死亡,这是不言而喻的,就像一壶热水迟早会凉下来,一双鞋渐渐会磨破一样。
🎈that man ages是the fact的同位语从句。that people have for years assumed…和so连用,引导结果状从,其中that the process…是assume的宾从。
🎈…becoming more likely to die the older we get:
越…,越… the+比较级,the+比较级:前半句看作从句,表示条件,后半句看作主句。翻译时顺序要搞清楚,不能译错。这个结构遵循两条规律:
1、若句子中含be,可以省略 
2、如果主句主语太长,可以选择倒装[省略和倒装都不是必需的] 
3、主句也可以用陈述句
例句
1、The younger the child, the more the child’s need of sleep. 
2、The younger the child is, the more is the child’s need of sleep. 3、I play (the) better, the more I practice.= The more I practice, the better I play.
🎈 self-evident adj.不言自明的

 
They have also assumed that all animals, and probably other organisms such as trees, or even the universe itself, must in the nature of things ‘wear out’.
人们不但认识到所有的动物,大概也认识到所有的有机物,如树木,甚至宇宙本身,从事物的本质上来说都会“磨损掉”。
🎈and probably other organisms such as trees, or even the universe itself是插入语。
🎈必然,理所当然in the nature of things 
(注意区分:)似乎…in the nature of … = similar to …
例句
It is in the nature of things that time wrecks all love.
时间会毁掉所有的爱情,这是必然的事情。
His speech is in the nature of an apology.
他的演讲好像是在道歉。
【复习】…类型的,某一种类的of … nature
最危险的of the most perilous nature
政治条约treaties of a political nature
学术性问题questions of an academic nature
技术性文章articles of a technical nature

 
Most animals we commonly observe do in fact age as we do, if given the chance to live long enough; and mechanical systems like a wound watch, or the sun, do in fact run out of energy in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics (whether the whole universe does so is a moot point at present).
我们通常看到的大多数动物,即使能让它们活得足够长久的话,也会像我们一样衰老的像上紧发条的手表那样的机械装置,或太阳,也都会遵循热力学第二定律消耗完其能量(整个宇宙是否如此,目前仍有争论)。
🎈do age中do强调肯定式。分号后加或不加and都可以。(whether the whole universe does so is a moot point at present)是插入语。
🎈耗尽 run out of …= use up = exhaust
🎈依照,按照in accordance with …/in line with …/in compliance with …/in (the) light of …
in (the) light of还有“考虑到/有鉴于…”的意思
🎈热力学第一定律 the first law of thermodynamics:不同形式的能量在传递与转换过程中守恒,也叫能量守恒定律(the law of the conservation of energy)
热力学第二定律the second law of thermodynamics:不可能把热量从低温物体传向高温物体而不引起其它变化。
🎈悬而未决的问题;有争议的问题 a moot point
…尚有争议be open to question / debate
(…)是否/能否…依旧是个悬而未决的问题 It’s a moot point whether…/It’s open to question / debate whether…
例句
It’s a moot point whether building more roads reduces traffic congestion.
多修路是否会缓解交通拥堵是个有争议的问题。

 
But these are not analogous to what happens when man ages. 
不过,这些衰老的情况同人并不相似。
🎈和…类似 be analogous to …/be similar to …/be comparable to / with …/be akin to …
和…相当be equivalent to …
例句
The volcanic eruption had an explosive power equivalent to 20,000 tons of TNT.
火山爆发的冲击力和2万吨炸药的威力相当。

 
A run-down watch is still a watch and can be rewound. An old watch, by contrast, becomes so worn and unreliable that it eventually is not worth mending.
手表停了依然是只手表,还可以重上好发条。然而一只老掉牙的手表,磨损太厉害,老得一点儿不准了,最终不值得修理了。
🎈相比之下 in / by contrast= in / by comparison [in / by contrast强调不同,后者则强调不同或相同之处]
🎈值得…  be worth doing [注意这个结构中的doing就是doing,不等于being done,即即便是被动,也要用主动表被动]。
例句
The day when Beijing won the right to host 2008 Olympic Games is worth being celebrated. ×
The day when Beijing won the right to host 2008 Olympic Games is worth celebration/ celebrating. √

