《How to grow old 如何安度晚年》 -新概念英语第四册 学习笔记

朗读这篇文章

How to grow old

如何安度晚年

🎈How to grow old意同How to grow old with a positive attitude,前者更简洁/有趣。

🎈本文作者:罗素Bertrand Russell—British philosopher, mathematician and Nobel laureate. He developed new ideas connecting mathematics and logic. He was also known as a pacifist, and he was one of the leading members of the opposition to nuclear weapons. He received the Nobel Prize for literature in 1950.

有两本著名的书籍:The Principles of Mathematics《数学原理》 、A History of Western Philosophy《西方哲学史》

 

Some old people are oppressed by the fear of death.

有些老年人因为怕死而感到烦恼。

🎈因为怕……而烦恼be oppressed by the fear of …

例句

Many Chinese people are oppressed by the fear of being unable to afford the medical, educational and housing expenses.

很多中国人因为怕看不起病,上不起学,买不起房而烦恼。

 

In the young there is a justification for this feeling.

青年人有这种感觉是情有可原的。

🎈在某人身上in sb

例句

You can feel helpfulness and care even in these small children.

你在这些小孩子身上能感到互助和关爱。

🎈…是合情合理的/有理由的/情有可原的there is a justification for …

例句

In this condition, there is a justification for intervention.

在这种情况下进行干涉是合理的。

此句型是典型的无灵主语

不可否认的是there is no denying that …

毫无疑问的是there is no doubt that …

…很有可能there is every likelihood that …

…不大可能there is little likelihood that …

…有的是/不缺there is no shortage of …

…有点道理there is an element of truth in …

…非常有道理there is a good deal of truth in …


 

Young men who have reason to fear that they will be killed in battle may justifiably feel bitter in the thought that they have been cheated of the best things that life has to offer.

有理由害怕自己会死在战场上的年轻人,想到自己被剥夺了生活所能给予的最美好的东西时,感到痛苦,这是可以理解的。

🎈who have reason to fear that they will be killed in battle是定语从句,in the thought…是原因状语。that life has to offer是定语从句,修饰the best things。

🎈战斗中(死亡,牺牲)in battle = in action

🎈bitter adj.痛苦的,悲伤的 painful; sorrowful

留下伤心的泪水shed bitter tears

🎈原因状语:

因为(想到)…in the thought (that …) = because they think (that …)

in the belief (that …) =because they believe(that …)

in the hope of being(that …)  =because they hope to be (that …)

in the belief (that …) =because they believe (that …)

区分“一……就……at the … of … ”

例句

at the thought / idea / sight / mention / sound / news of …

🎈被骗走,被剥夺be cheated (out) of sth.

骗走,剥夺cheat sb. (out) of sth.

rob sb. of sth.

deprive sb. of sth.

strip sb. of sth.

divest sb. of sth.

没收confiscate


 

But in an old man who has known human joys and sorrows, and has achieved whatever work it was in him to do, the fear of death is somewhat abject and ignoble.

可是老年人已经饱尝了人间的甘苦,一切能做的都做了,如果怕死,就有点儿可怜又可鄙。

🎈in an old man who has known human joys and sorrows, and has achieved whatever work it was in him to do整个是状语,其中who has known…whatever work it was in him to do是定语从句,it was in him to do又相当于一个省略了关系词的定从

=whatever work (that / which) it was in him(=within his ability) to do],这个定语从句中,to do是真正的主语。

🎈know v.经历 experience= see

例句

The city must have known prosperity.

这个城市肯定经历过繁荣。

🎈悲欢离合/起起伏伏joys and sorrows/ ups and downs

🎈有些somewhat

在某种程度上to some extent / degree


 

The best way to overcome it —so at least it seems to me —is to make your interests gradually wider and more impersonal, until bit by bit the walls of the ego recede, and your life becomes increasingly merged in the universal life.

克服怕死的最好办法——至少在我看来是这样——就是逐渐使自己的兴趣更加广泛,逐渐摆脱个人 狭小的圈子,直到自我的围墙一点一点地倒塌下来,自己的生活慢慢地和大众的生活融合在一起。

🎈The best way是主语,to overcome it是后置定语,so at least it seems to me是插入语,第二个破折号后是系表结构。

复习:若to do不定式作表语,若主语部分有do,则to do中的to可以省略,否则不能省

🎈overcome v.克服= conquer

克服恐惧/羞怯overcome / conquer fear / shyness

🎈至少at least = at any rate

至少在我看来是这样so at least it seems to me

有两个功能:1使句式结构富于变化,2表达观点更为谦虚

🎈看似是这样so it seems

🎈逐渐地gradually=little by little= bit by bit= by degrees

🎈拓宽兴趣to broaden / expand your interests gradually

拓宽视野to broaden / expand your horizons

🎈wall通常喻作“障碍”

关税壁垒tariff wall

例句

The years had built a wall between the two families.

