《Education 教育》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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Education

教育

 

Education is one of the key words of our time.

教育是我们这个时代的关键词之一。

🎈关键词/关键问题/关键要素a key word / issue / factor

至关重要的 vital/ crucial/ essential/ critical/ momentous

重大决定/ 重要场合 a momentous decision / occasion

例句

We’re at a critical time in our history.

我们正处在历史的关键时刻。

对…来说是至关重要的be of paramount importance to …

在某人心中最为重要be uppermost in one’s mind


 

A man without an education, many of us believe, is an unfortunate victim of adverse circumstances, deprived of one of the greatest twentieth-century opportunities.

我们许多人都相信,一个没有受过教育的人,是逆境的牺牲品,被剥夺20世纪的最优越的机会之一。

🎈many of us believe是插入语。deprived of one of the greatest twentieth-century opportunities是原因状语。

🎈英文中,句子的核心内容在主句中,一般放在句首或句末。如果将这句写为Many of us believe that a man without an education is an unfortunate victim of …,则句子重心发生偏移,使本不重要的成分Many of us believe反而更显眼。


 

Convinced of the importance of education, modern states ‘invest’ in institutions of learning to get back ‘interest’ in the form of a large group of enlightened young men and women who are potential leaders.

现代国家深深懂得教育的重要性,对教育机构投资,收回的“利息”便是培养出大批有知识的男女青年,这些人可能成为未来的栋梁。

🎈Convinced of the importance of education理解成原因状语。to get back…who are potential leaders整个是目的状语。

🎈使某人相信… convince sb. of sth.

对…深信(不疑)be convinced of …

🎈在…方面的投资invest in …

投入…到…(方面)invest … in …

把B赋予给A invest A with B

例句

His life was invested with a new significance.

他的生命被赋予新的意义。

🎈institution n.大型机构

金融/教育/慈善机构 financial / educational / charitable institution

institute n.(教育科研性质的)学院,研究院

贫民学院the institute for the destitute

农/航空学院(/研究所)agricultural / aviation institute

麻省理工学院MIT(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

🎈enlightened adj.开明的

enlighten v.启蒙,教导

开明的态度/政策enlightened attitude / policy


 

Education, with its cycles of instruction so carefully worked out, punctuated by textbooks—those purchasable wells of wisdom—what would civilization be like without its benefits?

教育,以其教学周期如此精心地安排,并以教科书——那些可以买到的智慧源泉——予以强化,如果不受其惠,文明将会是个什么样子呢?

🎈with its cycles of instruction so carefully worked out(独立主格结构)和punctuated by textbooks都修饰Education。those purchasable wells of wisdom是textbooks的同位语。

🎈制定出,策划出work out

制定计划/方案work out a plan / program

🎈punctuate  v.

1加标点

2不时打断,穿插

3加强,强调,使突出

给文章加标点punctuate the article

不时穿插…,不时被…打断 be punctuated by / with sth.

强调,重视punctuate…

emphasize / stress …

lay / put emphasis / stress on …

attach importance to…

🎈无动词分句:

Education, what would civilization be like without its benefits?

A science reporter, he has a wide range of knowledge.

Bank loan or no bank loan, we’ll buy the house.

🎈What would civilization be like if there were not its benefits?是典型的虚拟语气:If + S. + did / were …, S. + would / should / could / might + do … ,其中if从句常可用介词短语代替。


 

So much is certain: that we would have doctors and preachers, lawyers and defendants marriages and births—but our spiritual outlook would be different.

至少,这些是可以肯定的:虽然我们还会有医生和牧师、律师和被告、婚姻和生育,但人们的精神面貌将是另一个样子。

🎈that we would have doctors and preachers, lawyers and defendants marriages and births可以看作so much的同位语。


 

We would lay less stress on ‘facts and figures’ and more on a good memory, on applied psychology, and on the capacity of a man to get along with his fellow citizens.

人们不会重视“资料和数据”,而靠好记性、实用心理学和与同伴相处的能力。

🎈并列谓语动词若含介词,省略时要保留介词。

🎈fellow citizens中fellow指“和(自己)身份、地位相同的人”,比如同胞fellow Chinese。


 

If our educational system were fashioned after its bookless past we would have the most democratic form of ‘college’ imaginable.

