《Bats 蝙蝠》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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Bats

蝙蝠

🎈科技英语的特点
1、倾向于将动词名词化。
2、倾向于更多地使用被动语态。
 
Not all sounds made by animals serve as language, and we have only to turn to that extraordinary discovery of echo-location in bats to see a case in which the voice plays a strictly utilitarian role.
动物发出的声音不都是用作语言交际。我们只要看一看蝙蝠回声定位这一极不寻常的发现,就可以探究一下声音在什么情况下有绝对的实用价值。
🎈made by animals作all sounds的后置定语;and引出并列句;in which the voice plays a strictly utilitarian role是定语从句。
🎈not 与全部肯定词 all, every, everything, everyone, both 连用,多表示部分否定。
例句
All that glitters is not gold.
闪光的不都是金子。
但例句All of the arrows didn’t hit the target.
有两种理解:
1、并非所有箭都命中了靶子。
2、所有箭都没有命中靶子。这是个有歧义的句子,具体含义要根据语境确定。所以我们自己写作时尽量用全部否定词来表示全部否定
例句
None of the arrows hit the target. 
所有箭都没有命中靶子。
🎈当作…来使用serve as… /be used as…/act as… /function as…
🎈只须……就可以……have only to do … to do … 
例句
You have only to click the following link to download the software.点击下面的链接就可以下载这个软件。
🎈借助,求助turn to…
只需借助于……就可以……have only to turn to sth. to do …
例句
We have only to turn to the concrete example of the 1936 Olympic Games to know that international sporting contests lead to orgies of hatred. 
我们只需借助于1936年奥运会的具体例子就可以知道国际体育比赛会导致疯狂的仇恨。
🎈strictly ad.完全地(exactly and completely)
例句
She is strictly a beauty.
她是个不折不扣的美人。
It’s strictly a neutral organization.
这完完全全是一个中立的组织。
🎈在…发挥/扮演…作用/角色play a …role / part in sth.
在推动人权事业上发挥更为显著的作用play a more prominent part in promoting human rights

 
To get a full appreciation of what this means we must turn first to some recent human inventions.
要透彻理解这句话的意义,我们应先回顾一下人类最近的几项发明。
🎈透彻理解(…的意义)… to fully appreciate what this means …
🎈借助,求助 resort to/turn to…
例句
We can solve this problem without resorting to legal action.
我们不借助法律诉讼的手段也可以解决这个问题。

 
Everyone knows that if he shouts in the vicinity of a wall or a mountainside, an echo will come back.
大家都知道,在墙壁或山腰附近发出的喊声,就会听到回声。
🎈that if he shouts…an echo will come back.是定语从句,if引导条件状从。if后的he指代句首的everyone,是固定用法,注意不用she指代everyone。
🎈在…(的)附近(地区)in the vicinity of …
in the neighborhood of …
close to … 
adjacent to …
near … 
off …(on campus在校园里;on campus在校园附近)
🎈反弹come back/ bounce back/ be reflected

 
The further off this solid obstruction, the longer time will elapse for the return of the echo.
固体障碍物越远,回声返回所用时间就越长。
🎈He lives far away. = He lives far off. 其中off是副词,指“离开”。off作介词时表示“附近”。
🎈further/farther均可指距离或抽象意义上的远,二者用法界限较为模糊。
进一步发展/深入调查further development / investigation
🎈越…越…,也可按“成正比”理解。
例句
The time and the distance are in proportion.
时间和距离成正比。

 
A sound made by tapping on the hull of a ship will be reflected from the sea bottom, and by measuring the time interval between the taps and the receipt of the echoes the depth of the sea at that point can be calculated. 
敲打船体所发了的声音会从海底传回来,测出回声间隔的时间,便可算出该处海洋的深度。
🎈反射will be reflected = will come back = will bounce back
🎈海底the sea bottom= sea bed = sea floor
🎈between the taps and the receipt of the echoes 名词
= between the tapping and receiving the echoes 动名词
🎈科技英语常用被动语态。
sb. can calculate sth.→ sth. can be calculated
sound will be reflected→ depth can be calculated
 

So was born the echo-sounding apparatus, now in general use in ships. 
这样就产生了目前各种船舶上普遍应用的回声探测仪。
🎈此句为倒装句,避免了英语句子出现头重脚轻的情况。还原语序之后为The echo-sounding apparatus was born so.

