《A man-made disease 人为的疾病》 -新概念英语第四册 学习笔记

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A man-made disease

人为的疾病

 
In the early days of the settlement of Australia, enterprising settlers unwisely introduced the European rabbit.
在澳大利亚移民初期,一些有创业精神的移民不明智地把欧洲兔子引进了澳大利亚。
🎈在…早期in the early days (of …)
孟春时节in the early days of spring
在…起步阶段in the pioneering days (of …)
想当初,当年in those days
现如今,当今these days
在某人年轻时/上学时/学生时代/军旅生涯/童年…in one’s younger / school / student / army / childhood / … days
🎈a.不明智的unwise/ill-advised/impolitic
n.愚行,不明智的行为folly
例句
Seward’s Folly/Seward’s Ice Box refers to the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.
斥巨资买一座只有冰天雪地的阿拉斯加岛的行为在当时看来简直是再愚蠢不过了

 
This rabbit had no natural enemies in the Antipodes, so that it multiplied with that promiscuous abandon characteristic of rabbits.
这种兔子在澳大利亚及新西兰没有天敌,因此便以兔子所特有的杂乱交配迅猛繁殖起来。
🎈so that it multiplied with that promiscuous abandon characteristic of rabbits是结果状从,with … rabbits是结果状从中的方式状语。
🎈天敌,死对头natural enemies
例句
Porpoises and sharks are natural enemies.
海豚和鲨鱼是天敌。
🎈the Antipodes/antipodes指澳洲(澳大利亚和新西兰),是对Australia的表达替换。
🎈以胡乱/放纵的方式… do sth. with wild / gay / reckless /… abandon
例句
They danced with wild abandon.
他们疯狂地跳舞。
🎈A是B的典型特征A characterize B /A be characteristic of B/ A be typical of B
A有B特征 A be characterized by B

 
It overran a whole continent.
整个澳洲兔子成灾。
🎈overrun (overran overrun) v. 泛滥,蔓延to be present in a place in such large amounts or numbers that it is unpleasant 
例句
Weeds have overrun the garden.
花园里杂草丛生。
The warehouse was overrun by / with mice.
仓库里老鼠泛滥成灾。

 
It caused devastation by burrowing and by devouring the herbage which might have maintained millions of sheep and cattle.
它们在地下打洞,吃掉本可以饲养数百万头牛羊的牧草,给澳洲大陆造成了毁灭性的破坏。
🎈by burrowing and by devouring … millions of sheep and cattle是方式状语,其中定语从句which might have…修饰the garbage。
🎈herbage n.牧草
pasture n.牧场
🎈maintained millions of sheep and cattle中的maintain意为“养活”。此外,这个词还有“坚持认为”的意思。

 
Scientists discovered that this particular variety of rabbit (and apparently no other animal) was susceptible to a fatal virus disease, myxomatosis.
科学家们发现,这种特殊品种的兔子(显然不包括别的动物)易患一种叫“多发性粘液瘤”的致命毒性疾病。
🎈(and apparently no other animal)作插入语,其中no other后跟名词单数或复数均可。myxomatosis是a fatal virus disease的同位语。
🎈variety n.种类,变种
例句
The lake has more than 20 varieties of fish.
species n.种类
濒危物种endangered species
genre n.(艺术或文学)流派
音乐/文学流派a musical / literary genre
🎈nature表示“本质,属性”,常以“of a… nature(…类型)”结构出现,作后置定语修饰名词。
政治性条约treaties of a political nature
色情书籍books of an erotic nature
学术性问题questions of an academic nature
技术性文章articles of a technical nature

 
By infecting animals and letting them loose in the burrows, local epidemics of this disease could be created.
通过让染上此病的动物在洞内乱跑,就可以使这种疾病在一个地区蔓延起来。
🎈释放let … loose/ let … go或 free/release 
例句
The kidnappers let him loose on a dark country lane.
绑匪把他放在了一条黑漆漆的乡间小道上。
liberate/emancipate v.(从压迫/束缚中)解放 
注意:emancipate的宾语一定是人
解放奴隶/妇女emancipate slaves / women

 
Later it was found that there was a type of mosquito which acted as the carrier of this disease and passed it on to the rabbits.
后来又发现,有一种蚊子是传播这种疾病的媒介,能把此病传染给兔子。
🎈Later it was found that…中it是形式主语,真正的主语是后面that引导的主语从句。主从中,定语从句which acted as the carrier of this disease and passed it on to the rabbits修饰mosquito。
🎈…当作…(来用)act as …
serve as …
function as …
be used as …
🎈carrier n.带菌者(指携带细菌但不一定染病)
携带病菌carry a disease
🎈转交,[引申]传播(疾病) pass sth. on to sb.
例句
He passed his cold on to me.
他把感冒传染给我了。
传播疾病communicate/transmit a disease to …