这些年这两家人已经产生了隔阂。

🎈融汇/合并到一块be merged in / into …= be joined in / into …=merge into …

🎈universal a.普遍的,大众的,世界性的

cosmic a.宇宙的

宇宙生物cosmic being

🎈这句话的意思即:Don’t indulge in solitude. Don’t be ego-centric. Make yourself liberal and sociable. The years had built a wall between the two families.


 

An individual human existence should be like a river —small at first, narrowly contained within its banks, and rushing passionately past boulders and over waterfalls.

个人的存在应该像一条河流,开始很小,被紧紧地夹在两岸中间,接着热情奔放地冲过巨石,飞下瀑布。

🎈破折号后非谓语动词作状语,是对前文的解释成分。

🎈这句话运用了“扩喻”的修辞。

即作了比喻,之后还给出详细的解释

例句

Laws are like cobwebs, where the small flies are caught and the great break through.

法律就像蜘蛛网一样,因为它们只能猎住小苍蝇,大的猎物可以闯过去。

🎈这句话的意思即:when you are a baby/child, you are carefully protected by your parents [或one bank is family, the other society]. when you are in your youth, you encounter difficulties and obstacles.


 

Gradually the river grows wider, the banks recede, the waters flow more quietly, and in the end, without any visible break, they become merged in the sea, and painlessly lose their individual being.

然后河面渐渐地变宽,两岸后撤,河水流得平缓起来,最后,它们畅通无阻地汇入大海,毫无痛苦地失去了自我的存在。

🎈visible adj. 明显的=obvious


 

The man who, in old age, can see his life in this way, will not suffer from the fear of death, since the things he cares for will continue.

上了年纪的人这样看待生命,就不会有惧怕死亡的心情了,因为自己关心的一切事件都会继续下去。

🎈who can see his life in this way是定从,in old age是插入语。since the things he cares for will continue是原因状从,he cares for是嵌在其中的定从。

🎈因…而痛苦suffer (from) …= be afflicted by / with …

例句

因糖尿病/自卑感而痛苦be afflicted by / with diabetes / a sense of inferiority

因…而痛不欲生be racked / tormented / tortured by / with …程度更甚

🎈因为 since/ for/ due to / by reason of /because of/ owing to / on account of…

或for the reason that …/because of the fact that …/due to the fact that …/on account of the fact that …= because / since / as …

注意since that指“从那以后”。since作conj时指“因为”,作prep时指“自从”

🎈喜欢,钟爱care for …

关心,在乎,介意care about …


 

And if, with the decay of vitality, weariness increases, the thought of rest will be not unwelcome.

再者,随着精力的衰退,老年人的疲惫会增长,有长眠的愿望未尝不是一件好事情。

🎈if weariness increases是条件状从,with the decay of vitality是插入语。of rest是the thought的后置定语。

🎈衰败/衰退decay/ fall into decay

例句

Each civilization is born, it culminates, and it decays.

🎈unwelcome adj. unwanted; undesirable

 


I should wish to die while still at work, knowing that others will carry on what I can no longer do, and content in the thought that what was possible has been done.

我希望工作到死为止,明白了有人会继续我的未竟事业,想到能做的事都做了,也就坦然了。

🎈while still at work是时间状从,knowing that… and content in…has been done是非谓语动词作原因状语,其中that others will carry on what I can no longer do是know的宾从,content in …和knowing that…并列。

🎈倒希望… should wish to

should表示委婉语气,指不成熟的建议。

🎈…and content in the thought that… =…, and (being) content / satisfied in the thought (=because I think) that …

 

🔥必背词汇

oppress     v. 使不开心,忧郁,别扭;压迫

情绪低落/感到沮丧feel blue / down in the dumps / depressed / dejected或be in low spirits

例句

In the old society, the Chinese people were in the miserable position as the oppressed, the enslaved and the exploited.

在旧社会,中国人民处在被压迫、被奴役、被剥削的悲惨境况。

 

justification      n. 正当理由

justice n.正义,合理

justify v.证明…有理

justifiable /reasonable /legitimate a.合理的,正当的,有理由的

例句

一个合理的解释/合情合理的借口a ~ explanation / excuse

没有理由…/…是毫无道理的There is no justification for (doing) sth

 

cheat     v. 作弊;欺骗

从某人那骗走…cheat sb. (out) of sth.

(婚姻关系中)对某人不忠,出轨cheat on sb.

欺骗某人 deceive sb [deceive是中性词,可兼指善意欺骗和恶意欺骗]

欺骗,诈骗trick sb. out of sth. / swindle sb. out of sth. / defraud sb. of sth.