 
But a watch could never repair itself—it does not consist of living parts, only of metal, which wears away by friction. We could, at one time, repair ourselves-well enough, at least, to overcome all but the most instantly fatal illnesses and accidents. 
但是,手表决不会自行修理,它不是由有生命的部件组成,而是由金属组成,而金属可以随着磨擦而磨损殆尽。而我们人曾经是可以自行修复的,除了暴病死或意外事故外,至少足以克服一切疾病和事故。
🎈由…组成  consist of…
🎈曾经,一度at one time
🎈几乎,差不多all but = almost
例句
His left arm is all but useless.
他的左臂基本是废了。

 
Between twelve and eighty years we gradually lose this power; an illness which at 12 would knock us over, at 80 can knock us out, and into our grave.
在12岁至80岁之间,我们逐渐丧失这种能力。能使我们在12岁时病倒的疾病,到了80岁可能会使我们一蹶不振而进入坟墓。
🎈power(s) n. 人的能力ability
观察/专注/判断力powers of observation / concentration / judgment
失去语言能力lose the power of speech
🎈使…倒下knock sb. over= knock sb. down
例句
A car knocked him over.
一辆车撞倒了他。
He was knocked over by fever.
他由于发烧病倒了。
击倒某人;使昏迷/不省人事knock sb. out
例句
Tyson knocked out his opponent in round 
🎈 Tyson在第二回合级击倒了他的对手。
The three drinks knocked him out.三杯酒下肚,他就不省人事了。
🎈患病:
1 have … /get …//come down with…/catch …/ pick up …:患传染病
2 develop:强调身体自发形成的
患肺癌/糖尿病develop lung cancer / diabetes
3 contract:患重病
患肺炎/艾滋病contract pneumonia / AIDS
 

If we could stay as vigorous as we are at twelve, it would take about 700 years for half of us to die, and another 700 for the survivors to be reduced by half again.
假如我们能保持12岁时的旺盛生命力,那么我们当中的一半人过700年才会死去,剩下的人再过700年,才会又减少一半。
🎈If we could stay as vigorous as we are at twelve, it would take about 700 years for half of us to die…是虚拟语气,与现在事实相反。as we are at twelve引导比较状从。another 700 for the survivors to be reduced by half again相当于(it would take) another 700 for the survivors to be reduced by half again。
🎈减少了… be reduced by …
减少到… be reduced to …
 
🔥必背词汇
likelihood       n. 可能性
很有可能/不大可能…There is every/little likelihood + that…或+ of one’s doing…/sth doing…
【复习】in all+ n =very+(对应的)adv.
很可能in all probability = very probably
很可能in all likelihood = very likely
非常诚实地in all honesty = very honestly
非常坦诚地in all frankness = very frankly
非常严肃地in all seriousness = very seriously
非常真诚地in all sincerity = very sincerely
十分迫切地in all eagerness = very eagerly
 
vulnerable      adj. 脆弱的,易受伤害的
社会弱势群体the vulnerable groups in society
易于受到…的伤害 be vulnerable to sb. / sth.
例句
The wound is vulnerable to infection.
伤口容易感染。
易患…(病的)be susceptible to sth.
纸老虎paper tiger
致命弱点,软肋Achilles heel
例句
Children are particularly susceptible to the disease.
儿童尤其容易患有这种疾病。
All reactionaries are paper tigers.
所有反动派都是纸老虎。
Official corruption remains the government’s Achilles heel.
官员腐败一直都是政府的致命弱点。
 
imperceptible      adj. 感觉不到的,难以觉察的
perceptible adj. 可觉察的,可感知的
perceptive adj. 敏锐的,有洞察力的
【复习】tangible adj. 可以触摸到的;真实而具体的
intangible adj.摸不到的;虚无缥缈的
看得见的,视野范围之内的visible / in sight
看不见的,视野范围之外的invisible / out of sight
听得见的,听力范围之内的audible / within earshot
听不见的,听力范围之外的inaudible / out of earshot
 
aging /ageing      n. & adj. 老化(的),老龄化(的)
【同义词】graying / greying
衰老的过程the process of aging/ the aging process
老龄化问题the aging/graying problem
中国老龄化人口China’s aging population
少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。An idle youth, a needy age.
age v.变老 n.1年纪大;2年纪
例句
She has aged well.
徐娘半老,风韵犹存。/优雅地老去。
 
odds      n. 1可能性;2困难,逆境
有可能… the odds are (that) …
很可能…the odds are in favor of sth
不大可能…the odds are against sth
例句
The odds are (that) you’re going to fail.
你有可能会失败。
The odds are in favor of his winning.
他很可能会赢。
The odds are against his winning.
他不大可能会赢。
面对(重重)困难against (all) the odds
克服(重重)困难beat / overcome the odds
与困难/大自然作斗争 fight / battle / struggle against the odds/elements
 
