《Youth 青年》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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Youth

青年

 
People are always talking about ‘the problem of youth’. 
人们总是在谈论“青年问题”。
🎈老是做某事(让人觉得讨厌)be always doing
be forever doing
be constantly / continually doing sth.
keep (on) doing sth.
do sth. all the time / time and time again / with monotonous regularity / ad nauseam
例句
He’s always having arguments with people.
他老是和人们吵嘴。

 
If there is one—which I take leave to doubt—then it is older people who create it, not the young themselves.
如果这个问题存在的话——请允许我对此持怀疑态度——那么,这个问题是由老年人而不是青年人造成的。
🎈结构:If there is one—which I take leave to doubt 整个是条件状从,相当于If there is one at all, 其中which I take leave to doubt是插入语,表示“对此我不敢苟同”。it is older people who…是强调句,强调sb时可用that或who。then使主从句之间连贯感更好。
【补充】at all在否定句中与否定词连用表示“一点也不”;在疑问句或条件状语从句中意为“真的…”、“对此不敢相信”。
例句
Do you know him at all?
你真的认识他吗?
He will come before dinner if he comes at all.
如果他真的要来的话,他晚饭前会来的。

 
Let us get down to fundamentals and agree that the young are after all human beings—people just like their elders.
让我们来认真研究一些基本事实:承认青年人和他们的长辈一样也是人。
🎈结构:that the young are after all human beings是宾语从句;破折号引出human beings的同位语。
🎈开始认真严肃做某事get down to sth. / doing =to start doing sth. seriously
例句
Let’s get down to business.
让我们开始谈正事吧。
Let’s get down to discussing the details.
让我们讨论一下细节问题。
🎈v.承认agree/ accept / admit / acknowledge / recognize / concede

 
There is only one difference between an old man and a young one: the young man has a glorious future before him and the old one has a splendid future behind him: and maybe that is where the rub is.
老年人和青年人只有一个区别:青年人有光辉灿烂的前景,而老年人的辉煌已成为过去。问题 的症结恐怕就在这里。
🎈结构:第一个冒号后的the young man has a glorious future before him and the old one has a splendid future behind him是one difference的同位语;第二个冒号后的and引出并列句。where the rub is是表语从句。
🎈只有一个区别just / merely / no more than one difference或a single / solitary difference
🎈a glorious future before him and the old one has a splendid future behind him采用了对比的修辞(结构相同,语义相同或相对),使句式工整,对照鲜明,音韵和谐,回环铿锵,读起来特别有力。
🎈这就是…(之处)That’s where…
例句
That’s where you and I differ.
这就是我和你的不同之处。
That’s where I draw the line. 
这就是我的底线。/这事儿我不会做。

 
When I was a teenager, I felt that I was just young and uncertain—that I was a new boy in a huge school, and I would have been very pleased to be regarded as something so interesting as a problem.
我十几岁时,总感到自己年轻,有些事拿不准——我是一所大学里的一名新生,如果我当时真的被看成像一个问题那样有趣,我会感到很得意的。
🎈结构:When I was a teenager是时间状从;that I was just young and uncertain是宾语从句;破折号的功能是引出解释成分,对破折号前的宾从进行说明。would have been是虚拟语气,不定式to be regarded as something作条件状语;形容词短语so interesting as a problem作something的后置定语。
🎈13-19岁的青年teenager / teen n.
in one’s teens
When I was in my teens, …
adolescent n. 青春期的孩子& adj. 青春期的
adolescence n. 青春期
juvenile n./a. 青少年(的)
青少年犯罪juvenile delinquency
少年犯juvenile delinquent
🎈 in a huge school 运用了暗喻的修辞(不出现like之类的比喻词),实则指the society。
🎈把A看作B regard / see / count A as B
think of / look on / conceive of A as B
consider A (to be) B
deem / reckon A to be B
被公认为be recognized / acknowledged as …

 
For one thing, being a problem gives you a certain identity, and that is one of the things the young are busily engaged in seeking.
因为这至少使我得到了某种承认,这正是年轻人所热衷追求的。
🎈结构:For one thing介词短语作原因状语,意为“原因之一是”。the things the young are busily engaged in seeking= the things (that/which) the young are busily engaged in seeking,可看作省略了关系词的定语从句。
🎈原因之一是…;另一个原因是…for one thing … ;for another …
一方面…另一方面…on the one hand … on the other (hand) …[一定是表转折关系]
例句
On the one hand I’d like a job which pays more, but on the other (hand) I enjoy the work I’m doing at the moment.
不是因为…而是因为…    not that …, but that …/ It is not that … but (that) …
🎈忙于某事be engaged in sth. / doing

