《Banks and their customers 银行和顾客》 -新概念英语第四册 学习笔记

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Banks and their customers

银行和顾客

 
When anyone opens a current account at a bank, he is lending the bank money, repayment of which he may demand at any time either in cash or by drawing a cheque in favour of another person.
任何人在银行开一个活期账户,就等于把钱借给了银行。这笔钱他可以随时提取,提取的方式可以是取现金,也可以是开一张以他人为收款人的支票。
🎈repayment of which he may demand at any time either…是“n+介词+关系代词”非限定性定从,用于修饰和先行词相关的部分。
🎈把…借给…lend sth. to sb. /lend sb. sth.或loan sth. to sb. /loan sb. sth.
向…借…borrow sth. from sb. [注意没有borrow sb. sth. 的用法]
例句
你能不能借给我100块钱?
Would you lend me ¥100? √
Would you lend ¥100 to me? √
May I borrow ¥100 from you? √
May I borrow you ¥100? × [用法不对]
Would you borrow me ¥100? ×[逻辑语义完全不合常理]
🎈无论是谁(做某事),就等于在… when anyone …, he is … 
例句
When anyone tries to cross the pass on foot, he is risking his life.
无论是谁试图徒步穿越这个山口,就等于在生命冒险。
🎈债务的偿还the repayment of debt
归还repay sb. sth. /repay sth. to sb./ pay sb. back/ pay back sth.
还清/清偿债务pay off one’s debts/ clear one’s debts
给某人退款give sb. a refund
报销reimburse sb.
例句
Pay for the hotel room when you leave, and the company will reimburse you later.
走时你先自己垫上住宿费,之后公司会给你报销。
🎈开支票draw/sign/write a cheque/check 
cheque是英式拼写,check是美式拼写
(支票)以某人/某部门为受款人in favour/favor of…
两个表达通常连在一起用。

 
Primarily, the banker-customer relationship is that of debtor and creditor—who is which depending on whether the customer’s account is in credit or is overdrawn.
银行与储户的关系主要是债务人和债权人的关系。究竟谁是债务人谁是债权人,要看储户是有结余还是透支。
🎈破折号之前是句子的主干,破折号之后的部分是一个独立主格结构。who is which是主语,whether the customer’s account is in credit or is overdrawn是宾语从句。
🎈主要地Primarily/ Mainly/ Principally/ Largely/ Chiefly/ Above all/ First and foremost
🎈关系密切且成对出现的词前不加冠词
债务人和债权人debtor and creditor
全心全意地heart and soul
刀叉knife and fork
纸笔pencil and paper
母子mother and son
🎈是否…
例句
He worried about if he had hurt her feelings. ×
[if宾从不跟在prep后,可以在动词后]
He worried about whether he had hurt her feelings. √
🎈透支be overdrawn = be in the red(赤字)
例句
Your account is overdrawn / in the red.

 
But, in addition to that basically simple concept, the bank and its customer owe a large number of obligations to one another.
除了这一基本的简单的概念外,银行和储户彼此还需承担大量义务。
🎈除了…之外,还有…in addition to …
besides …
as well as …
together with …
along with …
apart from …
aside from …
🎈欠某人…owe sth. to sb. / owe sb. sth.
对某人有义务owe obligations to sb. /have obligations to sb.
例句
Parents owe / have obligations to their children.
父母有义务将子女抚养成人。
I owe you (a lot).
我太感谢你了。
You owe him an apology/ explanation.
你应该向他解释/道歉。

 
Many of these obligations can give rise to problems and complications but a bank customer, unlike, say, a buyer of goods, cannot complain that the law is loaded against him.
其中许多义务往往引起问题和纠纷。但是储户不能像货物的买主那样来抱怨法律对自己不利。
🎈unlike a buyer of goods是插入语,say是插入语中地插入语。
🎈cannot写时不分开,有时也用can’t(但不够正式)
🎈导致give rise to …/cause …/effect …/lead to …/result in …/bring about …/set up …
produce / create / generate…
trigger / spark / precipitate
🎈对…不公平/不利sth. is loaded against …
例句
The justice system is loaded against ethnic minorities.
这个司法系统对少数民族不公平。
对…有偏见be prejudiced against …/ be biased against …
对…有偏爱,偏向…be biased in favor of …/ be partial to …

 
The bank must obey its customer’s instructions, and not those of anyone else.
银行必须遵照储户的嘱托办事,不能听从其他人的指令。
🎈遵守指示/命令obey instructions
接受指示/命令take instructions
按指示/命令做follow instructions
等候指示/命令await instructions
 

When, for example, a customer first opens an account, he instructs the bank to debit his account only in respect of cheques drawn by himself. 
比如,储户首次在银行开户时,嘱咐银行他的存款只能凭本世人签字的支票来提取。
🎈书面语 in respect of=about
关于in respect of/with respect to/with regard to/concerning/regarding/respecting
例句
美国关于古巴的政策 US foreign policy ~Cuba

