《Exploring the sea-floor 海底勘探》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

朗读这篇文章

Exploring the sea-floor

海底勘探

 
Our knowledge of the oceans a hundred years ago was confined to the two-dimensional shape of the sea surface and the hazards of navigation presented by the irregularities in depth of the shallow water close to the land.
我们只知道海洋是在100年前,它是二维平面形的,以及靠近陆地浅水区的深浅不一能给航行带来危险。
🎈confined to后接两个and连接的宾语。in depth of the shallow water close to the land是irregularities的后置定语,其中close to the land又是the shallow water的后置定语。
🎈把…局限于…confine … to …/restrict … to …
卧病(在床/轮椅等)be confined to … [此时不说be restricted to…]
例句
This attitude seems to be confined to the upper classes.
这种观点似乎只局限于上层社会中。
Although confined to a wheelchair, she was very active in social life.尽管瘫坐在轮椅上,她仍积极社交。
🎈健康/安全/火灾/交通隐患be a health / safety / fire / traffic hazard
对…构成隐患be / present / pose / constitute a hazard to ……
对…构成威胁be / present / pose / constitute a threat / menace to …
🎈hazard n.隐患,风险→hazardous a.冒险的,有危险的
peril n.危险[极大的危险]→perilous a.危险的
处于极大危险之中in grave peril/ in jeopardy 
 

The open sea was deep and mysterious, and anyone who gave more than a passing thought to the bottom confines of the oceans probably assumed that the sea bed was flat.
无边无际的海洋深邃而又神秘,凡是稍稍想过大海海底的人大概都会认为海底是平坦的。
🎈考虑… give thought / consideration to sth.
🎈passing adj.短促的 brief and not serious
一闪念/扫视一眼a passing thought / glance 
🎈超过;不仅仅……more than + noun
例句
Peace is more than the absence of war.
和平不过是远离战火罢了。
🎈confines n. 范围limits 
🎈【近义词】v.猜测
assume:瞎猜,往往无依据
postulate
presume:(褒)推测往往有依据且合理
suppose:不含感情色彩

 
Sir James Clark Ross had obtained a sounding of over 2, 400 fathoms in 1839, but it was not until 1869, when H. M. S. Porcupine was put at the disposal of the Royal Society for several cruises, that a series of deep soundings was obtained in the Atlantic and the first samples were collected by dredging the bottom.
1839年,簷姆斯•克拉克•罗斯爵士曾测得海水深度超过2, 400英寻;但直到1869年,皇家学会用英国“豪猪”号舰艇进行了几次巡航后,才在大西洋测得一个海水深度,同时通过挖掘海底, 取得了研究海底的首批样品。
🎈整句(but…之后)是It was not until…that…强调句式。when H. M. S. Porcupine was put at the disposal of the Royal Society for several cruises是非限制性定从,修饰1869。
🎈Sir +人名:Sir意为“爵士,公爵”。
🎈H.M.S. (HMS) = Her / His Majest ’s Ship
🎈归某人使用at one’s disposal / at the disposal of sb. 
例句
He put / placed his house at my disposal during my holiday.
🎈直到…才…It was not until …, when …, that …
例句
It was not until 1949, when Chairman Mao proclaimed the foundation of the People’s Republic of China, that the Chinese people finally achieved liberation and became masters of the country.
直到1949年毛主席宣布中华人民共和国成立, 中国人民才最终获得了解放并且成了国家的主人。
🎈此句中的it was not until 1869..相当于It was only in 1869…。only+时间状语,常译为“直到…”

 
Shortly after this the famous H. M. S. Challenger expedition established the study of the sea-floor as a subject worthy of the most qualified physicists and geologists.
此后不久,英国著名的“挑战者”号舰艇对海底的那次考察,把对海床的研究确立为一个值得一流物理学家和地质学家从事的研究课题。
🎈在…之后不久 short after …
在…之前不久short before …
不久之后shortly afterwards
🎈确立某人/某事的…地位 establish … as …
例句
Zhen He’s seven expeditions established China as the world’s top naval power.
郑和七次下西洋确立了中国海军强国的地位。
🎈值得… be worth of …
be worthy to do / to be done
be worth n. / doing [注意这个结构中的doing就是doing,不等于being done,即即便是被动,也要用主动表被动]。
例句
The day when Beijing won the right to host 2008 Olympic Games is worth being celebrated. ×
The day when Beijing won the right to host 2008 Olympic Games is worth celebration/ celebrating. √
🎈qualified a.有资格的,有资质的
有资质的医生/建筑师a qualified doctor / architect
qualify v.有资格…
例句
I qualified as a doctor from Peking University last year.
我去年从北大毕业,有资格成了一名医生。
授权某人做某事authorize sb. to do
例句
UN does not authorize US to use force against Iraq. / US waged war on Iraq without UN authorization.
联合国没有授权美国对伊拉克发动战争。[authorization  n.授权]

