《Beauty 美》 -新概念英语第四册 学习笔记

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Beauty

 
A young man sees a sunset and, unable to understand or to express the emotion that it rouses in him, concludes that it must be the gateway to a world that lies beyond.
一个年轻人看到日落,由于无法理解和表达日落在他心中唤起的激情,便得出结论:日落处想必是通往遥远世界的大门。
🎈and引出并列句。(being) unable to understand or to express the emotion that it rouses in him是原因状语。that it must be the gateway to a world that lies beyond作conclude的宾语从句,其中that lies beyond是定从修饰a world。
🎈rouse v.1唤醒 2激起
例句
A persistent ringing roused her from a sweet dream.
一阵铃响扰了她的美梦。
激起怒意/热情/怀疑 rouse anger / passion / suspicion …
【近义词】
唤醒 wake/waken
激起(某种感情、情绪)arouse/awaken/evoke/kindle/stir
例句
arouse anger / hostility / resentment
evoke sympathy / memories
燃起怒火/希望kindle anger / hopes
stir memories / pity / imagination
🎈得出结论conclude sth. (from sth.)/ conclude that …或come to / arrive at / reach / draw a conclusion
以…结束…conclude sth. with sth. 或bring sth. to a conclusion
例句
以唱国歌结束大会conclude the rally with the national anthem
由…得出/推理出…deduce/ infer sth. (from sth.) [对应noun分别为deduction/inference]
🎈…的大门 …gateway to…
例句
Death is a gateway to another world.
死亡是通往另一个世界的一扇门。

 
It is difficult for any of us in moments of intense aesthetic experience to resist the suggestion that we are catching a glimpse of a light that shines down to us from a different realm of existence, different and, (because the experience is intensely moving), in some way higher.
无论是谁,在强烈感受到美的时刻,心中都不禁油生一种遐想:我们似乎瞥见从另一个世界射向我们的一线光芒,那个世界不仅不同于我们这个世界,而且由于美感的强烈感染,在某些方面比我们这个世界更美好。
🎈整体是It is … for sb. to do …结构,其中it是形式主语,不定式是真正主语,for引出逻辑主语。in moments of intense aesthetic experience是时间状语。that we are catching a glimpse of a light是the suggestion的同位语从句。that shines down to us from a different realm of existence, different是定从修饰a light。because the experience is intensely moving是原因状从。/ 需要特别说明的一点是a different realm of existence, different and,…in some way higher均为realm of existence的修饰成分,其中第二个different属于语篇纽带,把语法和逻辑扭在了一块,确保语义无歧义(读者在看到句尾的higher时不至于一头雾水),且将意思向纵深发展。
🎈在…的时候in moments of … /in times of …[常指经常发生的事情]
例句
in moments / times of grief / rage / crisis / boredom / ecstasy(狂喜) /tranquility …
对某人来说,在…的时候,都会想到…It is difficult for sb. in moments of sth. to resist sth.
例句
It is difficult for any of us in moments of ecstasy to resist the temptation of sharing it with our friends. 
无论是谁,在欣喜若狂的时候,一般都会想和朋友们一起分享这种快乐。
🎈无意中看到、瞥见 catch a glimpse of …
catch sight of …
glimpse …
🎈某种程度上in some way
to some degree / extent
in some measure
🎈最大程度上in highest measure = to the highest degree
很大程度上in great / large measure
在某种意义上in some sense

 
And, though the gleams blind and dazzle, yet do they convey a hint of beauty and serenity greater than we have known or imagined. 
虽然这光芒令人眼花缭乱,但它确实给予我们一种不曾经历和无法想象的美感和静谧的启示。
🎈though the gleams blind and dazzle是让步状从,其后的yet不是连词而是副词。greater than we have known or imagined是beauty and serenity的后置定语,其中than we have known or imagined引导比较状从。do they convey…这种倒装常见于文学作品中,不太规范,我们写作时尽量避免。
🎈dazzle / blind vt/vi.令人目眩神迷
a. 令人目眩神迷的dazzling / blinding
…令某人为之神魂颠倒/倾倒 sb be dazzled by…
blind and dazzle同义词连用,是为了加强语气。
🎈推推搡搡push and shove
挑挑拣拣pick and choose
受够了be sick and tired of sth
这儿疼那儿疼aches and pains
虚情假意(虚情=假意)
山盟海誓(山盟=海誓)
🎈yet可以作连词,如The essay is good, yet it could be improved.,也可以作副词,如It is strange, and yet it is true.