如果我们的教育制度仿效没有书籍的古代教育,我们的学院将具有可以想象得出的最民主的形式了。

🎈fashion v.1 制造,制作2改变

用一块木头做了把玩具枪fashion a toy gun from a piece of wood

为了适应B而改变A fashion A after B

🎈…’college’ imaginable: -able结尾的形容词修饰名词时,前置后置意义差别不大。如果该名词还有别的词限定,可以直接把-able结尾的形容词后置,不占用前置定语的有限位置。


 

Among tribal people all knowledge inherited by tradition is shared by all; it is taught to every member of the tribe so that in this respect everybody is equally equipped for life.

在部落中,通过传统继承的知识为所有人共享,并传授给部落中的每一个成员。从这个意义上讲,每个人受到的有关生活本领的教育是相等的。

🎈与某人共用/合用… share sth. with sb.

分享/分担… share (in) sth.

🎈在这个方面/角度/视角 in this respect

in this aspect

in this way

from this angle

from this perspective

🎈 …is equally equipped for life中省略了equality in terms of receiving knowledge。


 

It is the ideal condition of the ‘equal start’ which only our most progressive forms of modern education try to regain.

这就是“平等起步”我们最进步的现代教育试图恢复的理想状况。

🎈 ideal本身就表示最高级含义,类似于perfect,无比较级和最高级形式。

🎈progressive a.进步的,先进的

进步的思想progressive ideas

aggressive a.有闯劲的,有进取心的;进攻的,侵略的

regressive a.后退的,退步的

🎈恢复regain /recover /restore

恢复健康/视力/知觉/镇定~ one’s health/sight/consciousness/composure


 

In primitive cultures the obligation to seek and to receive the traditional instruction is binding to all.

在原始文化中,寻求和接受传统教育的义务对全民都有约束力。

🎈有义务…have an obligation to do sth. /be under an obligation to do sth.

没有义务…have no obligation to do sth. /be under no obligation to do sth

根本没有义务… be not under any obligation to do sth.

🎈binding   a.有约束力的 → bind v.绑

一份有法律约束力的文件a legally binding document

约束某人做某事bind sb. to do sth.


 

There are no ‘illiterates’— if the term can be applied to peoples without a script- while our own compulsory school attendance became law in Germany in 1642, in France in 1806, and in England in 1876 and is still nonexistent in a number of ‘civilized’ nations.

那里没有“文盲”(如果这个字眼儿可以用于没有文字的民族的话)。而我们的义务教育成为法 律在德国是在1642年,在法国是在1806年,在英国是在1876年。今天,在许多“文明”国家里,义务教育迄今尚未实行。

🎈’civilized’加引号是为了有讽刺的效果。

🎈script n.文字,语言;听力原文;剧本,脚本

阿拉伯文字 Arab script

🎈义务教育compulsory school attendance / education / schooling


 

This shows how long it was before we deemed it necessary to make sure that all our children could share in the knowledge accumulated by the ‘happy few’ during the past centuries.

这说明,经过了多么漫长的时间之后,我们才认识到,有必要确保我们的孩子享有多少个世纪以来由,少数幸运者,所积累起来的知识。

🎈少数人(特权阶级)the few

多数人(普通老百姓)the many [和minority,majority不同]

幸运的少数人the happy few

有特权的少数the privileged few


 

Education in the wilderness is not a matter of monetary means.

荒凉地区的教育不是钱的问题。

🎈 …的事儿/问题 a / the matter / question of …

🎈货币政策monetary policy

货币单位monetary unit


 

All are entitled to an equal start.

所有的人都享有平等起步的权利。

🎈有权力获得…/有权力做… be entitled to sth. /be entitled to do sth.

All are entitled to an equal start.= All are entitled to receive equal education.


 

There is none of the hurry which, in our society, often hampers the full development of a growing personality.