 
A burst of activity associated with the laying of submarine cables soon confirmed the Challenger’s observation that many parts of the ocean were two to three miles deep, and the existence of underwater features of considerable magnitude.
铺设海底电缆的热潮很快证实了“挑战者”号的观察结果:海洋中很多地方可深达两三英里,水下特征差异极大。
🎈that many parts of the ocean were two to three miles deep和the existence of underwater features of considerable magnitude是observation的同位语(从句)
🎈burst v.爆发,爆炸
例句
One more bite, and I’ burst. 
再多吃一口,我(肚子)就(撑)炸了。
The buds are all bursting.
花苞全都绽放了。
突然大哭/大笑/大声歌唱burst into tears / laughter / song或burst out crying / laughing / singing
…突然爆发 a burst of sth.
突然加速/大小/发脾气a burst of speed / laughter / anger

 
Today, enough soundings are available to enable a relief map of the Atlantic to be drawn and we know something of the great variety of the sea bed’s topography.
现在已有足够的水深测量数据来绘制一张大西洋洋底地形图,而且我们对海底地形的千变万化也有了一定的了解。
🎈be available to do
1 sth作主语:某物可供……
例句
Funds are available to assist teachers who want to attend the conference.
2 sb作主语:某人有空/有时间……
例句
My professor is always available to talk to her students.
🎈对…了解/知道(多少)know … about / of …
例句
I don’t know anything about this.
我对此一无所知。
Not much is known about his background.
我对他的背景所知不多。
You know nothing of this business.
你对这个公司一无所知。

 
Since the sea covers the greater part of the earth’s surface, it is quite reasonable to regard the sea floor as the basic form of the crust of the earth, with, superimposed upon it, the continents, together with the islands and other features of the oceans.
既然海洋覆盖着地球的大部分表面,因此完全有理由把海床看作地壳的基本模壳,上面附加着大陆以及岛屿和海洋的其他形态。
🎈with, superimposed upon it, the continents, together with the islands and other features of the oceans是一个打碎了的独立主格结构[(with) + n.+ 非谓语],其中the continents, together with the islands and other features of the oceans是逻辑主语。
🎈…做…是完全合理/无可厚非的it is (quite) reasonable / legitimate / justifiable for … to do
It’s a very well for … to do
🎈把A附加到B上 superimpose A on / upon B

 
The continents form rugged tablelands which stand nearly three miles above the floor of the open ocean.
大陆是崎岖不平的高地,高出辽阔的海洋海底近三英里。
🎈stand是系动词,后接数值可直接表示“…高”。
例句
The tower stands 20 meters.
这座塔高达20米。
还有两个类似的词:
1 measure可表示“…长/宽/高/深”。
例句
The bed measures 2 meters in length / long.
The bed measures 1 meter in width / wide.
2 weigh “…重”
例句
The boy weighs 50 kilos.

 
From the shore line, out to a distance which may be anywhere from a few miles to a few hundred miles, runs the gentle slope of the continental shelf, geologically part of the continents.
从海岸线向大海延伸几英里到几百英里的区域是大陆架慢坡,从地质学上来说,它是大陆的一部分。
🎈该句为完全倒装,旨在突出句末的主语。
表示位置或次序的状语置于句首,只要满足两个条件,要用全部倒装:1、主语不是代词。
2、谓语动词不是及物动词。我们看几个例子。
例句
In came Miss Green.= Miss Green came in.
Out he went. √ Out went he. × [既然在强调主语,那就最好用名词,而不是代词]
On the hi John saw Mar . √ On the hill saw John Mary. ×[saw是及物动词,所以不倒装]
🎈run v.延伸,延展
例句
There was a path running through the middle of the forest.
一条小径穿过了森林。
🎈geology n.地形学
geography n.地理学
geometry n.几何学

 
The real dividing line between continents and oceans occurs at the foot of a steeper slope.
大陆和海洋的真正分界线是在陡坡脚下。
🎈存在于occur
exist / be found
be
obtain
lie in sth.(在于)
lurk(潜伏)
例句
Vitamin C is found in citrus fruit.
Pumas are large, cat-like animals which are found in America.
Such terrible suffering should never be.
Conditions of extreme poverty now obtain in many parts of the country.
The difficulty lies in providing sufficient evidence.
I saw someone lurking in the bushes(蹲在灌木丛里).