 
So while the rest of the world was trying to get rid of mosquitoes, Australia was encouraging this one.
因此,世界上其他地方在设法消灭蚊子的时候,澳大利亚却在促使这种蚊子大量繁殖。
🎈1打发走(讨厌的人)
2消灭,杀死get rid of … = dispose of …
例句
It took me over half an hour to get rid of him.
我花了半个多小时才把他打发走。
I used weedkiller to get rid of the weeds in the garden.
我用除草剂除去花园里的杂草。
🎈encourage v. 促进,助长
例句
Poor hygiene encourages the spread of disease.
糟糕的卫生状况加剧了疾病的传播。

 
It effectively spread the disease all over the continent and drastically reduced the rabbit population.
蚊子把这种疾病扩散到整个澳洲大陆,效果甚佳,结果兔子的数目在为减少。
🎈遍布整个洲/大陆all over the continent
around the continent
throughout the continent
the continent over
同理,“全世界”只需将上述表达中的continent换作world即可。
🎈drastic adj.极端的;大幅度的 extreme and sudden
采取极端的措施take drastic measures
政府花销的大幅缩减drastic cuts in government spending
例句
The size of the army was drastically cut.
军队大规模裁员。

 
It later became apparent that rabbits were developing a degree of resistance to this disease, so that the rabbit population was unlikely to be completely exterminated.
后来,明显看出,兔子对这种疾病已产生了一定程度的免疫力,所以兔子不可能被完全消灭。
🎈It是形式主语,that从句是真正主语。so that引导结果状从。
🎈明显看出it became clear / obvious / apparent / evident that …
显然it is / was clear / obvious / apparent / evident that …

 
There were hopes, however, that the problem of the rabbit would become manageable.
但是,已有希望解决兔子所带来的问题。
🎈已有希望……there were hopes that …
there be+无灵主语:
例句
In this condition, there is a justification for intervention.
在这种情况下进行干涉是合理的。此句型是典型的无灵主语
不可否认的是there is no denying that …
毫无疑问的是there is no doubt that …
…很有可能there is every likelihood that …
…不大可能there is little likelihood that …
…有的是/不缺there is no shortage of …
…有点道理there is an element of truth in …
…非常有道理there is a good deal of truth in …
🎈manageable adj.容易控制/处理的 easy to control or deal with
例句
My hair is more manageable since I had it cut.
头发剪短之后更好打理了。

 
Ironically, Europe, which had bequeathed the rabbit as a pest to Australia, acquired this man-made disease as a pestilence.
具有讽刺意味的是,欧洲把这种兔子作为有害动物传给澳洲,而欧洲自己却染上了这种人为的瘟疫般的疾病。
🎈Ironically作状语,非限定性定从which had bequeathed the rabbit as a pest to Australia做插入语。pestilence和pest构成对比,增强了讽刺效果。

 
A French physician decided to get rid of the wild rabbits on his own estate and introduced myxomatosis. It did not, however, remain within the confines of this estate. 
一位法国内科医生决定除掉自己庄园内的野兔子,于是引进了这种多发性粘液瘤疾病。然而,这种疾病并未被局限在他的庄园内。
🎈estate n.庄园
introduce v.引进
🎈confines n. 范围[pl]
在…范围之内/外within / beyond the confines of …
例句
在农场/法律的范围内within the confines of the farm / the law
在人类知识的范围之外beyond the confines of human knowledge

 
It spread through France, where wild rabbits are not generally regarded as a pest but as a sport and a useful food supply, and it spread to Britain where wild rabbits are regarded as a pest but where domesticated rabbits, equally susceptible to the disease, are the basis of a profitable fur industry.
疾病在整个法国蔓延开来。野兔在法国一般不被当作有害动物,而被视为打猎取乐的玩物和有 用的食物来源。这种疾病又蔓延到了英国。在英国,野兔被当作有害的动物,可是家兔是赚钱的毛皮工业的基础,然而家兔同样易感染这种疾病。
🎈where wild rabbits are … a useful food supply是定从修饰France,其中含not…but…(不是…而是…)结构。and连接两个并列句。where wild rabbits are … a profitable fur industry是定从修饰Britain,其中equally susceptible to the disease是插入语。
🎈sport n. (狩猎,钓鱼等)乡间活动,消遣an activity that people do in the countryside, especially hunting or fishing 
🎈domesticated adj. 家养的,驯化的domesticated animals are able to work for people or live with them as pets 
🎈Sing. 单数→ pl.复数
basis → bases 
axis →axes
thesis → theses 
ellipsis → ellipses
analysis → analyses
diagnosis → diagnoses
hypothesis → hypotheses
🎈 base n. 底部;基地
在…底部at the base of… 
在…基础上 on the basis of …
建立供应基地establish supply bases

 
The question became one of whether Man could control the disease he had invented.
现在的问题是,人类能否控制住这种人为的疾病。
🎈whether Man could control the disease he had invented表面上看作介词of的宾从,实则是of引出的同位语。he had invented是定从,修饰the disease。
🎈man指“人类”时,首字母大小写均可。
 
