《Bird flight 鸟的飞行方法》 -新概念英语第四册 学习笔记

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Bird flight

鸟的飞行方法

 
No two sorts of birds practise quite the same sort of flight; the varieties are infinite; but two classes may be roughly seen.
没有任何两种鸟的飞行方式是相同的。飞行方式千差万别,但大体上可分为两类。
🎈分号表示并列。
🎈no在句首,否定的是整个句子。
例句
No money buys health.
实则指“money buys health”是不存在(no)的。
🎈practise (Am.E. practice) v.从事;经常做…
practice n.练习;惯例,常做的事
例句
Nearly all the sports practised nowadays are competitive. 
如今人们从事的运动几乎全是竞技性的。
🎈模仿造句:没有任何两个人的指纹是一模一样的。指纹的种类千差万别,但大体上可以分为两种:斗 (whorl) 和簸箕 (loop)。
No two individuals share quite the same pattern of fingerprints; the varieties are infinite; but two classes may be roughly seen: whorl and loop.
🎈表示“分类”的句型:
1 there are … ways /kinds / sorts / types / categories / classes …
2 fall into … categories
3 be divided into … classes
例句
There are three categories of accommodation(住宿): economical, standard and deluxe.
Shakespeare’s plays fall into three categories: tragedies such as Hamlet, comedies such as The Merchant of Venice and histories such as Henry Ⅳ.
Broadly speaking, human beings may be divided into three classes: those who are toiled to death, those who are worried to death, and those who are bored to death.
 

Any ship that crosses the Pacific is accompanied for many days by the smaller albatross, which may keep company with the vessel for an hour without visible or more than occasional movement of wing.
任何一艘横度太平洋的轮船都会有一种小信天翁伴随飞行许多天。它们随船飞行一小时也难得见其扇动一下翅膀。
🎈定从that crosses the Pacific修饰ship。is accompanied for many days by…中for many days状语前置,以求句式平衡。without visible or more than occasional movement of wing介词短语作状语。
🎈伴随/陪同…accompany = keep company with…
[keep company with+ 名词性结构;若与代词连用,直接写作keep sb. company即可]
被…伴随/陪同be accompanied by …
company n.[U]陪伴
例句
I enjoy her company.
我喜欢和她在一起。
🎈visible a.明显的
🎈1 不仅仅是… more than sth. 
例句
Peace is more than the absence of war.
和平不仅仅意味着没有战争。
2 极其/非常…more than + adj./adv. 
例句
He is more than selfish.
他太自私了。
3 是A所不能/无法…的 more than A can / could …
例句
The story is more than I can believe.
我不相信这个故事。

 
The currents of air that the walls of the ship direct upwards, as well as in the line of its course, are enough to give the great bird with its immense wings sufficient sustenance and progress.
沿船体上升的气流和沿航线向前的气流,给这种巨翼大鸟以足够的浮力和推力。
🎈The currents of air that…和as well as in the line of its course是主语部分。
🎈direct vt. 把…指向…方向 =aim; point
例句
All the criticism was directed at her.
所有的批评都是针对她的。
🎈A再加上B,足以使C… A, as well as B, are enough to give C with…
例句
全中国人民的共同努力,再加上党的英明领导,足以使这个幅员辽阔、人口众多、历史悠久的伟大国家持续和发展下去。
The cooperating efforts of all the Chinese people, as well as the wise leadership of the Communist Party, are enough to give the great nation with a vast territory, a big population and a long history sufficient sustenance and progress.

 
The albatross is the king of the gliders, the class of fliers which harness the air to their purpose, but must yield to its opposition. In the contrary school, the duck is supreme.
信天翁是滑翔飞行之王,这种飞鸟能自如地驾驭空气,但必须顺气流飞行。与滑翔鸟相对的另一类鸟中,数野鸭本领最高。
🎈the class of fliers which harness the air to their purpose, but must yield to its opposition.是gliders的同位语,其中定从which harness the air to their purpose,…修饰the class of fliers。
🎈是…中最棒/强的be the king/queen of sth.
例句
He is the new king of pop music.
他是新一代流行音乐天王。
…是无人能及的  be supreme
🎈屈服于yield to …/submit to …/bow to …/succumb to …
🎈school n.流派
印象派the Impressionist school of painting
百花齐放,百家争鸣。Let a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend.
🎈In the contrary school, the duck is supreme.也可写作The duck is the king of the contrary school.