 
This continental slope usually starts at a place somewhere near the 100- fathom mark and in the course of a few hundred miles reaches the true ocean floor at 2, 500-3, 500 fathoms.
大陆架慢坡一般是从差不多100英寻水深的地方开始的,一直延伸到几百英里远深达2, 500至 3, 500的地方,那里才是真正的海底。
🎈somewhere near the 100- fathom mark是a place的后置定语。in the course of a few hundred miles(沿着…)介词短语作状语。

 
The slope averages about 1 in 30, but contains steep, probably vertical, cliffs, and gentle sediment-covered terraces, and near its lower reaches there is a long tailing-off which is almost certainly the result of material transported out to deep water after being eroded from the continental masses.
坡度平均约为1/30,但其中包括陡峭的、乃至垂直的峭壁和沉积物覆盖的缓和的阶梯地带,在这个地带的低处是很长的一段尾沙地段,这几乎是必然的结果大陆块体上侵蚀下来的物质被水冲到深水处形成的。
🎈The slope…, but contains steep, probably vertical, cliffs, //and…。定从which is almost certainly the result of material transported out to deep water after being eroded from the continental masses修饰a long tailing-off,其中transported out to deep water…又作material的后置定语。
🎈average v.(系动词)平均
例句
The airport averages about a thousand flights a month.
🎈 “30分之一”的两种表达:1 in 30或  a / one thirtieth
🎈vertical / perpendicular a.垂直的
horizontal a.水平的
circuitous / tortuous a.崎岖的/曲折的
例句
The road is tortuous, but the prospects are bright.
道路是曲折的,前景是光明的。
🎈名词+分词 构成形容词 (现在分词表主动,过去分词表被动)
吃昆虫的动物insect-eating animals
耗时的工作time-consuming work
手工制作的银器hand-made silverware
国有企业state-owned enterprises
卖花女孩flower-selling girls
守法公民law-abiding citizens
吃人的社会man-eating societies
划时代的作品epoch-making masterpieces
城里长大的孩子town-bred children
🎈reach n.区域,地带
森林的外部地带the outer reaches of the forest
河流的上/下游地区the upper/lower reaches of the river
政府高层the upper reaches of the government
 
🔥必背词汇
navigation      n.[U] 航海
例句
The channel now is open to navigation.
海峡现在通航了。
aviation n. [U]航空
电子导航系统an electronic navigation system
navigate v.导航;指引方向;航行
靠星星导航navigate by the stars
例句
You drive and I’ navigate.
你开车我指路。
【词根】nav / nau = ship
navy n.海军
naval a.海军的 
一名海军军官a naval officer
nausea n.恶心
nauseate v.零某人恶心
nautical a.航海的,船舶的
航海图/海里nautical chart / mile
aeronautics n.航空学
astronautics n.航天学
北京航空航天大学Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
 
expedition      n. 远征,考察,探险
例句
They went on an expedition to the South Pole.
他们去了南极考察。
【近义词】
1trip [泛指各种旅行]
环球旅行a trip around the world
钓鱼途中on a fishing trip
2 journey [中长距离旅行]
在旅途中on a journey
3 travel [多指海外旅行]
例句
We met some very interesting people on our travels in Thailand.
4 tour [周游,到达多个地方]
例句
President Xi Jinping is on a five-nation tour(五国访问).
5 outing [短距离旅行,基本当天往返]
去郊游/踏青/远足go on an outing
6 excursion
例句
We’re going on a day excursion to the Badalin Great Wall.
7 cruise / voyage [C,海上航行]
on a cruise / voyage
8 pilgrimage [朝圣之旅]
例句
He makes / goes on a pilgrimage to Mecca(麦加) every year.
 
