《Secrecy in industry 工业中的秘密  》 -新概念英语第四册 学习笔记

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Secrecy in industry

工业中的秘密

 

Two factors weigh heavily against the effectiveness of scientific research in industry.
有两个因素严重地妨碍工业中科学研究的效率。
🎈斟酌词句weigh one’s words
斟酌利弊得失,权衡利弊weigh the pros and cons
例句
We must weigh the pros and cons before deciding whether to invest our money.
🎈对某人有利weigh in one’s favor
例句
These facts will weigh in your favor.
对某人不利weigh against sb
例句
The lady’s evidence will weigh against him. I’m not optimistic about the verdict.
🎈这对我很重要。
It weighs heavily with me.
It matters to me.
It means a lot to me.
It makes a lot of difference to me.

 
One is the general atmosphere of secrecy in which it is carried out, the other the lack of freedom of the individual research worker.
一是科研工作中普遍存在的保密气氛;另一个是研究人员缺乏个人自由。
🎈in which it is carried out是定语从句。the other (being) the lack of freedom of the individual research worker是典型的独立主格结构,比and the other is the lack of freedom of the individual research worker简洁。
🎈atmosphere n. 气氛the mood or feeling that exists in a place and affects the people who are there 
…的气氛/氛围atmosphere of …
紧张的气氛an atmosphere of tension

 
In so far as any inquiry is a secret one, it naturally limits all those engaged in carrying it out from effective contact with their fellow scientists either in other countries or in universities, or even, often enough, in other departments of the same firm.
任何一项研究都涉及到保密,那些从事科研的人员自然受到了限制。他们不能和其他国家、其他大学、甚至往往不能与本公司的其他部门的同行们进行有效的接触。
🎈in so far as … / insofar as …
1.= to the extent that …在…程度/范围内
例句
She cites other scholars’ work only insofar as it supports her own theories.
她只引用了能支撑自己理论的其他学者的成果。
2.= because / since / in that因为
例句
He can be trusted insofar as he has never told a lie.
我们可以相信他因为他从不说谎。
🎈防止/禁止/限制/劝阻某人…limit/keep/bar/prevent/prohibit/dissuade /ban/disqualify/save/rescue/restrain… from …
例句
Please restrain yourself from coughing during the performance.
会议期间请不要咳嗽。
🎈fellow scientists中fellow指“和(自己)身份、地位相同的人”,比如同胞fellow Chinese。
🎈与……保持联系keep in contact/touch with sb.或contact sb

 
The degree of secrecy naturally varies considerably. 
保密程度自然差别很大。
🎈变化很大 vary greatly / widely / significantly / dramatically / enormously / substantially
变化很小vary slightly / somewhat
在尺寸/程度/长度上有所不同vary in size / degree / length …
因…而异vary according to …
从…到…是不一样的vary from … to …
例句
The amount of sleep we need varies from person to person.
所需睡眠时间因人而异。
Office hours vary from company to company and country to country.不同国家的办公时间各不相同。

 
Some of the bigger firms are engaged in researches which are of such general and fundamental nature that it is a positive advantage to them not to keep them secret.
某些大公司进行的研究属于一般和基础的研究,因此不保密对他们才有利。
🎈which are of such general and fundamental nature that it is a positive advantage to them not to keep them secret是定语从句,其中that(和such连用) it is…是结果状从。这个定从相当于which are so general and fundamental that it is …
🎈…类型的of … nature
最危险的of the most perilous nature
政治条约treaties of a political nature
学术性问题questions of an academic nature
技术性文章articles of a technical nature
🎈a positive advantage中的positive不指“积极的”,而指“绝对的”。it is a positive advantage to them not to keep them secret相当于… it is in their best interests not to …或… to keep them open (to the public)。
 

Yet a great many processes depending on such research are sought for with complete secrecy until the stage at which patents can be taken out. 
然而,依赖这种研究的很多工艺程序是在完全保密的情况下进行的,直到可以取得专利权的阶段为止。
🎈depending on such research非谓语动词作processes的后置定语。are sought for是被动态。at which patents can be taken out是定语从句。
🎈with/in complete secrecy均可,但与in搭配更常见。
🎈研究research [U] / researches [pl.]
但要注意:
a research × two researches ×
a study √ two studies √
🎈追寻,追求 seek…或seek for / after …
寻求避难seek refuge / shelter / asylum
寻求报复seek revenge 
寻求安慰seek comfort
寻找解决方案seek for solutions
例句
His book is much sought after.
他的书很受欢迎。
🎈取得专利take out a patent
申请专利apply for a patent
授予专利give / grant a patent
侵犯专利infringe a patent
🎈until the stage at which patents can be taken out= until they own the intellectual property rights(IPR知识产权)

