《Non-auditory effects of noise 噪音的非听觉效应》 -新概念英语第四册 学习笔记

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Non-auditory effects of noise

噪音的非听觉效应

 

Many people in industry and the Services, who have practical experience of noise, regard any investigation of this question as a waste of time; they are not prepared even to admit the possibility that noise affects people.

在工业部门工作和在军队中服役的许多人对噪声音有切身的体会,他们认为对这个问题进行调查是浪费时间,他们甚至不愿承认噪音可能对人有影响。

🎈service n. 政府部门department of people employed by the government or a public organization

政府的行政部门the Civil Service

外交部门the Diplomatic Service

国民保健部门the National Health Service

🎈对于…的浪费a waste of …

浪费才华a waste of one’s talents

浪费纳税人的钱a waste of taxpayers’ money

暴殄天物!What a waste of all that good work!

🎈(不)乐意… be (not) prepared / ready to do sth.

不乐意接受…的可能性/承认… be not prepared to admit the possibility that …

例句

Many people regard any investigation of GM foods as a waste of time; they are not prepared even to admit the possibility that GM foods affects people.

很多人把调查转基因食品 (GM foods) 看作是浪费时间,他们甚至都不愿意承认转基因食品可能对人有影响。

 


On the other hand, those who dislike noise will sometimes use most inadequate evidence to support their pleas for a quieter society.

另一方面,那些讨厌噪音的人有时会用不充分的证据来支持他们希望有一个较为安静的社会环境的要求。

🎈on the one hand … on the other (hand) … (用以引导出相互矛盾的观点﹑ 意见等) 一方面,另一方面。on the other (hand)和on the one hand连用时hand可省略,单独出现时一定不能省,且一定带有“然而”的意味。


 

This is a pity, because noise abatement really is a good cause, and it is likely to be discredited if it gets to be associated with bad science.

这令人遗憾,因为要求减少噪音是件好事,但是如果与拙劣的科学掺杂在一起的话,就不会被人们所信任。

🎈This is a pity是第一个句子的主干,because noise abatement really is a good cause是原因状从。and引出并列句,if it gets to be associated with bad science是条件状从。

🎈cause n. 1. [C] & [U]理由  2. [C]事业 (注意含义不同时单词是否可数)

🎈discredit v. 怀疑,质疑(to cause people to stop respecting someone or believing in an idea or person )

🎈有机会……get to do sth.

例句

We got to meet all the stars after the show.

演出结束后我们有机会见到所有明星。

渐渐开始……get to like / know / understand …

例句

It’ll take a while for you to get to know everyone.

你要花些时间才能逐渐了解每个人。


 

One allegation often made is that noise produces mental illness.

常见的一种指责是,噪音能引起精神病。

🎈often made作allegation的后置定语。that noise produces mental illness是表语从句。

🎈produce v.引起,产生,导致to cause a particular result or effect

气候变化导致的海平面上升a rise in sea-level produced by climatic change

例句

As a policy, it did not produce the desired effect.

作为一项政策,它并未达到预期效果。

One allegation often made is that GM foods produce potential risks. 常见的一种指责是,转基因食品能引起潜在的风险。


 

A recent article in a weekly newspaper, for instance, was headed with a striking illustration of a lady in a state of considerable distress, with the caption ‘She was yet another victim, reduced to a screaming wreck’.

例如,最近一家周报刊登了一篇文章,文章上方有一幅引人注目的插图,是一位表情沮丧的女子。图的文字说明:“她是又一个受害者,成了只会尖叫的可怜虫。”

🎈of a lady in a state of considerable distress是illustration的后置定语。’She was yet another victim, reduced to a screaming wreck’作caption的同位语,其中reduced to a screaming wreck可理解为原因状语。

🎈head v. if a page is headed with a particular name, title, image etc, it has it on the top

例句

The information sheet was headed Medical Insurance.

信息页的标题是“医疗保险”。

🎈striking adj. 醒目的,引人注意的unusual or interesting enough to be easily noticed

例句

She bears a striking resemblance to her older sister.

她和她姐姐也太像了。

🎈illustration n.

1.(书或文章中的)插图

2.例证,例子

一本带有美丽插图的儿童书籍a children’s book with beautiful illustrations

当作例子…,by way of illustration,…

例句

The statistics are a clear illustration of the point I am trying to make.

