《The modern city 现代城市》 -新概念英语第四册 学习笔记

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The modern city

现代城市

🎈本文作者是Alexis Carrel,他是French surgeon and Nobel laureate(诺贝尔获奖者)。The text is an excerpt from ‘Man the Unknown’. Alexis wrote ‘Man the Unknown’ in 1935,expounding his elitist philosophy(精英主义哲学)

 
In the organization of industrial life the influence of the factory upon the physiological and mental state of the workers has been completely neglected.
在工业生活的组织中,工厂对工人的生理和精神状态的影响完全被忽视了。
🎈In the organization of industrial life是时间状语。of the factory upon the physiological and mental state of the workers作influence的后置定语。
🎈该句为文章的topic sentence(主题句)
🎈在…的过程中/期间in sth. / doing sth.
例句
In seeking independence, they do not sacrifice their human dignity.
为了/以感谢…in return / reward for …或in appreciation of …
表示一种目的或行为
对(某人的功劳或成就)表示认可in recognition of …
为了纪念某人;向某人表示敬意in honor of …[可为生者或逝者]
追思/悼念某人in memory of …
例句
He wrote a long poem in memory of his late wife.
他写了一首长诗悼念亡妻。
🎈industrial adj.工业的,产业的
工业革命the Industrial Revolution
产业工人industrial workers
industrious/ diligent adj.勤奋的
🎈…对…的影响the influence/effect/impact of … on / upon …
例句
父母对孩子的影响the influence of parents on / upon their children
肥料对农作物的影响the effect of fertilizers on / upon the crops
石油泄漏对海洋生物的影响the impact of the oil spill on / upon marine life
🎈对…的忠诚/奉献devotion / dedication/ loyalty / allegiance to …
例句
发誓效忠女王swear an oath of loyalty / allegiance to the queen
对…的爱love / affection for …
对…的热情zest / passion / enthusiasm for …
对…的同情pity / compassion / sympathy for …

 
Modern industry is based on the conception of the maximum production at lowest cost, in order that an individual or a group of individuals may earn as much money as possible.
现代工业的基本概念是:以最低成本获取最多产品,为的是让某个个人或某一部分人尽可能多地赚钱。
🎈of the maximum production at lowest cost中of引出conception的同位语。in order that…是目的状从。
🎈conception n. 理念,构想;怀孕
conceive v.构思;怀孕
concept n.概念,理念
🎈“增加产量”译increase production,而不说increase the amount of production,the amount of是赘余成分,之前有提到过。同理,下列表达也需要删去赘余成分:
promote (the cause of) peaceful reunification
accelerate (the speed of) economic reform
elevate the living standards (for the people)
🎈随着经验的积累with experience √
with accumulating experience ×
随着时间的流逝with time √
with passing time ×
随着季节的更替with seasons √
with changing seasons ×
[标有×的表达很赘余,]同理还有:
正义事业the cause of justice
the cause of national reunification ×
the cause of socialist construction ×
国家统一national reunification和社会主义建设socialist construction本身就是一种cause事业,不需要再赘述。
🎈老板the boss 
董事会board of directors
🎈为了让某人能……for sb. to do

 
It has expanded without any idea of the true nature of the human beings who run the machines, and without giving any consideration to the effects produced on the individuals and on their descendants by the artificial mode of existence imposed by the factory.
现代工业发展起来了,却根本没想到操作机器的人的本质。工厂把一种人为的生存方式强加给工人,却不顾及这种生存方式给工人及其后代带来的影响。
🎈定语从句who run the machines修饰the human beings。and连接前后两个without结构。produced on the individuals and on their descendants是the effects的后置定语,by the artificial mode of existence imposed by the factory修饰 “the effects…descendants” 整个部分。
🎈expand v.(尺寸或数量)扩大 to become larger in size, number or amount
拓展业务/扩胸(运动)expand business / one’s chest
contract v.收缩
stretch v.延伸,延展
舒活筋骨stretch one’s legs
例句
The forest stretched all the way to the horizon.
森林一直延伸到地平线。
He yawned and stretched.他打了个哈欠,伸了伸懒腰。
dilate v.(直径)膨胀
放大了的瞳孔dilated pupils
扩张血管dilate blood vessels
inflate v.(充气)使膨胀
给球充气inflate the ball
通货膨胀inflation
magnify v.(用光学仪器)放大
放大镜magnifying glass
amplify v.放大(电流、信号、声音等)
扩音器/扬声器amplifier
🎈… without giving any consideration to the true nature of human beings …=… totally neglecting the true nature of human beings …。其中,the true nature of human beings指“身心健康”
physiological and mental state / physical and spiritual well-being
🎈考虑…give consideration to …/give thought to …
导致…give rise to …
生育…give birth to …
被…代替/取代give way to …
给某人赊账give credit to sb
🎈mode n.模式 particular way or manner
生活/生存/思维模式mode of life / existence / thought