 
Greater too than we can describe; for language, which was invented to convey the meanings of this world cannot readily be fitted to the uses of another.
这种美感和静谧是我们无法描述的,因为我们发明的语言是用来描述这个世界的含义,不能随便拿来去描述另一个世界。
🎈Greater too than we can describe= (The beauty and serenity are) Greater too than we can describe,是基于上下文语境的省略。for引导原因状从。
🎈…难以形容/无法描述 …be beyond description. /defy description. /be more than words can describe.
🎈readily ad. 
1. willingly乐意地 
2. without difficulty; easily容易地
例句
The equipment was cheap and readily available.
这种设备很便宜,也很容易获取。
🎈改动A以适应B    fit A to B
adjust (A) to B [小调整]
adapt (A) to B[大调整]
accommodate A to B
例句
They accommodate their plans to his inclination. 
他们调整计划以迎合他的偏好。

 
That all great art has this power of suggesting a world beyond is undeniable.
不可否认,一切伟大的艺术都具有使人遐想到进入天外世界的魅力。
🎈如果按正常的主从句式看,此句常写为It is undeniable/There is no denying that all great art has its power of suggesting a world beyond.但此句为圆周句:在句子开头先制造悬念,吸引读者注意力,句尾再解释谜底,告诉读者真相和重点信息(undeniable)
 

In some moods, nature shares it.
在某种状态下,大自然也有这种魅力。
🎈mood n.心情;状态;气氛
当前的政治状况the current political mood
心情愉快/忧郁in a merry / melancholy mood
🎈share v.有(一样的…);都有…
例句
I believe my view is widely shared.
我认为很多人和我有一样的观点。
We share an interest in botany.
我们都对植物学有兴趣。

 
There is no sky in June so blue that it does not point forward to a bluer, no sunset so beautiful that it does not waken the vision of a greater beauty, a vision which passes before it is fully glimpsed, and in passing leaves an indefinable longing and regret.
六月蔚蓝的天空总使人遥想一个更加蔚蓝的苍穹;美丽的落日总会引起一个更加绚丽的景象未及饱览便一闪即逝,并在消逝中给人留下不可名状的渴望和惆怅。
🎈整体是排比(parallelism)句式There is no…, no…。no sky in June so blue that it does not point forward to a bluer中no和not双重否定表肯定,that与so连用,引导结果状从,后半句同理。a bluer (sky)后省略的成分根据上下文语境可以判断出是sky。which passes…, and …leaves …是非限制性定从修饰a vision,其中in passing(in+V-ing)是时间状语。a vision同样是语篇纽带。
🎈(用本句中出现的双重否定句式)造句:人们在获得成就之后总想取得更大的成就。
There is no achievement so satisfying that it does not awaken the desire for a greater.]
🎈渴望/渴求…
1 v. 
long for … / to do …
yearn for … / to do …
hunger / thirst for …
crave (for) sth.
2 n.
longing for … / to do …
yearning for … / to do …
hunger / thirst for …
craving for sth
例句
She longed for a hot drink / to see him again.
In moments of stress and worry, I often experience an indefinable longing for my childhood.
He yearned for her love.
She yearned to have a baby.
I hunger for your touch.