 
I find young people exciting. They have an air of freedom, and they have not a dreary commitment to mean ambitions or love of comfort. They are not anxious social climbers, and they have no devotion to material things.
我觉得年轻人令人振奋,无拘无束。他们既不追逐卑鄙的名利,也不贪图生活的舒适。他们不热衷于向上爬,也不一味追求物质享受。
🎈追求更高社会地位的人,向上爬的人(贬)social climbers
🎈have devotion to中的to是介词,后接名词或动名词。

 
All this seems to me to link them with life and the origins of things. 
在我看来,所有这些使他们与生命和万物之源联系在了一起。
🎈结构:to me是插入语;第二个to和seem连用,是固定结构;life 和 the origins of things是and连接的并列成分。
 

It’s as if they were, in some sense, cosmic beings in violent and lovely contrast with us suburban creatures.
从某种意义上讲,他们似乎是宇宙人,同我们这些凡夫俗子形成了强烈而鲜明的对照。
🎈结构:as if they were, in some sense, cosmic beings in violent and lovely contrast with us suburban creatures 整个是表语从句;in some sense是插入语;in violent and lovely contrast with us suburban creatures介词短语作比较状语。
🎈as if/as though引导的从句若表示完全不可能发生的事情,用虚拟语气;若表示可能会发生的事情,则用真实语气。也就是说,as if/as though从句不是必须用虚拟语气。
例句
Don’t act as if you were the only pebble on the beach.
不要太拿自己当回事。(you是不可能真的成为pebble的,所以用了虚拟语气)
🎈在某种意义上in some sense
在某种程度上to some degree / extent或in some measure
🎈creatures意同people,being。“be”除去作be动词表示“是…”的含义,还可以指“存在”。
人类human being
智慧生物intelligent being
外星生物alien being、
存在还是毁灭,这是个问题。
To be, or not to be: that is the question.
我思故我在。
I think therefore I am.— René Descartes(笛卡尔)
🎈与…相对比/对照in / by contrast to / with …
in / by comparison to / with …
compared to / with …

 
All that is in my mind when I meet a young person. 
每逢我遇到年轻人,脑子里就想到这些。
🎈在脑海中/心中记着be in one’s mind
惦念着,牵挂着be on one’s mind

 
He may be conceited, ill-mannered, presumptuous or fatuous, but I do not turn for protection to dreary clichés about respect for elders—as if mere age were a reason for respect.
年轻人也许狂妄自负,举止无理,傲慢放肆,愚昧无知,但我不会用应当尊重长者这一套陈词滥调来为我自己辩护,似乎年长就是受人尊敬的理由。
🎈结构:as if mere age were a reason for respect是方式状从,其中were表示一种虚拟语气。
🎈没礼貌的ill-mannered
坏脾气的ill-tempered
不明智的ill-advised
没教养的ill-bred
未受过(良好)教育的ill-educated
🎈向A寻求B  turn to A for B
原文中这个结构调整了to A和for B的顺序,原因就是为了句子结构平衡,避免头重脚轻。
🎈mere age中的age不译“年龄”,而是意为“年纪大、晚年”等。
少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。
An idle youth, a needy age.

 
I accept that we are equals, and I will argue with him, as an equal, if I think he is wrong.
如果我认为他们错了,我就以平等的身份和他们争个明白。
🎈结构:that we are equals是宾语从句;as an equal是插入语;if I think he is wrong是条件状语从句。
🎈本文的内容安排遵循了“claim-response pattern(主张-反应模式)”,行文内容按照1claim-2response-3reasons for response-4relevant example(s)-5reaffirmation的结构安排,在最后一句重申了作者的观点。
 
🔥必背词汇
leave     n. 允许,许可
请允许我(冒昧地)做某事
take leave to do sth 
forgive me for doing 
take the liberty of doing 
venture to do
 
fundamentals     n. 基本原理,基本原则
基本原理the basics/ the rudiments /the first principles
fundamental adj. basic, essential 根本的
根本区别the fundamental difference
问题的根本原因the fundamental cause of the problem
 
glorious    adj. 光辉灿烂的,荣耀的,辉煌的
光辉的成就a glorious achievement
所有中国同胞都应该共同努力为中华民族的光辉未来而奋斗。
All the Chinese compatriots should take concerted efforts to create a glorious future of the Chinese nation.
光辉的未来a rosy / brilliant / splendid / magnificent future
glory n.光辉
光辉岁月glory days [这是固定搭配,不用glorious]
 
rub     n. 难题,困难,困境
这就是问题所在。/问题就出在这个地方。
Here is the rub. / That’s where the rub is.
让某人生气rub sb. the wrong way/ get on one’s nerves 
 