 
He gives the bank specimens of his signature, and there is a very firm rule that the bank has no right or authority to pay out a customer’s money on a cheque on which its customer’s signature has been forged. 
他把自己签名的样本交给银行,对此有一条非常严格的规定:银行没有任何权利或理由把储户的钱让伪造储户签名的支票取走。
🎈that the bank has no right or authority to pay out a customer’s money on a cheque on which its customer’s signature has been forged.是同位语从句,其中嵌有定语从句on which its customer’s signature has been forged修饰a cheque。
🎈signature n.(多指普通人的)签名 
autograph指明星的签名
sign v.签字
例句
Where do you want me to sign my name?
我应该把名字签在哪里?
签收sign for …
签收包裹sign for this package
initial v./n.(签)姓名首字母
例句
The memo has been initialled / initialed by the president.
🎈authority n. [U] 职权,权限right to act in a specific way 
例句
Only the treasurer has authority to sign checks.
🎈支付(大笔的钱)pay out 
to pay a lot of money for something

 
It makes no difference that the forgery may have been a very skillful one: the bank must recognize its customer’s signature.
即使伪造得很巧妙,也不能付款,因为银行有责任辨认出其储户的签名。
🎈有效make a difference
有些效果make some difference
无效make no difference

 
For this reason there is no risk to the customer in the practice, adopted by banks, of printing the customer’s name on his cheques.
因此,某些银行已采用把储户名字印在支票上的作法。这种做法对储户毫无风险。
🎈in the practice… of printing the customer’s name on his cheques中of引出practice的同位语。
🎈因此,所以For this reason/ so/ Thus/ Hence/ Therefore/ Thereupon/ Ergo/ Accordingly/ As a result/ Consequently/ As a consequence/ In consequence
🎈…的风险the risk of serious injury [of引出同位语]
对…的风险 There is no risk to customers. 
🎈practice n. 习惯性的做法,惯例
做某事的惯例the practice of doing sth.
周日歇业的惯例the practice of closing shops on Sundays

 
If this facilitates forgery, it is the bank which will lose, not the customer. 
如果因这种作法出现了伪造的话,受损失的将不是储户,而是银行。
🎈it is the bank which will lose, not the customer是强调句式。
🎈使……更方便/容易ease / smooth the way for …
🎈强调句:
it is … that / who(m) …
it is … which …(尤其用于科技、说明文体)
🎈如果…,是…而不是…if …, it is … that / which / who(m) …, not …
 
🔥必背词汇
current     adj. 当前的,现在的,流行的
当前的问题current problems
时事current events / affairs
现任总统the current president
活期账户current account/checking account
定期账户savings account/ deposit account
开户/休户open / close an account
存钱deposit / bank
例句
You’d better deposit / bank your money.
你最好把钱存到银行
取钱draw / withdraw … from …或take … out of …
例句
He drew / withdrew $100 from his bank (account).
他从账户里去除了100美金。
透支overdraw
例句
My account is overdrawn by $200.
我的账户透支了200美元。
兑换成现金cash / encash
兑现支票 to cash / encash a check
 
debtor     adj. 债务人,借方
debtor n. 债务人,借方person who owes money to sb. 
creditor n. 债权人,贷方person to whom money is owed 
debit n. 账户的借方;账户中提取的款项
debit v. 把……计入借方,记上客户支出的钱
例句
Debit $100 against Mr. Smith’s account.或Debit Mr. Smith’s account with $100. 
史密斯先生从账户中取走100美金。
credit n. 账户的贷方;账户中存入的款项
credit v. 把……计入贷方,记上客户存入的钱
例句
Credit Mr. smith’s account with $100. 
史密斯先生在账户中存入100美金。
有余额in debt
例句
Your account is in credit.
 
obligation      adj. 责任,义务
对…/做…的义务obligation to sth / to do sth
有义务…have an obligation / are under an obligation to…
履行义务meet / honor / fulfill one’s obligation
责任感sense of obligation
法律义务legal obligation
道义moral obligation
相互的义务mutual / reciprocal obligation
n.责任,义务
duty:强调自觉主动性[道义]
obligation:不得不[迫于协议]
responsibility:应该负责
 
complication    n. 复杂的情况,纠纷;疾病并发症
两国之间的纠纷complications between two parties / countries
法律纠纷legal complications
避免产生纠纷avoid complications
引起纠纷cause complications
产生进一步纠纷produce further complications
例句
If diabetes is not treated properly, complications will set in. 
如果糖尿病没得到恰当治疗,会引发并发症。
complicate v.使变复杂,
complicated a.复杂的
【词根】“plic” = fold
implicate v.牵连
explicate v.解释
duplicate v.复制,重复做
supplicate v.祈求,恳请
 
specimen      adj. 样品,标本
近义词 sample
签名的样本a specimen / sample signature
血液样本a blood specimen / sample
尿液样本a urine specimen / sample
新洗发水的试用装samples of a new shampoo 
此时不可用specimen替代sample
 
adopt     v. 领养;采取,采用;正式批准
领养一个孤儿adopt an orphan
养子adopted son
养父母adoptive parents / foster-parents
采用一个新主意adopt a new idea
采用一种新技术adopt a new technique
adoption n. 领养;采纳,采用
adept adj. 熟练的,内行的
在…方面很熟练be adept at / in …
adapt v.(使)适应;改编
例句
She quickly adapted to the new climate.
她很快便适应了新的气候。
The movie was adapted from a novel.
这部电影改编自一部小说。
 