那里没有我们今天社会中的匆忙生活,而匆忙的生活常常妨碍个性的全面发展。

🎈阻碍hinder/impede/hamper

put sand in the wheels of

put obstacles in the way of

stand in the way of


 

There, a child grows up under the ever-present attention of his parents; therefore the jungles and the savannahs know of no ‘juvenile delinquency.

荒凉地区的孩子无时无刻不在父母关怀下成长。因此,丛林和荒凉地区不知道什么叫“青少年犯罪”。

🎈不断/总是/永远…ever-doing

日新月异的世界the ever-changing world

不断增长的知识the ever-growing knowledge

不断发展的经济the ever-developing economy

不断拓张的市场the ever-expanding market

不断深化的改革the ever-deepening reform

日益减少的资源the ever-dwindling resources

🎈钢筋混凝土的丛林(常比喻城市)the concrete jungle

丛林法则(弱肉强食)the law of the jungle

🎈听说,获悉…know of / about

learn of / about

hear of / about


 

No necessity of making a living away from home results in neglect of children, and no father is confronted with his inability to ‘buy’ an education for his child.

人们没有必要离家谋生,所以不会产生孩子无人管的问题,也不存在父亲无力为孩子支付教育费用而犯难的问题。

🎈No…, and no…中no否定的都是整个句子,而非第一个no否定necessity of making a living away from home,第二个no只否定father,否则句子含义就会出现偏差。

 

🔥必背词汇

adverse       adj. 不利的,不好的

adversary/ antagonist/opponent/  n.对手,敌手,死对头

不利影响,副作用adverse effects

不利的天气条件adverse weather conditions

逆风adverse wind

逆境adverse circumstances

直面逆境in the face of adversity/ misfortune

【近义词】unfavorable/hostile/detrimental

逆境unfavorable circumstances

有害的气候条件/状况hostile climatic conditions

对…有不利影响have a detrimental effect on…

 

preacher      n. 布道的人,传教士

preach/ sermon v.布道,传教;(派生义)鼓吹,宣扬,提倡

advocate v. 鼓吹,宣扬,公开支持

 

defendant      n. 被告人

plaintiff n.原告

prosecutor n.起诉人,原告

起诉某人prosecute sb.

judge 法官

witness 目击者,目击证人

jury陪审团

attorney 律师[美]

solicitor 事务律师[英]

barrister 庭审律师

lawyer律师

testimony 证言,证词

affidavit 书面证词

 

outlook      n. 1总的态度,观点;2展望,前景

人生观outlook on life

世界观world outlook

精神面貌spiritual / mental outlook

对…的态度/看法attitude to / towards sth.或perspective on …

在某人看来,根据某人的观点from sb’s perspective √

from sb’s viewpoint √

from sb’s standpoint √

from sb’s point of view √

in sb.’s opinion / view √

according to sb. √

from sb.’s opinion / view X

according to sb.’s opinion / view X

according to me X

…的前景,对…的展望 the outlook/prospects for…

 

capacity      n. 容量,承受量;能力

能坐下/容纳2000人has a seating capacity of 2,000

承重1000公斤has a capacity of 1,000 kilos

读写能力the capacity to read and write

工作能力特别强has enormous capacity for work

…的能力 ability to do sth./ capability to do sth. /capability of doing sth.

 

democratic      adj. 民主的

民主权力democratic rights

民主选举democratic elections

一个民主政府a democratic government

民主党the Democratic Party

democracy n.民主政体

democrat n.民主人士,民主党人

republican a.共和的 n.共和派人士

republic n.共和国

monarchy n.君主制

monarch n.国王,君王

君主立宪制constitutional monarchy

autocracy n.独裁政体

autocratic a.独裁的

autocrat n.独裁者

 

compulsory      adj. 有义务的,必须做的 [出于外界原因]

【近义词】obligatory a. 有义务的,必须做的[出于道义或责任]

必修课a compulsory course或an obligatory course

选修课an elective / optional course

九年制义务教育the 9-year compulsory education / schooling / school attendance

迫使某人做某事compel/oblige sb. to do

义务兵役obligatory military service

【反义词】voluntary a.自愿的

自愿捐助voluntary donations

自愿提前退休voluntary early retirement

【同词根词】

compelling a.引人入胜的,令人爱不释手的

compulsive a.成瘾的,根本停不下的,强迫性的

强迫性赌博compulsive gambling

赌徒/赌棍a compulsive gambler

 

hamper     v. 妨碍

妨碍…(的发展/进步/成长)hamper / hinder / impede (… development/growth)