 
Every solid object will reflect a sound, varying according to the size and nature of the object.
任何固体者反射声音,反射的声音因物体的大小和性质的不同而不同。
🎈因…而异vary according to sth.
例句
Every retired worker can receive a pension, varying according to his post and working period.
每一个退休工人都可以得到一笔退休金,根据职务和工作年限而有所不同。

 
A shoal of fish will do this.
鱼群也反射声音。
🎈do this= (上句提到的)reflect a sound, varying according to the size and nature of the object。

 
So it is a comparatively simple step from locating the sea bottom to locating a shoal of fish.
从测定海深到测定鱼群,这一进展比较容易。
🎈ad.相对地comparatively/relatively
例句
It is a comparatively simple step from A to B. 
从A到B只有相对简单的一小步。
It is a small step from A to B. 
从A到B只有简单的一小步。
That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind. — Neil Armstrong
这是我个人的一小步,却是人类的一大步。——尼尔·阿姆斯特朗

 
With experience, and with improved apparatus, it is now possible not only to locate a shoal but to tell if it is herring, cod, or other well-known fish, by the pattern of its echo.
根据经验和改进了的仪器,不仅能够确定鱼群的位置,而且可以根据鱼群回声的特点分辨出是鲱鱼、鱈鱼,这是人们所熟悉的其他鱼。
🎈With experience, and with improved apparatus是方式状语,With experience中的with是固定搭配;with improved apparatus中的with意为“使用”,而非“随着”。若意为“随着”,则要用with improving apparatus。…if it is herring, cod, or other well-known fish是宾语从句。by the pattern of its echo是方式状语。
🎈随着经验的积累with experience √
with accumulating experience ×
随着时间的流逝with time √
with passing time ×
随着季节的更替with seasons √
with changing seasons ×
🎈标有×的表达很赘余,同理还有:
正义事业the cause of justice
the cause of national reunification ×
the cause of socialist construction ×
国家统一national reunification和社会主义建设socialist construction本身就是一种cause事业,不需要再赘述。
🎈to tell if it is herring, cod, or…
分辨不同的鱼的种类  to distinguish different species of fish 
(根据,按照by (prep.)= according to …
例句
Even by modern standards, the 46,000 ton Titanic was a colossal ship.
哪怕按今天的标准来看,泰坦尼克号也是一艘巨轮。

 
It has been found that certain bats emit squeaks and by receiving the echoes, they can locate and steer clear of obstacles ——or locate flying insects on which they feed.
人们发现,某些蝙蝠能发出尖叫声,并能通过回声来确定并躲开障碍物,或找到它们赖以为生的昆虫。
🎈It has been found that…中it是形式主语,that引导主语从句。on which they feed是宾语从句。书面语中,如果关系代词作介词宾语,一般把介词放在关系代词之前,即:“名词+介词+关系代词” 引导非限定性定语从句。
例句
He has two sons, one of whom died in the war.
他有两个儿子,其中的一个死于战火。
🎈【词根】mit=send
发射,发出emit: “e ”(out) + “mit ”(send)
传输,传播transmit: “trans ” (across)+ “mit ” [性传播疾病sexually transmitted diseases]
删除,省略omit: “o ”=“ob ”(away) + “mit ”
上交submit: “sub ”(under) + “mit ”
呕吐(医)vomit: “vo ”(eat) + “mit ” (“呕吐”的日常用词:throw out)
🎈躲避,绕开steer clear of … = avoid … = get around …
例句
steered clear of the main roads where I might be recognized. 
因为不想被人认出来,我绕开了主路。
🎈(动物)以…为食feed on sth.
(食肉动物)以…为食,捕食prey on sth.
(人)以…为生live on sth.