 
Even more processes are never patented at all but kept as secret processes.
更多的工艺过程根本就不会取得专利权,而是作为秘方保存着。
🎈patent在此处作动词,意为“授予/取得专利”。
🎈never含否定意思,和后面的but构成not…but…(不是…而是…)结构。

 
This applies particularly to chemical industries, where chance discoveries play a much larger part than they do in physical and mechanical industries.
在这化学工业方面尤为突出。同物理和机械工业相比,化学工业中偶然发现的机会要多得多。
🎈定从where chance discoveries play a much larger part…在功能上相当于状语从句,其中than they do in physical and mechanical industries是比较状从。
🎈(尤其)适用于…apply (particularly) to …
例句
The rules of safe driving apply to everyone.
安全驾驶的规则适用于所有人。
🎈chance adj. 偶然的=accidental
一次偶遇a chance meeting / encounter
deliberate/ intentional adj. 故意/诚心/有预谋/有策划的
碰巧做某事chance / happen to do或as chance would have it/as luck would have it
🎈在…中发挥/扮演…的作用/角色play a … role / part in …
例句
Legend has it that the antibiotic penicillin is a chance discovery by British bacteriologist Sir Alexander Fleming. 
据传说…Legend has it that…
抗生素the antibiotic
青霉素penicillin
 

Sometimes the secrecy goes to such an extent that the whole nature of the research cannot be mentioned.
有时,保密竟达到了这样的程度,即连研究工作的整个性质都不准提及。
🎈hat the whole nature of the research cannot be mentioned是结果状语从句。

 
Many firms, for instance, have great difficulty in obtaining technical or scientific books from libraries because they are unwilling to have their names entered as having taken out such and such a book, for fear the agents of other firms should be able to trace the kind of research they are likely to be undertaking.
比如,很多公司向图书馆借阅科技书籍时感到非常困难,因为它们不愿让人家记下它们公司的名字和借阅的某一本书。他们生怕别的公司的情报人员据此摸到他们可能要从事的某项科研项目。
🎈for instance是插入语。because they are unwilling to have their names entered as having taken out such and such a book是原因状从。for fear the agents of other firms should be able to trace the kind of research they are likely to be undertaking是目的状从,相当于in case…,其后接的谓语动词常用should do。
🎈做…有困难have difficulty (in) doing sth.
have trouble (in) doing sth.
have a hard time doing sth.
be hard pressed to do sth.
例句
Although negotiators are optimistic, the details are complex enough that they may be hard-pressed to get a deal(达成协议) at all.
🎈不愿/不乐意……
be unwilling to do sth.
be reluctant to do sth.
be disinclined to do sth.
be indisposed to do sth.
愿意/乐意……
be willing to do sth.
be ready / prepared to do sth.
be inclined to do sth.
be disposed to do sth.
🎈take out 
1. 借书borrow books from a library
例句
You can take out six books at a time.
你一次可以借六本书。
2. 获得正式文件obtain an official document
获得保险单/抵押贷款/专利权take out an insurance policy / a mortgage / a patent
🎈某人such and such a person
某地such and such a place
 
🔥必背词汇
secrecy      n. 保密
秘密地,私下地in secrecy / in secret / secretly
在某人内心深处in the secrecy of one’s heart
处于机密之中be veiled / shrouded / cloaked in secrecy
例句
The president’s exact itinerary was veiled / shrouded / cloaked in secrecy for security reasons.
出于安全原因,总统的具体行程出于保密之中。
 
effectiveness     n. 有效,见效
effective a.有效的 [可修饰sth和sb]
采取有效行动/措施/步骤take effective action / measures / steps
effectual a.有效的 
修饰sth时可与effective互换;不能修饰sb
例句
take effectual measures √
an effectual ruler ×
efficacious a.有效/见效的 [常用于医学上]
有效的药物an efficacious medicine
efficient a.有效的 [强调效率高]
高效的方法efficient methods
高效率的秘书an efficient secretary
 