 
The great cities have been built with no regard for us.
大城市的建设毫不关心我们。
🎈忽略,不考虑,不关心with no regard for …
without any idea of …
without giving any consideration to …
neglect …

 
The shape and dimensions of the skyscrapers depend entirely on the necessity of obtaining the maximum income per square foot of ground, and of offering to the tenants offices and apartments that please them.
摩天大楼外形和面积完全是按这样的需要修建的:每平方英尺地皮取得最大收入和向租房人提供使他满意的办公室和住房。
🎈…的必要性the necessity of doing sth.=it is necessary to do sth
出于需要out of necessity
…是必需的be a necessity/must
compulsory a.必须做的
必修课a compulsory course
选修课an optional / elective course
🎈向某人提供某物offer sth. to sb.

 
This caused the construction of gigantic buildings where too large masses of human beings are crowded together.
这样就导致了许多摩天大厦拔地而起,大厦内众多的人挤地一起。
🎈mass n. 一大群人[=throng或a large crowd]
一大群人a mass / throng of people
面向群众的教育mass education
大众传媒mass media
大规模杀伤武器weapons of mass destruction
大规模失业问题problems of mass unemployment

 
Civilized men like such a way of living. While they enjoy the comfort and banal luxury of their dwelling, they do not realize that they are deprived of the necessities of life.
文明人喜欢这样一种生活方式。在享受自己住宅的舒适和庸俗的豪华时,却没有意识到被剥夺了生活所必需的东西。
🎈dwelling n.住所  [=residence / domicile]
dwell v.居住
dweller n.居民
寒舍my humble dwelling
城市居民city dwellers
🎈the necessities of life指the clean atmosphere, the closeness to nature, the intimacy of people, etc.。“…they do not realize that they are deprived of the necessities of life”相当于But city dwellers are deprived of all these valuable things in the concrete jungle [the concrete jungle “钢筋混凝土的丛林”常比喻“城市”]

 
The modern city consists of monstrous edifices and of dark, narrow streets full of petrol fumes and toxic gases, torn by the noise of the taxicabs, lorries and buses, and thronged ceaselessly by great crowds. 
大得吓人的高楼和阴暗狭窄的街道组成了今日现代化的城市。街道上充斥着汽油味和有毒气体,出租汽车、卡车、公共汽车的噪音刺耳难忍,络绎不绝的人群挤来挤去。
🎈由……组成consist of …
be made up of …
be composed of …
comprise …
组成……comprise …
make up …
compose …
constitute …
🎈空气污染air pollution
噪音污染noise pollution
战乱纷扰的国家a country torn by war
人口过多问题the problem of overpopulation

 
Obviously, it has not been planned for the good of its inhabitants. 
显然,现代化的城市不是为居民的利益而规划的。
🎈该句为文章的concluding sentence(结论句)。
就本文而言,主题句和结论句之间的篇幅为supporting sentences(支撑句)
🎈为了……的利益for the good of …
for the sake of …
for the benefit of …
in the interest of …
on behalf of …
 
🔥必背词汇
consideration     n.考虑
仔细考虑这个问题give careful consideration to the question
…值得认真考虑 …merit / deserve serious consideration
正在考虑中be under consideration
一个不值得考虑的问题a matter beneath consideration
把…考虑进去take … into consideration / account
 
descendant      n. 后裔,子孙[C]
孔子的直系后代a direct descendant of Confucius
offspring n. 后裔,子孙[单复同形]
父母和子女之间的冲突conflicts between parents and their offspring
posterity n.泛指子孙后代
ancestor/forefather/forebear n.祖宗,祖先
predecessor n.前任,前辈
successor n.后辈,继任者
descend v.1是某人后代2(使)下降
ascend v.(使)上升
按照降序in descending order
按照升序in ascending order
是…的后代be descended from …/be descendants of…
例句
We are all descended from Yandi and Huangdi. = We are all descendants of Yandi and Huangdi.
我们都是炎黄子孙。
condescend v.屈尊,俯就
例句
The general condescended to dine with the soldiers.
transcend v.超越,跨越
例句
The best movies are those which transcend national and cultural barriers.[跨越了国家和文化界限]
 