thermodynamics      n. 热力学
【词根】1“therm(o)” = heat 
thermometer n.温度计
thermos / Thermos n.保温壶,暖瓶
保温杯thermos / Thermos mug 
thermal a.1热的2温暖的
热能thermal energy
温泉thermal spring
保暖内衣thermal underwear
2 “dynam” = power 
dynamic a.精力充沛的 =vital
dynamite n.炸药
dynamics n.动力学
thermodynamics n.热力学
hydrodynamics n.流体力学
 
🔥重点表达
很有可能/不大可能…There is every/little likelihood + that…或+ of one’s doing…/sth doing…
社会弱势群体the vulnerable groups in society
易于受到…的伤害 be vulnerable to sb. / sth.
易患…(病的)be susceptible to sth.
纸老虎paper tiger
致命弱点,软肋Achilles heel
衰老的过程the process of aging/ the aging process
老龄化问题the aging/graying problem
中国老龄化人口China’s aging population
少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。An idle youth, a needy age.
有可能… the odds are (that) …
很可能…the odds are in favor of sth
不大可能…the odds are against sth
面对(重重)困难against (all) the odds
克服(重重)困难beat / overcome the odds
与困难/大自然作斗争 fight / battle / struggle against the odds/elements
保温杯thermos / Thermos mug 
热能thermal energy
温泉thermal spring
保暖内衣thermal underwear
最多at most 
至少at least
充其量,最好at best 
最差也就… at worst
还没有…;有待于…have yet to do
只需…就可以…have only to do … to do …
记忆力的逐步减退progressive loss of memory
婉拒邀请decline an invitation
区别很小/区别微乎其微 differ little
有一丁点区别 differ a little
区别巨大differ greatly / significantly / enormously
因人而异vary from person to person
日益提高improve from day to day
通读… read sth. from cover to cover
挨门挨户卖… sell sth. from door to door
…可能性很大one’s chances of doing …/the chances that …+ are good / high.
…可能性渺茫one’s chances of doing …/the chances that …+ are small / slight / remote.
…事实上是有限度的 there is a virtual limit / restriction on …
除非,直到… unless and until
必然,理所当然in the nature of things 
似乎…in the nature of … = similar to …
…类型的,某一种类的of … nature
耗尽 run out of …= use up = exhaust
依照,按照in accordance with …/in line with …/in compliance with …/in (the) light of …
能量守恒定律the law of the conservation of energy
热力学第二定律 the second law of thermodynamics
悬而未决的问题;有争议的问题 a moot point
…尚有争议be open to question / debate
(…)是否/能否…依旧是个悬而未决的问题 It’s a moot point whether…/It’s open to question / debate whether…
和…类似 be analogous to …/be similar to …/be comparable to / with …/be akin to …
和…相当be equivalent to …
值得…  be worth doing
由…组成  consist of…
曾经,一度at one time
几乎,差不多all but = almost
使…倒下knock sb. over= knock sb. down
击倒某人;使昏迷/不省人事knock sb. out
🔥复盘测试
很有可能/不大可能…
社会弱势群体
易于受到…的伤害 
易患…(病的)
纸老虎
致命弱点,软肋
衰老的过程
老龄化问题
中国老龄化人口
少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。
有可能… 
很可能…
不大可能…
面对(重重)困难
克服(重重)困难
与困难/大自然作斗争 
保温杯
热能
温泉
保暖内衣
最多 
至少
充其量,最好
最差也就… 
还没有…;有待于… 
只需…就可以…
记忆力的逐步减退
婉拒邀请
区别很小/区别微乎其微 
有一丁点区别
区别巨大
因人而异
日益提高
通读… 
挨门挨户卖…
…可能性很大
…可能性渺茫
…事实上是有限度的 
除非,直到… 
必然,理所当然
似乎…
…类型的,某一种类的
耗尽
依照,按照
能量守恒定律
热力学第二定律
悬而未决的问题;有争议的问题
…尚有争议
(…)是否/能否…依旧是个悬而未决的问题 
和…类似 
和…相当
值得…  
由…组成  
曾经,一度
几乎,差不多
使…倒下
击倒某人;使昏迷/不省人事
 

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《The process of ageing 衰老过程》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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