这些数据是我所提观点的清晰例证。

One apt illustration of this point involves the rapid development of Japan.

日本的快速发展恰当地证明了这个观点。

🎈处于…状态 in a state of …

例句

He was in a state of permanent depression.

他处于长期抑郁的状态。

🎈caption n. 插图的文字说明(words printed above or below a picture in a book or newspaper or on a television screen to explain what the picture is showing )[考研英语中的看图写作中,图片下方常有文字说明,此时可以套用句型The caption below says …]

🎈再yet / still (another / one more…)

再提一个问题yet one more question

再举一个例子still another example

例句

To such motives, yet another must be added.

必须再补充一个动机。

🎈使……陷入(更糟的状态) reduce sb. / sth. to sth. / to doing sth.

=to force sb./sth. into a particular state or condition, usually a worse one

例句

They were reduced to begging in the streets.

他们落魄到了沿街乞讨的地步。

🎈wreck n.

1.严重损毁的交通工具,残骸

2.身体或精神严重受损伤的人,废人

例句

The collision reduced the car to a useless wreck.

这次撞击让小汽车变成了一堆废铜烂铁。

Physically, I was a total wreck.

从身体上说,我是一个彻头彻尾的废人。

 


On turning eagerly to the text, one learns that the lady was a typist who found the sound of office typewriters worried her more and more until eventually she had to go into a mental hospital.

当人们急切地看完正文后,便知道这女子是个打字员,办公室打字机的声音使她越来越烦,最终住进了精神病医院。

🎈On turning eagerly to the text是时间状语。that the lady…是learn的宾语从句。who引导定语从句修饰a typist。until eventually she had to go into a mental hospital是时间状语。

🎈on / upon prep. (fml.) 当……时,一……就……[as soon as sb. has done sth. or as soon as sth. has happened]

例句

All patients are examined on admission to the hospital.

所有患者一入院就接受了检查。

in prep.在……过程中,在……期间[while doing sth. or while sth. is happening, and as a result of this]

例句

In seeking independence, they do not sacrifice their human dignity.

🎈有些英文单词本身就是使役动词,无需再与make…等词搭配。

例句

I didn’t want to make them worried. →I didn’t want to worry them.

Peter made me deeply disappointed. →Peter deeply disappointed me.

They made me confused by asking so many questions. →They confused me by asking so many questions.

🎈精神病院mental hospital = psychiatric hospital


 

Now the snag in this sort of anecdote is of course that one cannot distinguish cause and effect.

这类奇闻的疑难之处是无法区别因果关系。

🎈in this sort of anecdote是snag的后置定语。that one cannot distinguish cause and effect是表语从句。

🎈snag n. 小的问题、困难或障碍

例句

Let me know if you run into any snags.

遇到问题时请告诉我。

🎈anecdote n. 轶事, 逸闻short, interesting or amusing story about a real person or event

有关于他短暂的演员生涯中的小插曲/花絮amusing anecdotes about his brief career as an actor

🎈区分distinguish / differentiate / discriminate

🎈因果cause and effect

因果关系cause-and-effect relationship


 

Was the noise a cause of the illness, or were the complaints about noise merely a symptom?

是噪音引起了(精神)病呢,还是(精神)病的症状之一是对噪音的抱怨?

🎈…的原因a cause of …或reason for / behind …

…的动机 motive for / behind …

🎈merely a … = a mere …

即… were the complaints about noise merely a symptom?= … were the complaints about noise a mere symptom?


 

Another patient might equally well complain that her neighbours were combining to slander her and persecute her, and yet one might be cautious about believing this statement.

另有一位病人可能同样有理由抱怨说,她的邻居们正在联合起来对她进行诽谤和迫害,不过,人们不会轻信她的抱怨。

🎈(某事)可能(发生或是真的)may / might / could well …

例句

What you say may well be true.

你所说的可能是真的。

🎈combine v.合作,共同作用( to act together )

合作/共同配合做某事combine to do sth.

例句

Many factors combined to cause the recession.

多种因素共同导致了经济衰退。

合谋做某事,共同作用……conspire to do sth.

例句

All six men admitted conspiring to steal cars.

六个人都承认了共谋偷车。

🎈yet可以作连词,如The essay is good, yet it could be improved.,也可以作副词,如It is strange, and yet it is true.

