《Royal espionage 王室谍报活动》 -新概念英语第四册 学习笔记

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Royal espionage

王室谍报活动

🎈royal a.皇室的,王室的
皇家空军/海军the Royal Air Force / Navy
royalty n.版税;王室成员
王室成员光顾的商店a shop patronized by royalty (patron n.老顾客)
loyal a.忠诚的→ loyalty n.忠诚

 
Alfred the Great acted as his own spy, visiting Danish camps disguised as a minstrel.
阿尔弗雷德大帝曾亲自充当间谍,他扮作吟游歌手到丹麦军队的营地里侦察。
🎈Alfred (849~899): king of the West Saxons (871~899). He is one of the most outstanding figures of English history. He is the only ruler to resist Danish invaders, that is Vikings, successfully. Alfred made his kingdom the rallying point for all the Saxons, thus laying the foundation for the unification of England. He was recognized as the first king of England. Today his name still carries thunder: Alfred the Great.
🎈固定用法:历史人名 + 称谓/外号等
阿尔弗雷德大帝Alfred the Great
彼得大帝Peter the Great
亚历山大大帝Alexander the Great
凯撒大帝Caesar the Great
乔治五世George the Fifth
🎈act as …
(临时)担任某工作
My brother speaks French—he can act as interpreter.
当做……来用
= be used as / serve as / function as
Not all sounds made by animals serve as language, …
🎈把A装扮成B  disguise A as B /dress (sb.) up as …
原文的disguised as a minstrel=dressed up as a minstrel

 
In those days wandering minstrels were welcome everywhere.
当时,浪迹天涯的吟游歌手到处受欢迎。
🎈当时,当年,想当初in those days
当今,现如今these days/ today /nowadays

 
They were not fighting men, and their harp was their passport.
他们不是作战人员,竖琴就是他们的通行证。
🎈passport n.通行证;护照
英国/中国护照British / Chinese passport
visa n.签证
工作/学生/旅游签证work / student / tourist visa
🎈their harp was their passport运用了暗喻Metaphor的修辞。暗喻又可分为三类:
1、喻体直陈式:直接点明“本体is/become喻体[但不出现like之类的词]”
例句
She was an angel of a wife.
2、喻体全隐式:用动词表明喻体特征
例句
As the time and cost of making a chip drop to a few days and a few hundred dollars, engineers may soon be free to let their imaginations soar without being penalized by expensive failures.中的soar暗指将imaginations比作了birds。
3、喻体半隐式:喻体未完全出现,若隐若现
例句
He doesn’t have an idea of his own. He just parrots what other people say.中的parrot暗指人像鹦鹉一样学舌,句中只是作一个动词,并未明指“鹦鹉”,但却能让人联想到“鹦鹉学舌”。

 
Alfred had learned many of their ballads in his youth and could vary his programme with acrobatic tricks and simple conjuring.
阿尔弗德年轻时学过许多民歌,并能穿插演一些杂技和小魔术使自己的节目多样化。
🎈在某人年轻时in (one’s) youth
🎈使多样化 vary / diversify /add variety to … 或add color / spice to …
为平淡的日常生活增添色彩add color to the dull routine of everyday life

 
While Alfred’s little army slowly began to gather at Athelney, the king himself set out to penetrate the camp of Guthrum, the commander of the Danish invaders.
阿尔弗雷德人数不多的军队开始在阿塞尔纳慢慢集结时,他亲自潜入丹麦入侵司令官古瑟罗的营地。
🎈little adj. trivial; insignificant 不值一提的,微不足道的
🎈set out to do 
1. 开始/着手做某事=begin a job / task
2. 有意做某事
例句
We never set out to hurt you, Victor.
我们从未打算伤害你。
🎈费力穿透…penetrate (into / through) …
例句
Our troops have penetrated (into) enemy territory.
我们的军队渗透进了敌军阵营。
非法进入,侵入trespass on …
例句
Trespassers will be prosecuted.
非法入侵者将被起诉。
🎈Guthrum: Danish king, he was forced to accept baptism after being defeated by Alfred.

 
These had settled down for the winter at Chippenham: thither Alfred went.
丹麦军已在切本哈姆扎下营准备过冬,阿尔弗雷便来到此地。
🎈定居,安顿settle down
例句
They’d like to see their daughter settle down, get married and have kids.