artificial      a. 人工的,人造的,假的
假花/假肢/人工智能/人工呼吸 artificial flowers / limbs / intelligence (AI) / respiration
synthetic a.人造的[指用化学方式合成的]
合成纤维/橡胶synthetic fibers / rubber
simulated a.仿制的[源自动词simulate “模仿,模拟”]
仿制裘皮/珠宝simulated fur / jewels
false a.人造的,假的
假发/假牙false hair / teeth
fake / counterfeit a.假的 [不合法]
伪钞fake / counterfeit money
forged a.伪造的
伪造的签名a forged signature
pirated a.盗版的
盗版光盘/书刊/软件 pirated CDs / books / software [software不可数]
 
impose      n. 强加
把…强加在某人身上impose / force sth. on / upon sb.
把…施加在某人身上exert sth. on / upon sb.
把(尤指痛苦的事)强加给某人inflict sth. on / upon sb.
例句
Please don’t inflict your love on me.
别把你的爱意强加给我。
【词根】pose“放置”
impose v.强加
expose v.暴露
propose v.求婚;提议
oppose v.反对,反抗
dispose v.布置,安排,部署
interpose v.插入,放入
depose v.废黜,罢免
compose v.组成
decompose v.腐蚀,分解
transpose v.互换位置
juxtapose v.并列,并排
 
dimension     n. 空间的量度
例句
Please specify the dimensions of your room (the length, the width and the height of your room).
请说明您房间的尺寸(包括长度、宽度和高度)。
三维的three-dimensional
第四维度the fourth dimension
 
skyscraper      n. 摩天大楼
摩天大楼skyscraper/high-rise/edifice/edify
mansion公馆,大宅门
例句
红楼梦A Dream of Red Mansions
独栋别墅detached house
豪华/度假别墅villa
半独立式别墅semi-detached house
联排/城市别墅row house / town house
平房bungalow
村舍cottage
小木屋hut
冰屋Igloo
 
luxury      n. 奢侈,豪华;奢侈品
过着奢侈/贫穷的生活live in luxury / poverty
necessity n.必需(品)
生活基本必需品basic necessities of daily life
luxurious/fancy a.豪华的
luxuriant n.枝繁叶茂的,(植物)茂盛的
热带地区枝繁叶茂的植物luxuriant plants of the tropics
 
deprive      v. 剥夺
剥夺某人…deprive/ strip / divest sb. of sth.
例句
Some criminals are deprived of political rights.
一些罪犯被剥夺了政治权利。
剥夺某人…(多指财产)dispossess sb. of sth.
剥夺某人继承权disinherit sb.
例句
He has disinherited his eldest son.
a.贫穷的 deprived/ poor/ disadvantaged/underprivileged/impoverished/destitute
 
toxic      adj. 有毒的
有毒的化学物质/物质/尾气toxic chemicals / substances / exhaust fumes
noxious adj. 有毒的
例句
Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless and noxious gas.
一氧化碳是一种无色无味的有毒气体。
venomous adj. (动物)有毒的;人心恶毒的,蛇蝎心肠的
毒蛇/有毒昆虫venomous snakes / insects
言语尖酸刻薄,毒舌a venomous tongue
intoxicate v.1使醉酒2使陶醉
陶醉在…之中be intoxicated by / with…
例句
He was thoroughly intoxicated.
他彻底醉了。
He was intoxicated by / with success.
他陶醉在成功之中。
 
throng      v. 挤满人
例句
Tourists thronged the Imperial Palace.
游客将故宫挤得满满当当。
(某处)挤满了…be thronged / crowded / packed with …
例句
The streets were thronged / crowded / packed with Christmas shoppers.
(某处)到处是/挤满了…be swarming / teeming with …
例句
The campus was swarming / teeming with students.
 