🎈对…持谨慎态度be cautious about (doing) sth.

对…持谨慎乐观态度cautious optimism about sth. / be cautiously optimistic about sth.


 

What is needed in the case of noise is a study of large numbers of people living under noisy conditions, to discover whether they are mentally ill more often than other people are.

对于噪音问题,需要对大量生活在噪音中的人进行研究,看一看他们是否比其他人更易患精病。

🎈What is needed in the case of noise是主语从句。to discover…是目的状语。than other people are是比较状从。

🎈对于,关于;在……情况下in the case of …

例句

The amount of fruit in fruit juices must be 6% in the case of berries and 10% in the case of other fruits.

浆果果汁中水果含量需达6%,其他类型的果汁中水果含量需达10%。

若发生某事;假如in case of …= if sth happens

例句

In case of fire, ring the alarm bell.

如果发生火灾,请按警铃。

🎈对于…的研究study of …

亚洲语言研究中心a center for the study of Asian languages

🎈conditions n. [pl.] 环境,情况circumstances

在…情况下under / in … conditions

在现有情况下under existing conditions

必须在艰难条件下作业的消防员firemen having to operate in very difficult conditions


 

Some time ago the United States Navy, for instance, examined a very large number of men working on aircraft carriers: the study was known as Project Anehin.

例如,美国海军前些时候调查了许多在航空母航上工作的人,这次调查被称之为:“安内英工程”。

🎈Some time ago是时间状语。for instance是插入语。working on aircraft carriers是men的后置定语。冒号起解释作用。

🎈前不久Some time ago

🎈aircraft carrier n. 航空母舰a type of ship that planes can fly from and land on


 

It can be unpleasant to live even several miles from an aerodrome; if you think what it must be like to share the deck of a ship with several squadrons of jet aircraft, you will realize that a modern navy is a good place to study noise.

即使住在离机场几英里以外的地方,机场的噪音也会使人难受。因此,和几个中队的喷气机同在一个甲板上,如果你能想象出是什么滋味儿的话,你就会认识到现代海军是研究噪音的好地方。

🎈It can be unpleasant to live even several miles from an aerodrome中it是形式主语,不定式是真正主语。宾语从句what it must be like to share the deck of a ship with several squadrons of jet aircraft中it是形式主语,不定式是真正主语。

🎈aerodrome n. 小飞机场a place that small planes fly from

🎈squadron n. 空军或海军中队a unit of one of the armed forces, especially the air force or the navy

🎈jet aircraft / jet n. 喷气式飞机aircraft powered by a jet engine


 

But neither psychiatric interviews nor objective tests were able to show any effects upon these American sailors.

但是,不管进行精神病学的调查访问,还是进行客观的测试,都不能显示噪音对这些美国水兵有任何影响。

🎈upon these American sailors 是effects的后置定语。on/upon和effect是固定搭配。


 

This result merely confirms earlier American and British studies: if there is any effect of noise upon mental health, it must be so small that present methods of psychiatric diagnosis cannot find it.

这个结果只不过证实了美国和英国早些时候的研究结论:即使噪音对精神健康有影响的话,那也一定是微乎其微,以致现代的精神病诊断方法还发现不了。

🎈if there is any effect of noise upon mental health理解成让步状从比理解成条件状从更贴切。

🎈if conj. 即使even if

例句

If there is any effect of GM foods upon human health, it must be so small that present methods of medical diagnosis cannot find it.

即使转基因食品对于人体健康有影响,也一定是微乎其微,以至于目前的医学诊断方法无法发现。


 

That does not prove that it does not exist; but it does mean that noise is less dangerous than, say being brought up in an orphanage —which really is a mental health hazard.

这并不是证实不存在噪音对健康的影响。但它确实说明,噪音的危险性——比如说——比在孤儿院长大所受的危害要小一些,孤儿院才是真正危害精神健康的地方。

🎈it does mean …强调肯定式,加强了语气。say(比如说)是插入语。which really is a mental health hazard是定语从句。

🎈把某人抚养成人bring up sb.

被拉扯大be brought up

从小就……be brought up to do sth.

例句

We have been brought up to fear insects.