 
He noticed at once that discipline was slack: the Danes had the self-confidence of conquerors, and their security precautions were casual. 
他马上发现丹麦军纪律松弛,他们以征服者自居,安全措施马马虎虎。
🎈纪律松懈Discipline is slack / loose / lax
discipline作“纪律”讲时是不可数名词
🎈casual adj. slack; careless; inattentive随随便便的,马马虎虎的

 
They lived well, on the proceeds of raids on neighbouring regions. 
他们靠掠夺附近的地区的财物过着舒适的生活。
🎈两个on:lived (well,) on连用;raids on连用。
🎈以/靠……为生 live on…
例句
He lives on salary.
他靠工资生活。
🎈对(某个地区)的抢劫a raid/raids on…
抢劫一家珠宝店a raid on a jeweler’s shop
🎈neighboring   adj. nearby邻近的
 

There they collected women as well as food and drink, and a life of ease had made them soft.
他们不仅搜刮吃的喝的,而且抢掠妇女,安逸的生活已使丹麦军队变得软弱无力。
🎈 强调的是A
除了A之外还B  A as well as … B
=不仅A而且B  A  in addition to/ besides /along with / together with/ aside from/ apart from B
强调的是B
不仅A而且B  not only A but also B
🎈soft a.软弱的
例句
If you appear to be soft, people will take advantage of you.
如果你露怯,人们就会欺负你。

 
Alfred stayed in the camp a week before he returned to Athelney. 
阿尔弗雷德在敌营呆了一个星期后,回到了阿塞尔纳。
🎈before的译法:
1、…之后;然后
例句
I shaved before I went to the party.
我刮了脸之后去参加了聚会。
2、强调主句的时间很长时,译为才
例句
It will be a long time before we meet again. 
我们很久之后才会重逢。
3、强调主句的时间很短时,译为就
例句
I hadn’t waited long before he came. 
我没等多久他就来了。

 
The force there assembled was trivial compared with the Danish horde
他集结在那里的军队和丹麦大军相比是微不足道的。
🎈there assembled是force的后置定语。这一句相当于The force (which was) assembled / gathered / massed there was trivial …
🎈force n.部队
空/陆军air/ land force
海军navy
🎈与…相比compared to / with …
in / by contrast to / with …
in / by comparison to / with …

 
But Alfred had deduced that the Danes were no longer fit for prolonged battle: and that their commissariat had no organization, but depended on irregular raids.
然而,阿尔弗雷德断定,丹麦人已不再适应持久的战争,他们的军需供应处于无组织状态,只是靠临时抢夺来维持。
🎈deduce后跟了两个并列的宾语从句;冒号表示后面部分是对前面叙述的解释。在第二个that从句中,had no organization和but 后的depended on irregular raids为并列成分。
🎈(达到足够好的标准)适合…be fit for … / to do …

 
So, faced with the Danish advance, Alfred did not risk open battle but harried the enemy.
因此,面对丹麦人的进攻,阿尔弗雷德没有贸然同敌人作战,而是采用骚扰敌人的战术。
🎈不是…而是…not … but …
不是因为…,而是因为… not that …, but that …
🎈面临,面对 be faced with …/ be confronted with …
原文的faced with the Danish advance=when Alfred was faced with the Danish advance, …,但原文比写成时间状从更为简洁。
🎈冒着…的危险risk sth. / doing
冒着生命危险risk one’s life
冒着赶上暴风雨的风险risk being caught in a storm
🎈此句(没有A而是B)可用“做了B而非A”的结构改写:
Alfred harried the enemy+
instead of risking open battle.
in preference to risking open battle.
in place of risking open battle.
rather than risked open battle.
注意:rather than前后跟相同的词性,保持一致。
例句
She telephoned rather than wrote.
He is to be pitied rather than to be disliked.]
He was constantly on the move, drawing the Danes after him.
他的部队不停地移动,牵着丹麦人的鼻子,让他们跟着跑。
🎈处于某种状态on the + noun. 
处于警觉中on the alert
忙忙碌碌on the go
正在康复on the recovery
上升之中on the rise
是否加定冠词the要看具体的表达,只能不断积累,见一个背一个
在售on sale
罢工on strike
在度假on vacation
办事/出差on business
例句
The nurse is on call 24 hours a day.
这个护士全天听候召唤。

 
His patrols halted the raiding parties: hunger assailed the Danish army. 
他派出巡逻队阻止敌人抢劫,因而饥饿威胁着丹麦军队。
🎈party n. group; band; team一群人
一个搜寻/救援小队a search/rescue party
🎈hunger assailed the Danish army运用了无灵主语(即sth作主语),避免了因再使用句子前半部分用过的结构(The Danish army suffered from hunger.)造成句式单一枯燥。
🎈无灵主语的句子:
Panic seized me.恐慌吞袭了我。
Curiosity swallowed him.好奇心吞没了我。
Confidence deserted him.不自信离他而去。→他变得自信。
That night sleep eluded me.我晚上失眠。
Sunset met them halfway.黄昏时分,他们才走了一半路。