 
It comes nearer to the engines with which man has ‘conquered ‘ the air, as he boasts.
它更近乎于人类自夸的“征服”了空气的发动机。
🎈句首的It指the duck。as he boasts是非限制性定从。
🎈It comes near to the engines… =It is similar to the engines …
🎈人类
1 man[U],用 he指代
2 mankind / the human race[U],用it指代
例句
人类有其自身的问题。
Man has his problems.
或Mankind / The human race has its problems.
🎈boast的两种用法:
1吹牛,夸口…boast of / about …或boast that …
2 (sth作主语)拥有 sth boast…
例句
Often a valley boasted no inn at all, …
通常村子里都没有客栈……

 
Duck, and like them the pigeons, are endowed with steel-like muscles, that are a good part of the weight of the bird, and these will ply the short wings with such irresistible power that they can bore for long distances through an opposing gale before exhaustion follows.
野鸭及它们相似的鸽子有天赋的钢铁般的肌肉,占了该鸟体重的很大一部分。这些肌肉以巨大的力量扇动短小的翅膀,使这类鸟能顶着大风飞行很远的路才精疲力尽。
🎈that are a good part of…中that最好改成which,更加规范。with such irresistible power that they can…中that和such连用,引导结果状从。before exhaustion follows是时间状从。
🎈…一般的 –like
钢铁般的肌肉steel-like muscles
像猫一样的动物cat-like animals
水晶般的双眸crystal-like eyes
天使般的女孩an angel-like girl
梦幻般的音乐dream-like music
🎈a good part of 中的good强调“数量大”,而非“好的”。
例句
He earns good money.
他挣了大钱、好多钱。
We’ve walked a good distance today.
我们今天走了很远。
🎈给某人源源不断地提供……
ply sb. with sth.
🎈bore(像钻头一样)运用了夸张 (hyperbole)的修辞,以加强表达效果。
例句
His anger nearly burst his belly.
他快气炸了。
Everybody was clapping their hands off.
掌声雷动。
He has a skeleton of a wife.
他的妻子瘦成了皮包骨。
The car cost him an arm and a leg.
这辆车太贵了。
🎈逆风opposing / adverse / unfavorable gale / wind
顺风favorable gale / wind
🎈before的译法:
1、…之后;然后
例句
I shaved before I went to the party.
我刮了脸之后去参加了聚会。
2、强调主句的时间很长时,译为才
例句
It will be a long time before we meet again. 
我们很久之后才会重逢。
3、强调主句的时间很短时,译为就
例句
I hadn’t waited long before he came. 
我没等多久他就来了。

 
Their humbler followers, such as partridges, have a like power of strong propulsion, but soon tire.
次于野鸭和鸽子的鸟,如鹧鸪,有相似的巨大推动力,但很快会疲劳。
🎈like /alike/ similar adj. 类似的[like只能作前置定语;alike只能作表语;similar无限制] 
likely adj. 可能的=probable

 
You may pick them up in utter exhaustion, if wind over the sea has driven them to a long journey.
如果海风驱使它们飞行很长距离,你可以捡到一些因筋疲力尽而摔下来的鹧鸪。
🎈utter v.说出 a.完全的,彻底的
例句
That’s utter nonsense.
一派胡言。
She gazed at me in utter confusion. 
她用完全疑惑的神情盯着我看。

 
The swallow shares the virtues of both schools in highest measure. 
燕子充分兼有这两类鸟的长处。
🎈share v.有(一样的…);都有…
例句
I believe my view is widely shared.
我认为很多人和我有一样的观点。
🎈virtue n.优点,长处
🎈最大程度上in highest measure = to the highest degree
很大程度上in great / large measure
某种程度上in some measure