magnitude      n. 巨大,重大,重要性
特大丰收a harvest of magnitude
例句
We didn’t realize the magnitude of the problem.
我们没有意识到这个问题的重要性。
【词根】magn =great
magnify v.放大
magnate n.巨头
金融大亨/文学巨匠a financial / literary magnate
magnanimous a.宽宏大量的
magnanimity n.宽宏大量
magnificent a.壮观的
magniloquent a.夸张的
 
topography     n. 地形,地形学
【词根】graph=write
photograph n.照片
telegraph n.电报
autograph n.亲笔签名(尤指大明星)
geography n.地理学
topography n.地形学
biography n.传记
autobiography n.自传
demography n.人口统计,人口学
bibliography n.[U]参考书 [参考书reference books]
calligraphy n.书法
 
crust      n. 地壳
【辨析】
crust:the earth, read, pie, pizza, cake …的壳
shell:egg , nut, tortoise …的壳
 
tableland      n. 高地
plateau n.高原
青藏高原the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
plain n.平原
华北平原the North China Plain
basin n.盆地
塔里木盆地the Tarim Basin
savannah/ prairie /grassland n.草原 [savannah(亚)热带草原/ prairie北美洲草原 /grassland泛指]
内蒙古大草原the Inner Mongolian Grassland
terrace n.梯田;看台
 
sediment      n. 沉淀物
一层厚厚的沉淀物a thick layer of sediment
【词根】sed= sit
sedate a.宁静/平静的
一个宁静的小村庄a sedate village 
sedative n.镇静剂
sedentary a.久坐的
一份需久坐的职业a sedentary occupation
sedulous a.勤奋/勤勉的
一位勤奋(伏案工作)的研究人员a sedulous researcher
 
erode      v. 侵蚀,腐蚀
削弱中国的竞争力erode China’s competitiveness
例句
Wind and rain have eroded the statue.
风雨侵蚀了雕像。
【近义词】侵蚀
1 eat / wear away
例句
The stones are being eaten / worn away by the river.
2 corrode [强调化学金属]
例句
Acid corrodes metal.
酸会腐蚀金属。
🔥重点表达
电子导航系统an electronic navigation system
靠星星导航navigate by the stars
一名海军军官a naval officer
航海图/海里nautical chart / mile
环球旅行a trip around the world
钓鱼途中on a fishing trip
在旅途中on a journey
去郊游/踏青/远足go on an outing
特大丰收a harvest of magnitude
青藏高原the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
华北平原the North China Plain
塔里木盆地the Tarim Basin
内蒙古大草原the Inner Mongolian Grassland
一层厚厚的沉淀物a thick layer of sediment
削弱中国的竞争力erode China’s competitiveness
把…局限于…confine … to …/restrict … to …
健康/安全/火灾/交通隐患be a health / safety / fire / traffic hazard
处于极大危险之中in grave peril/ in jeopardy 
一闪念/扫视一眼a passing thought / glance 
归某人使用at one’s disposal / at the disposal of sb. 
直到…才…It was not until …, when …, that …
在…之后不久 short after …
确立某人/某事的…地位 establish … as …
值得… be worth of …
对…了解/知道(多少)know … about / of …
…做…是完全合理/无可厚非的it is (quite) reasonable / legitimate / justifiable for … to do
把A附加到B上 superimpose A on / upon B
存在于occur
1/30 1 in 30或  a / one thirtieth
森林的外部地带the outer reaches of the forest
河流的上/下游地区the upper/lower reaches of the river
政府高层the upper reaches of the government
 
🔥复盘测试
电子导航系统
靠星星导航
一名海军军官
航海图/海里
环球旅行
钓鱼途中
在旅途中
去郊游/踏青/远足
特大丰收
青藏高原
华北平原
塔里木盆地
内蒙古大草原
一层厚厚的沉淀物
削弱中国的竞争力
把…局限于…
健康/安全/火灾/交通隐患
处于极大危险之中
一闪念/扫视一眼
归某人使用
直到…才…
在…之后不久 
确立某人/某事的…地位
值得…
对…了解/知道(多少)
…做…是完全合理/无可厚非的
把A附加到B上 
存在于
1/30
森林的外部地带
河流的上/下游地区
政府高层

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《Exploring the sea-floor 海底勘探》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

赞 (0)