commitment      n. 信奉,信仰(宗教或主义等);承诺
信奉,信仰commitment to sth./ make a commitment to do …
履行承诺honor / fulfill one’s commitment
 
devotion     n. 热爱
对教育事业的热爱devotion to the cause of education
对某人的爱(泛指)the love for sb
affection n.慈爱,柔情
母爱/父爱maternal / paternal affection
affectionate a.充满慈爱的 
infatuation n.(贬)过分迷恋
 
cosmic    adj. 宇宙的
cosmos n.宇宙
comic a.喜剧的,滑稽的
comet n.彗星
cosmetics n.化妆品(装在瓶子里)
make-up n.化妆品(擦在脸上)
例句
她没擦化妆品。
She doesn’t wear make-up. √
She doesn’t wear cosmetics. X
universe n.宇宙
universal a.普遍的
 
suburban  adj. 郊区的;见识不广的,偏狭的
urban a. 市区的
provincial a.省的;狭隘的
rural a.农村的
pastoral a.田园的(强调农村的美好风光)
田园风光 a pastoral scene或pastoral scenery
metropolitan a.大城市的,大都会的→n. metropolis
cosmopolitan a.国际性大都会的→n. cosmopolis
 
🔥重点表达
请允许我(冒昧地)做某事take leave to do sth / forgive me for doing / take the liberty of doing / venture to do
基本原理the basics/ the rudiments /the first principles
根本区别the fundamental difference
问题的根本原因the fundamental cause of the problem
光辉的未来a rosy / brilliant / splendid / magnificent future
光辉岁月glory days
这就是问题所在。/问题就出在这个地方。Here is the rub. / That’s where the rub is.
让某人生气rub sb. the wrong way/ get on one’s nerves 
信奉,信仰commitment to sth./ make a commitment to do …
履行承诺honor / fulfill one’s commitment
对教育事业的热爱devotion to the cause of education
对某人的爱(泛指)the love for sb
母爱/父爱maternal / paternal affection
田园风光 a pastoral scene/ pastoral scenery
老是做某事(让人觉得讨厌)be always doing
开始认真严肃做某事get down to sth. / doing =to start doing sth. seriously
承认agree/ accept / admit / acknowledge / recognize / concede
这就是…(之处)That’s where…
13-19岁的青年teenager / teen n.
青少年犯罪juvenile delinquency
少年犯juvenile delinquent
把A看作B regard / see / count A as B
被公认为be recognized / acknowledged as …
原因之一是…;另一个原因是…for one thing … ;for another …
一方面…另一方面…on the one hand … on the other (hand) …[一定是表转折关系]
不是因为…而是因为…    not that …, but that …/ It is not that … but (that) …
忙于某事be engaged in sth. / doing
追求更高社会地位的人,向上爬的人(贬)social climbers
万物之源the origins of things
在某种意义上in some sense
在某种程度上to some degree / extent或in some measure
人类human being
智慧生物intelligent being
外星生物alien being
存在还是毁灭,这是个问题。To be, or not to be: that is the question.— William Shakespeare
我思故我在。I think therefore I am.— René Descartes
与…相对比/对照in / by contrast to / with …或in / by comparison to / with …或compared to / with …
在脑海中/心中记着be in one’s mind
惦念着,牵挂着be on one’s mind
没礼貌的ill-mannered
坏脾气的ill-tempered
不明智的ill-advised
没教养的ill-bred
未受过(良好)教育的ill-educated
向A寻求B  turn to A for B
少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。An idle youth, a needy age.
 
🔥复盘测试
请允许我(冒昧地)做某事
基本原理
根本区别
问题的根本原因
光辉的未来
光辉岁月
这就是问题所在。/问题就出在这个地方。
让某人生气
信奉,信仰
履行承诺
对教育事业的热爱
对某人的爱(泛指)
母爱/父爱
田园风光
老是做某事(让人觉得讨厌)
开始认真严肃做某事
承认
这就是…(之处)
13-19岁的青年
青少年犯罪
少年犯
把A看作B 
被公认为
原因之一是…;另一个原因是…
一方面…另一方面…
不是因为…而是因为…   
忙于某事
追求更高社会地位的人,向上爬的人(贬)
万物之源
在某种意义上
在某种程度上
人类
智慧生物
外星生物
存在还是毁灭,这是个问题。
我思故我在。
与…相对比/对照
在脑海中/心中记着
惦念着,牵挂着
没礼貌的
坏脾气的
不明智的
没教养的
未受过(良好)教育的
向A寻求B  
少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。

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