 
It tires not, nor does it boast of its power; but belongs to the air,  travelling it may be six thousand miles to and from its northern nesting home, feeding its flown young as it flies, and slipping through a medium that seems to help its passage even when the wind is adverse.
它既不疲劳,也不炫耀自己的飞翔力;在空中十分自如,可以飞行6, 000英里,可以飞往北方做窝的老家,再从老家飞回;一边飞一边喂养会飞的雏燕,甚至在顶风时也能在气流中滑翔,似乎气流在帮它前进。
🎈nor does it boast of its power中nor引出并列否定句,且句子需要倒装。travelling…, feeding…, and slipping through…作原因状语,其中it may be是插入语,在语法上不作成分。
🎈It tires not = It doesn’t tire. “It tires not” 是古代用法,现在有时也用在诗歌中。例如:She loves me not. = She doesn’t love me.
🎈nesting home=home for nesting
🎈young表示“幼崽”时本身就是复数。
狐狸妈妈和她的幼崽们the mother fox and her young
🎈slip “滑”
He slipped on a piece of ice and broke his left leg. (滑倒了)
I’ll slip the letter under your door.(把信从门缝下塞进去)
slip on the shoes (穿上鞋,指没后跟的鞋子)
slippers (拖鞋)
slip through the net (漏网之鱼)
He slipped quietly out of the room.(溜出房间)
His popularity slipped further after a series of scandals.(声誉下滑)
🎈Sing→Pl.
stratum → strata
datum → data(数据)
medium → media(媒体,媒介)
bacterium → bacteria(细菌)
curriculum → curricula(课程)
🎈passage n.通过,经过
时间的流逝 the passage of time

 
Such birds do us good, though we no longer take omens from their flight on this side and that; and even the most superstitious villagers no longer take off their hats to the magpie and wish it good-morning.
这些鸟对我们是有益的,虽然我们不再从它们的飞翔姿态来占卜吉凶,连最迷信的村民也不再对喜鹊脱帽行礼,祝它早安了。
🎈对…有好处 do sb. good = benefit sb.
对…有害do sb. harm
弊大于利do more harm than good
利大于弊do more good than harm
🎈用…来占卜吉凶take omens from …
例句
用扑克牌来占卜吉凶take omens from cards
把…当作…的兆头take sth. as omens for …
例句
She took all the little things that happened that day as omens for their future married life.
她把那天发生的所有事都当作他们未来婚宴生活的预示。
🎈superstition n. 迷信;迷信的观念
superstitious adj. 迷信的
助长迷信foster superstition
破除迷信break down / abolish superstition
好兆头/吉利的兆头a good omen / an auspicious omen 
凶兆a bad/ill/ominous omen
例句
There has long been a superstition among the Chinese that seeing a magpie will bring you good luck / is a good omen / is an auspicious omen. 
中国人长久以来迷信看见喜鹊会有好运气。
🎈祝愿
1 wish sb. sth.
例句
I wish you great success.
祝你大获成功。
2 may sb. do
例句
May God bless you.
愿上帝保佑你。
🔥必背词汇
albatross      n. 信天翁
某人摆脱不掉的累赘/麻烦an albatross (around one’s neck)
例句
The scandal is an albatross around the president’s neck. 
任期将满的领导人lame duck
例句
With 11 months left to go in his second term, George W. Bush looks more and more like a lame duck president.
坐以待毙者,活靶子sitting duck
例句
With their bullets all gone, the soldiers were sitting ducks for the enemy.
信鸽carrier pigeon
内八字的pigeon-toed
[pigeon强调动物性;dove常用其象征意,如“和平”、“鸽派”等。]
 
sustenance      n. 食物,营养,生计;持续,维持
sustain v.支撑;维持
sustainable a.可持续的
可持续增长sustainable growth
可持续发展sustainable development
可持续发展战略sustainable development strategy
【形近词】
sustain v. 支撑;维持
maintain v.保持,保留;坚称
retain v. 保持,保留(状态)
detain v.拘留
attain v.实现,完成,达到
contain v.包含
obtain v.获得
abstain v.弃权
 
harness     n. 马具;v. 利用自然力
例句
There is a great deal of interest in harnessing wind and waves as new sources of power.
有很多人对利用风浪作为新的动力感兴趣。
【名词动用】
table n.桌子 →v. 搁置 
搁置提案table a proposal / bill
chair n.椅子→ v.主持
implement n.器具→v.实施,执行
农具farming implements 
实施一项计划/政策/联合国决议implement a plan / policy / UN resolution
gear n.齿轮,变速装置→v.调节
调节…以适应、迎合…gear sth. to / towards sth.
例句
He geared his speech to a conservative audience.
 