 
But, if this world is not merely a bad joke, life a vulgar flare amid the cool radiance of the stars, and existence an empty laugh braying across the mysteries; if these intimations of a something behind and beyond are not evil humour born of indigestion, or whimsies sent by the devil to mock and madden us, if, in a word beauty means something yet we must not seek to interpret the meaning.
如果这个世界不只是一个拙劣的恶作剧,人生不只是群星寒光中平凡的一闪,存在不只是对神秘事物的一种空虚的笑声,如果某种玄妙事物的暗示不是消化不良引起的邪恶情绪,也不是魔鬼为了捉弄我们,使我们发狂而送给我们的邪念,一句话,如果美有某种意义的话,我们千万不要去阐明它的意义。
🎈本句分为两部分:一堆if排比句+结尾处的核心成分,老圆周句了。life a vulgar flare amid the cool radiance of the stars相当于if life is not a vulgar flare amid the cool radiance of the stars,省略了重复成分(中文排比句追求对仗和语言上气势,重复成分常不省略,而英文排比句中的重复成分可省略),其中amid the cool radiance of the stars是flare的后置定语。后面句子分析同理。
🎈blaze 熊熊大火
flame 小火苗
flare 转瞬即逝的火苗(常用来形容生命的短暂)
glow 暗红的火焰
🎈amid prep. 在…之中(fml.) among or surrounded by things
树丛中的一座小平房a tiny bungalow amid clusters of trees 
例句
He sat amid the trees.
🎈something new:此时something是不定代词,前不能加冠词,adj修饰时必须后置。
a new something:此时something是名词。
🎈坏脾气evil temper 
坏天气evil weather
🎈humor n. mood情绪
好/坏心情in a good / bad humor
🎈由/因…诞生born (out) of …
as a result of …
例句
With strength born (out) of desperation, he forced the door open.
🎈indigestion n. 消化不良;无从理解
digest v. 消化;理解
《读者文摘》Reader’s Digest
🎈撒旦Satan:the adversary of God and all humanity, and the leader of fallen angels
🎈嘲笑
1 mock …嘲弄/嘲笑[常以模仿的方式]
例句
The naughty boys mocked the cripple.
2 make fun of … 嘲弄/嘲笑
3 tease …逗弄[无恶意]
例句
Sam’s sisters used to tease him because he was overweight.
4 sneer at …对…嗤之以鼻
例句
She sneered at Tom’s musical taste.
5 taunt …嘲弄/嘲笑[故意激怒]
例句
She went on taunting Sam until he lost his temper.
6 ridicule …讥笑/嘲弄
例句
All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident.
🎈interpret v.1口译 2解释
同传译员/同声传译simultaneous interpreter / interpretation
《梦的解释》The Interpretation of Dreams

 
If we glimpse the unutterable, it is unwise to try to utter it, nor should we seek to invest with significance that which we cannot grasp.
如果我瞥见了只可意会不可言传的事物,企图把它说出来,那是不明智的;对于我们不理解的事物,我们也不应该去赋予它某种意义。
🎈If we glimpse the unutterable是条件状从。nor 引出并列的否定句,且需要部分倒装。invest with significance that which we cannot grasp是invest A with B的结构,把with significance提前是为了句式平衡。

 
Beauty in terms of our human meanings is meaningless. 
用对我们人类有意义的词解释美是没有意义的。
🎈in terms of … / in … terms 1从…角度 2以…方式
例句
Think of it in terms of an investor.
从投资者的角度去考虑。
The figures are shown in terms of a percentage. 
这些数字采用了百分比的形式。
 
🔥必背词汇
intense     adj. (感觉或感情)强烈的
酷热/严寒/剧痛 intense heat / cold / pain
强烈的爱意/恨意/痛苦 intense love / hatred / suffering
【区分】intensive adj.(活动等)密集的
高强度的英语课an intensive English course
两周密集的谈判two weeks of intensive negotiations
精读intensive reading
泛读extensive reading
劳动密集型产业labor-intensive industry
资金密集型产业capital-intensive industry
技术密集型产业technology-intensive industry
知识密集型产业knowledge-intensive industry
 
realm      n. 王国;范围,领域
文学界/科学界the realm of literature / science
政治/军事领域the political / military realm
必然王国the realm of necessity
自由王国the realm of freedom
例句
人类的历史就是一个不断地从必然王国向自由王国发展的历史。停止的论点,悲观的论点,无所作为的论点和骄傲自满的论点都是错误的。
The history of mankind is one of continuous development from the realm of necessity to the realm of freedom. Ideas of stagnation, pessimism, inertia and complacency are all wrong.
【近义词】n.领域,范围
1 domain [较为文气]
政界the political domain
自然科学领域the domain of natural science
2 field / area / world / sphere
政界the field of politics
艺术界,艺术领域the world of art
教育界,教育领域the area of education
外交领域the diplomatic sphere
思想领域the ideological sphere
 
serenity      n. 静谧,宁静,安详
a.宁静的,安详的 serene/placid/tranquil
例句
a placid pond
a tranquil little village
a tranquil / serene / placid smile / girl
【拓展】使某人镇静下来compose / collect oneself
例句
He took a deep breath to compose / collect himself.
a. 镇静的,镇定自若的composed / collected
例句
He appeared composed despite the stress.
n. 镇静的,镇定自若composure
保持镇定keep / maintain one’s composure
恢复镇定restore / recover / regain one’s composure
 