我们打小就害怕昆虫。

🎈健康/安全/火灾/交通隐患a health / safety / fire / traffic hazard

…对…构成危险 …be / present / pose / constitute a hazard to …

…对…构成威胁 …be / present / pose / constitute a threat / menace to …

 

🔥必背词汇

auditory      adj. 听觉的

听觉神经the auditory nerve

【词根】“aud” = to hear

audible a.听得见的

audience n.观众

audio-visual a.视听的

audit v.审计,查账

auditor n.审计员,查账员

audition n.试听,试音

audiphone n.助听器

auditorium n.礼堂

 

plea    n. 请求,恳求

请求…plea/pleading for …

例句

The police ignored her pleas for help.

警方忽略了她的求助。

plead v.1请求,恳求 2以……为借口

请求… plead for …

例句

Civil rights groups pleaded for government help.

民权团体恳求政府的帮助。

请求某人做某事plead with sb. (to do sth.)

例句

Moira pleaded with him to stay.

Moira恳求他留下来。

以不知情/生病/精神失常为借口plead ignorance / illness / insanity …

 

abatement     n. (something harmful or unpleasant)减少,减弱

噪音减弱/污染减轻noise / pollution abatement

abate v.减少,减弱

例句

The storm / wind / rain has started to abate.

【近义词】ebb/subside/wane

例句

Our enthusiasm soon began to ebb.

The applause / pain gradually subsided.

My enthusiasm for the project was waning.

 

allegation     n.(没有依据的)声称,断言

allege v.(没有依据地)声称,断言

据称… It was alleged that…/…be alleged to do…

例句

The water is alleged to be polluted with mercury.

这片水域据称已经被汞污染了。

 

slander     v. 诽谤,中伤

例句

He angrily accused the investigators of slandering both him and his family.

他气愤地指责调查员诽谤他和他的家人。

诽谤/中伤某人slander /slur / defame / traduce / libel sb.

把…看作对…的诽谤/中伤regard sth. as a slander / slur on …

例句

Parents are often upset when their children praise the homes of their friends and regard it as a slur on their own cooking, or cleaning, or furniture, and often are foolish enough to let the adolescents see that they are annoyed.

 

🔥重点表达

请求…plea/pleading for …

请求… plead for …

请求某人做某事plead with sb. (to do sth.)

噪音减弱/污染减轻noise / pollution abatement

据称… It was alleged that…/…be alleged to do…

诽谤/中伤某人slander /slur / defame / traduce / libel sb.

把…看作对…的诽谤/中伤regard sth. as a slander / slur on …

对于…的浪费a waste of …

(不)乐意… be (not) prepared / ready to do sth.

不乐意接受…的可能性/承认… be not prepared to admit the possibility that …

有机会……get to do sth.

渐渐开始……get to like / know / understand …

气候变化导致的海平面上升a rise in sea-level produced by climatic change

处于…状态 in a state of …

使……陷入(更糟的状态) reduce sb. / sth. to sth. / to doing sth.

精神病院mental hospital = psychiatric hospital

区分distinguish / differentiate / discriminate

因果cause and effect

因果关系cause-and-effect relationship

…的原因 cause of …或reason for / behind …

…的动机 motive for / behind …

合作/共同配合做某事combine to do sth.

合谋做某事,共同作用……conspire to do sth.

对…持谨慎态度be cautious about (doing) sth.

对于,关于;在……情况下in the case of …

若发生某事;假如in case of …

对于…的研究study of …

在…情况下under / in … conditions

在现有情况下under existing conditions

前不久Some time ago

航空母舰aircraft carrier

喷气式飞机jet aircraft / jet

把某人抚养成人bring up sb.

被拉扯大be brought up

从小就……be brought up to do sth.

 

🔥复盘测试

请求…

请求…

请求某人做某事

噪音减弱/污染减轻

据称…

诽谤/中伤某人

把…看作对…的诽谤/中伤

对于…的浪费

(不)乐意…

不乐意接受…的可能性/承认…

有机会……

渐渐开始……

气候变化导致的海平面上升

处于…状态

使……陷入(更糟的状态)

精神病院

区分

因果

因果关系

…的原因

…的动机

合作/共同配合做某事

合谋做某事,共同作用…

对…持谨慎态度

对于,关于;在……情况下

若发生某事;假如

对于…的研究

在…情况下

在现有情况下

前不久

航空母舰

喷气式飞机

把某人抚养成人

被拉扯大

从小就……

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