endow     v. 资助;赋予
赋予某人…endow sb. with sth./ provide sb. naturally with …
强调天生具备
例句
She is endowed with both beauty and brains.
她生来就既漂亮又聪明。
把…赋予给某人 invest sb. / sth. with sth. 指后天获得
例句
Being a model invests her with a certain glamour.
当模特使她有了一种特殊的魅力。
 
propulsion      n. 推进力
【词根】“pel” = 推
propel v.(燃料)推进(火箭、轮船等)
repel v.排斥;令人讨厌
expel v.开除
dispel v.驱散,驱除
compel v.迫使[出于外在压力]
impel v. 迫使[出于内心动力]
必须做某事…be / feel compelled/impelled to do 两种表达区别同上
 
adverse      adj. 不利的,相反的
副作用adverse effects
恶劣的天气状况adverse weather conditions
逆境adverse circumstances
逆风adverse wind
指责,非难adverse criticism
adversity n.逆境
例句
Adversity makes a man.
逆境造就人才。
adversary n.死敌,死对头
 
omen      n. 预兆,征兆
吉利的兆头a good omen/an auspicious omen
凶兆a bad omen/an ill omen/an ominous omen
🔥重点表达
某人摆脱不掉的累赘/麻烦an albatross (around one’s neck)
任期将满的领导人lame duck
坐以待毙者,活靶子sitting duck
信鸽carrier pigeon
内八字的pigeon-toed
可持续增长sustainable growth
可持续发展sustainable development
可持续发展战略sustainable development strategy
调节…以适应、迎合…gear sth. to / towards sth.
赋予某人…endow sb. with sth./ provide sb. naturally with …[强调天生具备]
把…赋予给某人 invest sb. / sth. with sth. [指后天获得]
副作用adverse effects
恶劣的天气状况adverse weather conditions
逆境adverse circumstances
逆风adverse wind
指责,非难adverse criticism
吉利的兆头a good omen/an auspicious omen
凶兆a bad omen/an ill omen/an ominous omen
伴随/陪同…accompany= keep company with…
被…伴随/陪同be accompanied by …
A再加上B,足以使C… A, as well as B, are enough to give C with…
是…中最棒/强的be the king/queen of sth.
…是无人能及的  be supreme
屈服于yield to …/submit to …/bow to …/succumb to …
印象派the Impressionist school of painting
百花齐放,百家争鸣。Let a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend.
吹牛,夸口…boast of / about …或boast that …
逆风opposing / adverse / unfavorable gale / wind
顺风favorable gale / wind
最大程度上in highest measure = to the highest degree
很大程度上in great / large measure
某种程度上in some measure
时间的流逝the passage of time
对…有好处 do sb. good = benefit sb.
对…有害do sb. harm
弊大于利do more harm than good
利大于弊do more good than harm
用…来占卜吉凶take omens from …
把…当作…的兆头take sth. as omens for …
助长迷信foster superstition
破除迷信break down / abolish superstition
祝愿wish sb. sth./ may sb. do
 
🔥复盘测试
某人摆脱不掉的累赘/麻烦
任期将满的领导人
坐以待毙者,活靶子
信鸽
内八字的
可持续增长
可持续发展
可持续发展战略
调节…以适应、迎合…
赋予某人…
把…赋予给某人
副作用
恶劣的天气状况
逆境
逆风
指责,非难
吉利的兆头
凶兆
伴随/陪同…
被…伴随/陪同
A再加上B,足以使C… 
是…中最棒/强的
…是无人能及的  
屈服于
印象派
百花齐放,百家争鸣。
吹牛,夸口…
逆风
顺风
最大程度上
很大程度上
某种程度上
时间的流逝
对…有好处 
对…有害
弊大于利
利大于弊
用…来占卜吉凶
把…当作…的兆头
助长迷信
破除迷信
祝愿

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《Bird flight 鸟的飞行方法》 -新概念英语第四册 学习笔记

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