 
Now Alfred began a long series of skirmishes— and within a month the Danes had surrendered.
这时,阿尔弗雷德发起一连串小规模的进攻,结果不出一个月,丹麦人就投降了。
🎈句首的Now意同then,表示“当时,此时”,使用now更能增强读者的现场感。

The episode could reasonably serve as a unique epic of royal espionage! 
这一幕历史可以说是王室谍报活动中最精彩的篇章。
🎈reasonably adv. justifiably,legitimately合情合理地,有理由地
(对…来说是独一无二的/是…所特有的be unique to …/ be peculiar to …
例句
Each set of genes is unique to the individual.
每个个体都有着自己的一组基因。
Pandas are peculiar to China.
大熊猫只有中国有。
 
🔥必背词汇
espionage     n. [U]间谍活动
n.间谍 counter-espionage / spy/ secret agent  mole
监视,窥探 spy on …
 
wandering      adj. 浪迹天涯的,居无定所的
一群浪迹天涯的音乐家a band of wandering musicians
wander / roam v. 漫无目的地闲逛
例句
During a bullfight, a drunk suddenly wandered into the middle of the ring.
在一次斗牛比赛中,一个醉鬼摇摇晃晃地溜达到了斗牛场的中间。
去散步have / take / go for a walk / stroll
遛狗walk the dog
舒活筋骨stretch one’s legs
stray a.迷路的 n./v.迷路,迷失
迷途的羔羊stray sheep
 
conjuring    n. 变戏法,变魔术
conjure v. 变戏法,变魔术
conjurer n. 魔术师
例句
The magician conjured a rabbit out of his hat.
魔术师从帽子里变出了一只兔子。
conjuring、conjurer与magic、magician类似,但magic还可指巫术,magician还可指巫师、魔法师
【形近词】adjure v.发誓放弃
放弃宗教信仰abjure one’s religion
adjure v.恳切而庄重地请求,恳求
例句
I adjure you to tell the truth.
我恳请你说出真相。
injure v.伤害
perjure (oneself) v.作伪证
例句
The witness perjured himself.
这位目击证人撒谎作伪证。
 
thither    adv. 去那里,到那里
thither和hither是古文用法,相当于现在的there和here
四处,各处,到处hither and thither = here and there
例句
Colored fish darted hither and thither.
彩色的鱼儿向四面八方飞快地游走了。
 
slack      adj. 松弛的;懈怠的;萧条的
反义词tight/ taut
松懈的防守slack defending
生意不好/不景气/萧条Business is bad / slack / depressed.
生意火热Business is good / booming.
大萧条(美国经济大萧条时期)the Great Depression
 
conqueror     n. 征服者
征服者威廉William the Conqueror
conquer v. (用武力)征服;击败
击败主要对手conquer one’s main rivals
登顶conquer the mountain
克服恐高症conquer one’s fear of heights
例句
She has conquered the hearts of many men.
许多男人拜倒在她的石榴裙下。
 
precaution      n. 预防措施 (常用pl)
防火/安全/安保/卫生(保健)预防措施fire / safety / security / sanitary precautions
采取预防措施take precautions
采取措施take measures
采取有效措施…take effective measures to do …
采取极端措施…take drastic measures to do …
caution n.小心,谨慎
cautious a.小心的,谨慎的
对…持谨慎乐观态度cautious optimism about sth. / be cautiously optimistic about sth.
proceeds    n. 收入,收益
从…中得到的利益/收入proceeds of / from sth.
收入,利益proceeds / gain / fame and gain/ profit
proceedings n.法律诉讼
离婚诉讼divorce proceedings
继续做某事proceed to do …
 
assemble     v. 人群聚集;装配,组装
聚集,集结
vt./vi. assemble, gather, mass
vi. collect, congregate, converge
组装电脑assemble a computer
拆卸…dismantle / take apart
例句
dismantle the computer / take the computer apart
 
prolonged      adj. 持久的,长时间的
长时间的盘问prolonged questioning
长时间暴露在阳光中prolonged exposure to the sun
prolong v.(时间上)延长 [不可用于空间上的延伸]
延长寿命prolong life
持久战protracted warfare = prolonged warfare
近义词(v)protract; (adj)protracted
反义词 curtail v.使(时间)变短
缩短假期curtail one’s holiday
 