facilitate    v. 使某事更容易
例句
Modern devices facilitate domestic work. 
现代设备使做家务活更容易了。
facility n.(常用复数)(使事情便利的)设备,设施
排水设施drainage facilities
医疗设施medical facilities
娱乐设施recreational facilities
卫生保健设施public health facilities
食宿设施lodge and eating facilities
facile adj. 容易得到的(因而没有太大价值的)easily obtained or achieved (and so not highly valued) 
轻而易举的成功a facile success
【词根】“fac” = make
manufacture v./n.制造(品)
benefactor n.捐助者,做好事的人,施主
malefactor n.作恶的人,犯罪分子
“-ile” 易于的
fertile adj.肥沃的
fragile adj.易碎的
 
🔥重点表达
当前的问题current problems
时事current events / affairs
现任总统the current president
活期账户current account/checking account
定期账户savings account/ deposit account
开户/休户open / close an account
存钱deposit / bank
取钱draw / withdraw … from …或take … out of …
兑换成现金cash / encash
兑现支票 to cash / encash a check
有余额in debt
对…/做…的义务obligation to sth / to do sth
有义务…have an obligation / are under an obligation to…
履行义务meet / honor / fulfill one’s obligation
责任感sense of obligation
法律义务legal obligation
道义moral obligation
相互的义务mutual / reciprocal obligation
两国之间的纠纷complications between two parties / countries
法律纠纷legal complications
避免产生纠纷avoid complications
引起纠纷cause complications
产生进一步纠纷produce further complications
签名的样本a specimen / sample signature
血液样本a blood specimen / sample
尿液样本a urine specimen / sample
新洗发水的试用装samples of a new shampoo
领养一个孤儿adopt an orphan
养子adopted son
养父母adoptive parents / foster-parents
采用一个新主意adopt a new idea
采用一种新技术adopt a new technique
在…方面很熟练be adept at / in …
排水设施drainage facilities
医疗设施medical facilities
娱乐设施recreational facilities
卫生保健设施public health facilities
食宿设施lodge and eating facilities
轻而易举的成功a facile success
把…借给…lend sth. to sb. /lend sb. sth.或loan sth. to sb. /loan sb. sth.
向…借…borrow sth. from sb.
无论是谁(做某事),就等于在… when anyone …, he is … 
债务的偿还the repayment of debt
归还repay sb. sth. /repay sth. to sb./ pay sb. back/ pay back sth.
还清/清偿债务pay off one’s debts/ clear one’s debts
给某人退款give sb. a refund
报销reimburse sb.
开支票draw/sign/write a cheque/check
(支票)以某人/某部门为受款人in favour/favor of…
主要地Primarily/ Mainly/ Principally/ Largely/ Chiefly/ Above all/ First and foremost
透支be overdrawn = be in the red(赤字)
欠某人…owe sth. to sb. / owe sb. sth.
对某人有义务owe obligations to sb. /have obligations to sb.
导致give rise to …/cause …/effect …/lead to …/result in …/bring about …/set up …
对…不公平/不利sth. is loaded against …
对…有偏见be prejudiced against …/ be biased against …
对…有偏爱,偏向…be biased in favor of …/ be partial to …
遵守指示/命令obey instructions
接受指示/命令take instructions
按指示/命令做follow instructions
等候指示/命令await instructions
关于in respect of/with respect to/with regard to/concerning/regarding/respecting
签收sign for …
支付(大笔的钱)pay out
有效make a difference
有些效果make some difference
无效make no difference
有效make a difference
有些效果make some difference
无效make no difference
做某事的惯例the practice of doing sth.
使……更方便/容易ease / smooth the way for …
如果…,是…而不是…if …, it is … that / which / who(m) …, not …
 
🔥复盘测试
当前的问题
时事
现任总统
活期账户
定期账户
开户/休户
存钱
取钱
兑换成现金
兑现支票
有余额
对…/做…的义务
有义务…
履行义务
责任感
法律义务
道义
相互的义务
两国之间的纠纷
法律纠纷
避免产生纠纷
引起纠纷
产生进一步纠纷
签名的样本
血液样本
尿液样本
新洗发水的试用装
领养一个孤儿
养子
养父母
采用一个新主意
采用一种新技术
在…方面很熟练
排水设施
医疗设施
娱乐设施
卫生保健设施
食宿设施
轻而易举的成功
把…借给…
向…借…
无论是谁(做某事),就等于在… 
债务的偿还
归还
还清/清偿债务
给某人退款
报销
开支票
(支票)以某人/某部门为受款人
主要地
透支
欠某人…
对某人有义务
导致
对…不公平/不利
对…有偏见
对…有偏爱,偏向…
遵守指示/命令
接受指示/命令
按指示/命令做
等候指示/命令
关于
签收
支付(大笔的钱)
有效
有些效果
无效
有效
有些效果
无效
做某事的惯例
使……更方便/容易
如果…,是…而不是…

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