对…的阻碍a(n) hindrance/ impediment to…

 

🔥重点表达

不利影响,副作用adverse effects

不利的天气条件adverse weather conditions

逆风adverse wind

逆境adverse circumstances

直面逆境in the face of adversity/ misfortune

有害的气候条件/状况hostile climatic conditions

对…有不利影响have a detrimental effect on…

起诉某人prosecute sb.

人生观outlook on life

世界观world outlook

精神面貌spiritual / mental outlook

对…的态度/看法attitude to / towards sth.或perspective on …

…的前景,对…的展望 the outlook/prospects for…

民主权力democratic rights

民主选举democratic elections

一个民主政府a democratic government

民主党the Democratic Party

君主立宪制constitutional monarchy

必修课a compulsory course或an obligatory course

选修课an elective / optional course

九年制义务教育the 9-year compulsory education / schooling / school attendance

迫使某人做某事compel/oblige sb. to do

义务兵役obligatory military service

自愿捐助voluntary donations

自愿提前退休voluntary early retirement

强迫性赌博compulsive gambling

赌徒/赌棍a compulsive gambler

妨碍…(的发展/进步/成长)hamper / hinder / impede (… development/growth)

对…的阻碍a(n) hindrance/ impediment to…

关键词/关键问题/关键要素a key word / issue / factor

至关重要的 vital/ crucial/ essential/ critical/ momentous

重大决定/ 重要场合 a momentous decision / occasion

对…来说是至关重要的be of paramount importance to …

在某人心中最为重要be uppermost in one’s mind

某人相信… convince sb. of sth.

对…深信(不疑)be convinced of …

在…方面的投资invest in …

投入…到…(方面)invest … in …

把B赋予给A invest A with B

开明的态度/政策enlightened attitude / policy

制定出,策划出work out

强调,重视punctuate…

为了适应B而改变A fashion A after B

在这个方面/角度/视角 in this respect

恢复健康/视力/知觉/镇定~ one’s health/sight/consciousness/composure

有义务…have an obligation to do sth. /be under an obligation to do sth.

没有义务…have no obligation to do sth. /be under no obligation to do sth

根本没有义务… be not under any obligation to do sth.

约束某人做某事bind sb. to do sth.

阿拉伯文字 Arab script

少数人(特权阶级)the few

多数人(普通老百姓)the many

…的事儿/问题 a / the matter / question of …

货币政策monetary policy

货币单位monetary unit

有权力获得…/有权力做… be entitled to sth. /be entitled to do sth.

丛林法则(弱肉强食)the law of the jungle

听说,获悉…know of / about

 

🔥复盘测试

不利影响,副作用

不利的天气条件

逆风

逆境

直面逆境

有害的气候条件/状况

对…有不利影响

起诉某人

人生观

世界观

精神面貌

对…的态度/看法

…的前景,对…的展望

民主权力

民主选举

一个民主政府

民主党

君主立宪制

必修课

选修课

九年制义务教育

迫使某人做某事

义务兵役

自愿捐助

自愿提前退休

强迫性赌博

赌徒/赌棍

妨碍…(的发展/进步/成长)

对…的阻碍

关键词/关键问题/关键要素

至关重要的

重大决定/ 重要场合

对…来说是至关重要的

在某人心中最为重要

某人相信…

对…深信(不疑)

在…方面的投资

投入…到…(方面)

把B赋予给

开明的态度/政策

制定出,策划出

强调,重视

为了适应B而改变

在这个方面/角度/视角

恢复健康/视力/知觉/镇定~

有义务…

没有义务…

根本没有义务…

约束某人做某事

阿拉伯文字

少数人(特权阶级)

多数人(普通老百姓)

…的事儿/问题

货币政策

货币单位

有权力获得…/有权力做…

丛林法则(弱肉强食)

听说,获悉…

 

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