inquiry      n. 询问,查询;调查,研究
咨询处inquiry/enquiry desk
inquiry n.调查 [使用范围最广]
现场/实地调查on the spot inquiry
官方/正式调查official inquiry 
采样调查sampling inquiry
inquisition n.调查 [强调严厉仔细的盘问]
例句
The suspect was pushed toward the edge by the inquisitions of the police.
这个嫌疑人快被警察的盘问逼疯了。
investigation n.调查 [对案件/事故的调查]
正在调查under investigation.
对…的调查the investigation into…
inquest n.调查 [对死因的调查]
对这个演员死因的调查an inquest into the death of the actor
research n.调查 [科学上或学术上]
科学研究scientific research
 
process     n. 
1过程,进程,步骤
2制作方法,工艺流程
衰老的过程the process of aging
消化的过程the process of digestion
中东的和平进程the Middle East peace process
研发一种从铝土矿中提炼铝的新工艺develop a new process for extracting aluminum from bauxite
在做某事的过程中in the process of doing sth.
正在搬家in the process of moving house
process v. 加工,处理
中央处理器central processing unit (CPU)
数据处理data processing
 
🔥重点表达
秘密地,私下地in secrecy / in secret / secretly
在某人内心深处in the secrecy of one’s heart
处于机密之中be veiled / shrouded / cloaked in secrecy
采取有效行动/措施/步骤take effective action / measures / steps
有效的药物an efficacious medicine
高效的方法efficient methods
高效率的秘书an efficient secretary
咨询处inquiry/enquiry desk
现场/实地调查on the spot inquiry
官方/正式调查official inquiry 
采样调查sampling inquiry
正在调查under investigation
对…的调查the investigation into…
对这个演员死因的调查an inquest into the death of the actor
科学研究scientific research
衰老的过程the process of aging
消化的过程the process of digestion
中东的和平进程the Middle East peace process
研发一种从铝土矿中提炼铝的新工艺develop a new process for extracting aluminum from bauxite
在做某事的过程中in the process of doing sth.
正在搬家in the process of moving house
中央处理器central processing unit (CPU)
数据处理data processing
斟酌词句weigh one’s words
斟酌利弊得失,权衡利弊weigh the pros and cons
对某人有利weigh in one’s favor
对某人不利weigh against sb
这对我很重要。It weighs heavily with me.
…的气氛/氛围atmosphere of …
紧张的气氛an atmosphere of tension
因为in so far as … / insofar as …
防止/禁止/限制/劝阻某人…limit/keep/bar/prevent/prohibit/dissuade /ban/disqualify/save/rescue/restrain… from …
与……保持联系keep in contact/touch with sb.或contact sb
变化很大 vary greatly / widely / significantly / dramatically / enormously / substantially
变化很小vary slightly / somewhat
在尺寸/程度/长度上有所不同vary in size / degree / length …
因…而异vary according to …
从…到…是不一样的vary from … to …
…类型的of … nature
最危险的of the most perilous nature
政治条约treaties of a political nature
学术性问题questions of an academic nature
技术性文章articles of a technical nature
追寻,追求 seek…或seek for / after …
取得专利take out a patent
申请专利apply for a patent
授予专利give / grant a patent
侵犯专利infringe a patent
(尤其)适用于…apply (particularly) to …
一次偶遇a chance meeting / encounter
碰巧做某事chance / happen to do或as chance would have it/as luck would have it
在…中发挥/扮演…的作用/角色play a … role / part in …
做…有困难have difficulty (in) doing sth.
不愿/不乐意……be unwilling to do sth.
某人such and such a person
 
🔥复盘测试
秘密地,私下地
在某人内心深处
处于机密之中
采取有效行动/措施/步骤
有效的药物
高效的方法
高效率的秘书
咨询处
现场/实地调查
官方/正式调查 
采样调查
正在调查
对…的调查
对这个演员死因的调查
科学研究
衰老的过程
消化的过程
中东的和平进程
研发一种从铝土矿中提炼铝的新工艺
在做某事的过程中
正在搬家
中央处理器
数据处理
斟酌词句
斟酌利弊得失,权衡利弊
对某人有利
对某人不利
这对我很重要。
…的气氛/氛围
紧张的气氛
因为
防止/禁止/限制/劝阻某人…
与……保持联系
变化很大 
变化很小
在尺寸/程度/长度上有所不同
因…而异
从…到…是不一样的
…类型的
最危险的
政治条约
学术性问题
技术性文章
追寻,追求
取得专利
申请专利
授予专利
侵犯专利
(尤其)适用于…
一次偶遇
碰巧做某事
在…中发挥/扮演…的作用/角色
做…有困难
不愿/不乐意……
某人

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