🔥必背词汇
settlement    n. 殖民地,新的居住地;殖民(过程);小社区;解决
settlement n.移民 colony n.殖民[colony带有侵略性质]
settler/colonist n.移民/殖民者[区别同上]
colonial a.殖民的
半封建半殖民地社会semi-colonial and semi-feudal society
私了out-of-court settlement
私了某事settle sth. out of court
 
enterprising      adj. 有事业心的,有进取心的
例句
It is impossible to make more than the wildest guess at how many they kill, but they are hungry creatures, not content with only three meals a day.
他是个有事业心的年轻人,不会满足于平淡的日常生活。
entrepreneur n. 企业家
enterprise n. 1. 事业心, 进取心2. 企业
一个进取心很强的人a man of extraordinary enterprise
国有企业state-owned enterprise
集体企业collectively-owned enterprise
乡镇企业township enterprise
外资企业foreign-funded enterprise
合资企业joint-venture enterprise
 
promiscuous      adj. 性乱的;不加选择的,随便的
不忌口的饮食习惯promiscuous eating habits
随意颁发文凭the promiscuous distribution of diplomas
【近义词】licentious [licence / license n.执照]
abandoned a.堕落的[abandon v.放弃]
大手大脚地花钱spend money with reckless abandon
【复习】疯狂的…,过度的… orgies of … / an orgy of …
疯狂的仇恨orgies of hatred
疯狂杀戮an orgy of killing
疯狂购物an orgy of spending
binge / spree n.过度,放纵
纵情饮酒/疯狂购物go on a drinking binge/a shopping spree
 
susceptible      adj. 易受影响的;易受感染的
易受…影响;易患…病be susceptible to …
不受…影响;对…免疫be immune to …
给某人中疫苗(以预防…)immunize/inoculate/vaccinate sb. against …
使…感染上…infect sb. with sth.
(疾病)传播,蔓延…spread
传播疾病communicate / transmit a disease
性传播疾病sexually transmitted diseases
infectious / contagious / communicable a.传染性的[兼作定语和表语]
catching a.传染性的[只能作表语]
例句
a catching disease ×
I hope his cold isn’t catching.√
epidemic n.疾病蔓延
流感肆虐an influenza epidemic
 
bequeath      v. 把……遗赠给……
把…遗赠给…  …bequeath sth. to …或leave / will sth to …
从…继承…inherit sth. from sb.
inheritor n.继承人
inheritance / legacy n.遗产[具体的财产]
heritage n.遗产[抽象意义]
历史/文化/文学/建筑遗产historical / cultural / literary / architectural heritage
 
🔥重点表达
半封建半殖民地社会semi-colonial and semi-feudal society
私了out-of-court settlement
私了某事settle sth. out of court
一个进取心很强的人a man of extraordinary enterprise
国有企业state-owned enterprise
集体企业collectively-owned enterprise
乡镇企业township enterprise
外资企业foreign-funded enterprise
合资企业joint-venture enterprise
不忌口的饮食习惯promiscuous eating habits
随意颁发文凭the promiscuous distribution of diplomas
大手大脚地花钱spend money with reckless abandon
给某人中疫苗(以预防…)immunize/inoculate/vaccinate sb. against …
使…感染上…infect sb. with sth.
(疾病)传播,蔓延…spread
传播疾病communicate / transmit a disease
性传播疾病sexually transmitted diseases
把…遗赠给…  …bequeath sth. to …或leave / will sth to …
从…继承…inherit sth. from sb.
历史/文化/文学/建筑遗产historical / cultural / literary / architectural heritage
在…早期in the early days (of …)
天敌,死对头natural enemies
以胡乱/放纵的方式… do sth. with wild / gay / reckless /… abandon
A是B的典型特征A characterize B /A be characteristic of B/ A be typical of B
A有B特征 A be characterized by B
释放let … loose/ let … go或 free/release 
携带病菌carry a disease
传播疾病communicate/transmit a disease to …
1打发走(讨厌的人);2消灭,杀死get rid of … = dispose of …
遍布整个洲/大陆all over the continent
采取极端的措施take drastic measures
政府花销的大幅缩减drastic cuts in government spending
明显看出it became clear / obvious / apparent / evident that …
已有希望……there were hopes that …
在…范围之内/外within / beyond the confines of …
在…底部at the base of… 
在…基础上 on the basis of …
建立供应基地establish supply bases
 
🔥复盘测试
半封建半殖民地社会
私了
私了某事
一个进取心很强的人
国有企业
集体企业
乡镇企业
外资企业
合资企业
不忌口的饮食习惯
随意颁发文凭
大手大脚地花钱
给某人中疫苗(以预防…)
使…感染上….
(疾病)传播,蔓延
传播疾病
性传播疾病
把…遗赠给…  
从…继承…
历史/文化/文学/建筑遗产
在…早期
天敌,死对头
以胡乱/放纵的方式… 
A是B的典型特征
A有B特征 
释放
携带病菌
传播疾病
1打发走(讨厌的人);2消灭,杀死
遍布整个洲/大陆
采取极端的措施
政府花销的大幅缩减
明显看出
已有希望……
在…范围之内/外
在…底部 
在…基础上
建立供应基地
 

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