 

ego     n. 自我

egoism  n.利己主义 egoist n.利己主义者,自私自利的人

altruism n.利他主义altruist n.利他主义者,无私的人

egocentric = self-centered a.以自我为中心的

在心理动力论中,本我、自我与超我是由精神分析学家弗洛伊德之结构理论所提出,精神的三大部分。1923年,弗洛伊德提出相关概念,以解释意识和潜意识的形成和相互关系。“本我id”(完全潜意识)代表欲望,受意识遏抑;“自我ego”(大部分有意识)负责处理现实世界的事情;“超我super-ego”(部分有意识)是良知或内在的道德判断。

 

recede      v. 后退

越来越高的发际线a receding hairline

【词根】“cede” / “ceed” = to go(走)

cede v.割让(领土)

割让领土cede territory

precede v. 先于…/在…之前发生

proceed v.继续

exceed v.超出,超越

超出某人预期/期望值exceed one’s expectations

secede v.分离,分隔

intercede v.调解,调停,斡旋

 

passionately      v. 激昂地,充满激情地

passionate a.充满激情的,热情的

热情的支持者/追求者a passionate supporter / admirer

宗教/革命热情religious / revolutionary passion

对…的热情passion/enthusiasm/ ardor / ardour /  fervor / fervor / zeal for…

打击某人的热情/ 给…泼凉水damp / dampen one’s passion/…

[n. → adj.]

enthusiasm→enthusiastic

ardor / ardour→ardent

fervor / fervour →fervent

zeal → zealous

 

vitality     n. 活力,精力,生命力=vigor / vigour

精力充沛with enormous vitality/ be full of vigor

经济活力economic vitality

a. 充满活力的vital / vigorous / energetic / dynamic

vital有三个意思:①有活力的②和生命相关的③至关重要的=crucial / essential

生命迹象vital signs

 

weariness     n. 疲惫,疲劳=fatigue

a. 疲惫的 weary/ fatigued

我很累。I’m weary / fatigued / exhausted / tired out / dog-tired / worn out / drained / beat / bushed.

 

🔥重点表达

情绪低落/感到沮丧feel blue / down in the dumps / depressed / dejected或be in low spirits

没有理由…/…是毫无道理的There is no justification for (doing) sth

从某人那骗走…cheat sb. (out) of sth.

(婚姻关系中)对某人不忠,出轨cheat on sb.

欺骗某人 deceive sb

欺骗,诈骗trick sb. out of sth. / swindle sb. out of sth. / defraud sb. of sth.

本我id

自我ego

超我super-ego

越来越高的发际线a receding hairline

割让领土cede territory

超出某人预期/期望值exceed one’s expectations

宗教/革命热情religious / revolutionary passion

对…的热情passion/enthusiasm/ ardor / ardour /  fervor / fervor / zeal for…

打击某人的热情/ 给…泼凉水damp / dampen one’s passion/…

精力充沛with enormous vitality/ be full of vigor

经济活力economic vitality

生命迹象vital signs

我很累。I’m weary / fatigued / exhausted / tired out / dog-tired / worn out / drained / beat / bushed.

因为怕……而烦恼be oppressed by the fear of …

在某人身上in sb

…是合情合理的/有理由的/情有可原的there is a justification for …

战斗中(死亡,牺牲)in battle = in action

留下伤心的泪水shed bitter tears

被骗走,被剥夺be cheated (out) of sth.

没收confiscate

悲欢离合/起起伏伏joys and sorrows/ ups and downs

有些somewhat

在某种程度上to some extent / degree

克服恐惧/羞怯overcome / conquer fear / shyness

至少at least = at any rate

至少在我看来是这样so at least it seems to me

看似是这样so it seems

逐渐地gradually=little by little= bit by bit= by degrees

拓宽兴趣to broaden / expand your interests gradually

拓宽视野to broaden / expand your horizons

关税壁垒tariff wall

融汇/合并到一块be merged in / into …= be joined in / into …=merge into …

宇宙生物cosmic being

因…而痛苦suffer (from) …= be afflicted by / with …

因…而痛不欲生be racked / tormented / tortured by / with …[程度更甚]

喜欢,钟爱care for …

关心,在乎,介意care about …

衰败/衰退decay/ fall into decay

 

🔥复盘测试

情绪低落/感到沮丧

没有理由…/…是毫无道理的

从某人那骗走…

(婚姻关系中)对某人不忠,出轨

欺骗某人

欺骗,诈骗

本我

自我

超我

越来越高的发际线

割让领土

超出某人预期/期望值

宗教/革命热情

对…的热情

打击某人的热情/ 给…泼凉水

精力充沛

经济活力

生命迹象

我很累。

因为怕……而烦恼

在某人身上

…是合情合理的/有理由的/情有可原的

战斗中(死亡,牺牲)

留下伤心的泪水

被骗走,被剥夺

没收

悲欢离合/起起伏伏

有些somewhat

在某种程度上

克服恐惧/羞怯

至少

至少在我看来是这样

看似是这样

逐渐地

拓宽兴趣

拓宽视野

关税壁垒

融汇/合并到一块

宇宙生物

因…而痛苦

因…而痛不欲生

喜欢,钟爱

关心,在乎,介意

衰败/衰退

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《How to grow old 如何安度晚年》 -新概念英语第四册 学习笔记

赞 (0)