episode     n. 插曲,片段,轶事;集
(电视剧)大结局the final episode
 
harry      vt. 骚扰,纠缠
be harried by journalists / phone calls→狗仔/骚扰电话
v. 骚扰,纠缠 harass/assail/pester
性骚扰sexual harassment
为…缠着某人pester sb. for sth.
缠着某人(非得)做某事pester sb. to do
🔥重点表达
监视,窥探 spy on …
一群浪迹天涯的音乐家a band of wandering musicians
去散步have / take / go for a walk / stroll
遛狗walk the dog
舒活筋骨stretch one’s legs
迷途的羔羊stray sheep
放弃宗教信仰abjure one’s religion
作伪证perjure (oneself) 
四处,各处,到处hither and thither = here and there
松懈的防守slack defending
生意不好/不景气/萧条Business is bad / slack / depressed.
生意火热Business is good / booming.
大萧条(美国经济大萧条时期)the Great Depression
征服者威廉William the Conqueror
击败主要对手conquer one’s main rivals
登顶conquer the mountain
克服恐高症conquer one’s fear of heights
防火/安全/安保/卫生(保健)预防措施fire / safety / security / sanitary precautions
采取预防措施take precautions
采取措施take measures
采取有效措施…take effective measures to do …
采取极端措施…take drastic measures to do …
对…持谨慎乐观态度cautious optimism about sth. / be cautiously optimistic about sth.
从…中得到的利益/收入proceeds of / from sth.
收入,利益proceeds / gain / fame and gain/ profit
离婚诉讼divorce proceedings
继续做某事proceed to do …
组装电脑assemble a computer
拆卸…dismantle / take apart
长时间的盘问prolonged questioning
长时间暴露在阳光中prolonged exposure to the sun
延长寿命prolong life
持久战protracted warfare = prolonged warfare
缩短假期curtail one’s holiday
(电视剧)大结局the final episode
性骚扰sexual harassment
为…缠着某人pester sb. for sth.
缠着某人(非得)做某事pester sb. to do
皇家空军/海军the Royal Air Force / Navy
当时,当年,想当初in those days
当今,现如今these days/ today /nowadays
英国/中国护照British / Chinese passport
工作/学生/旅游签证work / student / tourist visa
在某人年轻时in (one’s) youth
使多样化 vary / diversify /add variety to … 或add color / spice to …
为平淡的日常生活增添色彩add color to the dull routine of everyday life
开始/着手做某事;有意做某事set out to do
费力穿透…penetrate (into / through) …
非法进入,侵入trespass on …
定居,安顿settle down
纪律松懈Discipline is slack / loose / lax.
以/靠……为生 live on..
对(某个地区)的抢劫a raid/raids on…
空/陆军air/ land force
(达到足够好的标准)适合…be fit for … / to do …
面临,面对 be faced with …/ be confronted with …
冒着…的危险risk sth. / doing
冒着生命危险risk one’s life
冒着赶上暴风雨的风险risk being caught in a storm
于某种状态on the + noun. 
处于警觉中on the alert
忙忙碌碌on the go
正在康复on the recovery
上升之中on the rise
在售on sale
罢工on strike
在度假on vacation
办事/出差on business
一个搜寻/救援小队a search/rescue party
对…来说是独一无二的/是…所特有的be unique to …/ be peculiar to …
🔥复盘测试
监视,窥探
一群浪迹天涯的音乐家
去散步
遛狗
舒活筋骨
迷途的羔羊
放弃宗教信仰
作伪证
四处,各处,到处
松懈的防守
生意不好/不景气/萧条
生意火热
大萧条(美国经济大萧条时期)
征服者威廉
击败主要对手
登顶
克服恐高症
防火/安全/安保/卫生(保健)预防措施
采取预防措施
采取措施
采取有效措施…
采取极端措施…
对…持谨慎乐观态度
从…中得到的利益/收入
收入,利益
离婚诉讼
继续做某事
组装电脑
拆卸…
长时间的盘问
长时间暴露在阳光中
延长寿命
持久战
缩短假期
(电视剧)大结局
性骚扰
为…缠着某人
缠着某人(非得)做某事
皇家空军/海军
当时,当年,想当初
当今,现如今
英国/中国护照
工作/学生/旅游签证
在某人年轻时
使多样化
为平淡的日常生活增添色彩
开始/着手做某事;有意做某事
费力穿透…
非法进入,侵入
定居,安顿
纪律松懈
以/靠……为生
对(某个地区)的抢劫
空/陆军
(达到足够好的标准)适合…
面临,面对
冒着…的危险
冒着生命危险
冒着赶上暴风雨的风险
于某种状态
处于警觉中
忙忙碌碌
正在康复
上升之中
在售
罢工
在度假
办事/出差
一个搜寻/救援小队
对…来说是独一无二的/是…所特有的

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