indefinable     adj. 难以形容的,不可名状的,难以下定义的
难以言喻的悲伤indefinable sadness
【近义词】inexpressible/indescribable/unspeakable/ineffable/ unutterable
例句
inexpressible gratitude
indescribable beauty
unspeakable cruelty
ineffable longing
v.说出utter
发出叫喊声/呻吟utter a cry / groan
例句
She didn’t utter a word during the dinner.
晚饭期间她一语不发。
 
intimation     n. 暗示
intimate vt.暗示
暗示…intimate sth. / that…
【形近词/同形词】v. → n.
暗示intimate → intimation
模仿imitate→ imitation
恐吓intimidate→ intimidation
intimate a.亲密无间的;[委婉]有性关系的
挚友intimate friends
与…发生性关系be intimate with sb.
性接触intimate contact
例句
The disease can be transmitted through intimate contact.
这种疾病会通过性接触传播。
intimacy n. 亲密;;性行为
【近义词】v. → n.(暗示)
suggest → suggestion
imply→ implication
hint → hint 
insinuate→ insinuation
 
invest      v. 投资;投入;赋予
例句
He invested all his money in stocks and bonds.
He invests a lot of time and energy in taking care of his elderly parents.
【复习】赋予某人…endow sb. with sth./ provide sb. naturally with …[强调天生具备]
例句
She is endowed with both beauty and brains.
她生来就既漂亮又聪明。
把…赋予给某人 invest sb. / sth. with sth. [指后天获得]
例句
Being a model invests her with a certain glamour.
当模特使她有了一种特殊的魅力。
【补充】把…送给…,向…致以…(掌声、问候、感谢、款待等)extend sth. to sb.
向留学生提供款待extend hospitality to overseas students
例句
Let’s all extend a warm welcome to our visitors. 
让我们热烈欢迎来宾。
 
🔥重点表达
酷热/严寒/剧痛 intense heat / cold / pain
精读intensive reading
泛读extensive reading
劳动密集型产业labor-intensive industry
文学界/科学界the realm of literature / science
政界the political domain
使某人镇静下来compose / collect oneself
保持镇定keep / maintain one’s composure
恢复镇定restore / recover / regain one’s composure
发出叫喊声/呻吟utter a cry / groan
挚友intimate friends
与…发生性关系be intimate with sb.
性接触intimate contact
赋予某人…endow sb. with sth./ provide sb. naturally with …[强调天生具备]
把…赋予给某人 invest sb. / sth. with sth. [指后天获得]
把…送给…,向…致以…(掌声、问候、感谢、款待等)extend sth. to sb.
唤醒 wake/waken
激起(某种感情、情绪)arouse/awaken/evoke/kindle/stir
以…结束…conclude sth. with sth. 或bring sth. to a conclusion
得出结论conclude sth. (from sth.)/ conclude that …或come to / arrive at / reach / draw a conclusion
由…得出/推理出…deduce/ infer sth. (from sth.)
…的大门 …gateway to…
在…的时候in moments of … /in times of …[常指经常发生的事情]
无意中看到、瞥见 catch a glimpse of …
某种程度上in some way
…令某人为之神魂颠倒/倾倒 sb be dazzled by…
…难以形容/无法描述 …be beyond description. /defy description. /be more than words can describe.
改动A以适应B    fit A to B
当前的政治状况the current political mood
心情愉快/忧郁in a merry / melancholy mood
渴望/渴求…long for … / to do …
坏脾气evil temper 
坏天气evil weather
坏脾气evil temper 
坏天气evil weather
由/因…诞生born (out) of …
嘲弄/嘲笑mock …
1从…角度 2以…方式in terms of … / in … terms 
 
🔥复盘测试
酷热/严寒/剧痛
精读
泛读
劳动密集型产业
文学界/科学界
政界
使某人镇静下来
保持镇定
恢复镇定
发出叫喊声/呻吟
挚友
与…发生性关系
性接触
赋予某人…
把…赋予给某人
把…送给…,向…致以…(掌声、问候、感谢、款待等
唤醒 wake/waken
激起(某种感情、情绪)
以…结束…
得出结论
由…得出/推理出…
…的大门 …
在…的时候
无意中看到、瞥见
某种程度上
…令某人为之神魂颠倒/倾倒 
…难以形容/无法描述 …
改动A以适应B    
当前的政治状况
心情愉快/忧郁
渴望/渴求…
坏脾气
坏天气
坏脾气
坏天气
由/因…诞生
嘲弄/嘲笑
1从…角度 2以…方式 
 

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《Beauty 美》 -新概念英语第四册 学习笔记

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