🔥重点表达
仔细考虑这个问题give careful consideration to the question
…值得认真考虑 …merit / deserve serious consideration
正在考虑中be under consideration
一个不值得考虑的问题a matter beneath consideration
把…考虑进去take … into consideration / account
孔子的直系后代a direct descendant of Confucius
父母和子女之间的冲突conflicts between parents and their offspring
按照降序in descending order
按照升序in ascending order
是…的后代be descended from …/be descendants of…
假花/假肢/人工智能/人工呼吸 artificial flowers / limbs / intelligence (AI) / respiration
合成纤维/橡胶synthetic fibers / rubber
假发/假牙false hair / teeth
伪钞fake / counterfeit money
伪造的签名a forged signature
盗版光盘/书刊/软件 pirated CDs / books / software [software不可数]
把…强加在某人身上impose / force sth. on / upon sb.
把…施加在某人身上exert sth. on / upon sb.
把(尤指痛苦的事)强加给某人inflict sth. on / upon sb.
第四维度the fourth dimension
摩天大楼skyscraper/high-rise/edifice/edify
过着奢侈/贫穷的生活live in luxury / poverty
生活基本必需品basic necessities of daily life
剥夺某人…deprive/ strip / divest sb. of sth.
剥夺某人…(多指财产)dispossess sb. of sth.
剥夺某人继承权disinherit sb.
有毒的化学物质/物质/尾气toxic chemicals / substances / exhaust fumes
毒蛇/有毒昆虫venomous snakes / insects
言语尖酸刻薄,毒舌a venomous tongue
陶醉在…之中be intoxicated by / with…
…挤满了(某处)…throng …
(某处)挤满了…be thronged / crowded / packed with …
(某处)到处是/挤满了…be swarming / teeming with …
在…的过程中/期间in sth. / doing sth.
为了/以感谢…in return / reward for …或in appreciation of …[表示一种目的或行为]
对(某人的功劳或成就)表示认可in recognition of …
为了纪念某人;向某人表示敬意in honor of …[可为生者或逝者]
追思/悼念某人in memory of …
工业革命the Industrial Revolution
产业工人industrial workers
…对…的影响the influence/effect/impact of … on / upon …
对…的忠诚/奉献devotion / dedication/ loyalty / allegiance to …
对…的爱love / affection for …
对…的热情zest / passion / enthusiasm for …
对…的同情pity / compassion / sympathy for …
老板the boss 
董事会board of directors
为了让某人能……for sb. to do
拓展业务/扩胸(运动)expand business / one’s chest
舒活筋骨stretch one’s legs
给球充气inflate the ball
通货膨胀inflation
放大镜magnifying glass
扩音器/扬声器amplifier
考虑…give consideration to …/give thought to …
导致…give rise to …
生育…give birth to …
被…代替/取代give way to …
给某人赊账give credit to sb
生活/生存/思维模式mode of life / existence / thought
忽略,不考虑,不关心with no regard for …
…的必要性the necessity of doing sth.=it is necessary to do sth
出于需要out of necessity
…是必需的be a necessity/must
必修课a compulsory course
选修课an optional / elective course
向某人提供某物offer sth. to sb.
一大群人a mass / throng of people
面向群众的教育mass education
大众传媒mass media
大规模杀伤武器weapons of mass destruction
大规模失业问题problems of mass unemployment
寒舍my humble dwelling
城市居民city dwellers
空气污染air pollution
噪音污染noise pollution
为了……的利益for the good of …
 
🔥复盘测试
仔细考虑这个问题
…值得认真考虑 …
正在考虑中
一个不值得考虑的问题
把…考虑进去
孔子的直系后代
父母和子女之间的冲突
按照降序
按照升序
是…的后代
假花/假肢/人工智能/人工呼吸
合成纤维/橡胶
假发/假牙
伪钞
伪造的签名
盗版光盘/书刊/软件
把…强加在某人身上
把…施加在某人身上
把(尤指痛苦的事)强加给某人
第四维度
摩天大楼
过着奢侈/贫穷的生活
生活基本必需品
剥夺某人…
剥夺某人…(多指财产)
剥夺某人继承权disinherit sb.
有毒的化学物质/物质/尾气
毒蛇/有毒昆虫
言语尖酸刻薄,毒舌
陶醉在…之中
…挤满了(某处)
(某处)挤满了…
(某处)到处是/挤满了…
在…的过程中/期间
为了/以感谢…
对(某人的功劳或成就)表示认可
为了纪念某人;向某人表示敬意
追思/悼念某人
工业革命
产业工人
…对…的影响
对…的忠诚/奉献
对…的爱
对…的热情
对…的同情
老板
董事会
为了让某人能……
拓展业务/扩胸(运动)e
舒活筋骨
给球充气
通货膨胀
放大镜
扩音器/扬声器
考虑…
导致…
生育…
被…代替/取代
给某人赊账
生活/生存/思维模式
忽略,不考虑,不关心
…的必要性
出于需要
…是必需的
必修课
选修课
向某人提供某物
一大群人
面向群众的教育
大众传媒
大规模杀伤武器
大规模失业问题
寒舍
城市居民
空气污染
噪音污染
为了……的利益

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《The modern city 现代城市》 -新概念英语第四册 学习笔记

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