 
This echo-location in bats is often compared with radar, the principle of which is similar.
蝙蝠这种回声定位常常可与雷达相比较,其原理是相似的。
🎈回声定位(能力)echo-location (ability)
🎈相比,对比
compare A with / to B [强调区别或者相似之处]
contrast A with B [强调区别]
 
🔥必背词汇
utilitarian       adj. 实用主义的;n.实用主义者
丑陋但实用的建筑ugly utilitarian buildings
实用的家具utilitarian furniture
utility n.有用,实用
【词根】tarian:主义的;主义者
vegetarian adj. 素食主义的;n. 素食主义者
totalitarian adj. 极权主义的;n. 极权主义者
egalitarian adj. 平等主义的;n. 平等主义者
 
elapse      v. 时间流逝
时间流逝go by/ pass /elapse
例句
Three years elapsed.
三年过去了。
【词根】lapse=slide(滑)
collapse v.倒塌,坍塌
relapse v.倒退,退步
重染恶习relapse into bad habits
 
interval       n.(两件事之间的)间隔时间
A和B之间的间隔时间interval between A and B
每隔… at … intervals
每隔一周/每隔20分钟at weekly / 20 minute intervals
例句
The trains run at hourly intervals. 
火车一个小时发一趟。
 
shoal     n. 鱼群
鱼群a school / shoal of fish
羊群/鸽群a flock of sheep / pigeons
(牲畜)牛/鹿/象群a herd of cattle / deer / elephants
(需驱赶类的动物)马/牛/羊群a drove of horses / cattle / sheep
(食肉猛兽类)狼/虎/狮群a pack of wolves / tigers / lions
(专指)狮群a pride of lions
(飞虫类)a swarm of flies / bees
(爬虫类)a colony of ants / termites(白蚁)
 
squeak    v. & n. (发出)尖叫声,尖锐的声音
老鼠吱吱叫the squeak of a mouse
例句
The door opened with a squeak.
门“吱呀”一声开了。
v./n. 尖叫声 screech
轮胎摩擦声screech the screech of tire
v./n. 尖叫声scream / shriek (常指人,伴有情绪)
激动地叫了出来scream / shriek with excitement
 
🔥重点表达
丑陋但实用的建筑ugly utilitarian buildings
实用的家具utilitarian furniture
时间流逝go by/ pass /elapse
重染恶习relapse into bad habits
A和B之间的间隔时间interval between A and B
每隔… at … intervals
鱼群a school / shoal of fish
羊群/鸽群a flock of sheep / pigeons
(牲畜)牛/鹿/象群a herd of cattle / deer / elephants
(需驱赶类的动物)马/牛/羊群a drove of horses / cattle / sheep
(食肉猛兽类)狼/虎/狮群a pack of wolves / tigers / lions
(专指)狮群a pride of lions
(飞虫类)a swarm of flies / bees
(爬虫类)a colony of ants / termites(白蚁)
老鼠吱吱叫the squeak of a mouse
轮胎摩擦声screech the screech of tire
激动地叫了出来scream / shriek with excitement
当作…来使用serve as… /be used as…/act as… /function as…
只须……就可以……have only to do … to do …
只需借助于……就可以……have only to turn to sth. to do …
在…发挥/扮演…作用/角色play a …role / part in sth.
借助,求助 resort to/turn to…
在…(的)附近(地区)in the vicinity of …
反弹come back/ bounce back/ be reflected
反射will be reflected = will come back = will bounce back
海底the sea bottom= sea bed = sea floor
因…而异vary according to sth.
相对地comparatively/relatively
随着经验的积累with experience
根据,按照by (prep.)= according to …
(动物)以…为食feed on sth.
(食肉动物)以…为食;捕食prey on sth.
(人)以…为生live on sth.
回声定位(能力)echo-location (ability)
 
🔥复盘测试
丑陋但实用的建筑
实用的家具
时间流逝
重染恶习
A和B之间的间隔时间
每隔…
鱼群
羊群/鸽群
(牲畜)牛/鹿/象群
(需驱赶类的动物)马/牛/羊群
(食肉猛兽类)狼/虎/狮群
(专指)狮群
(飞虫类)
(爬虫类)
老鼠吱吱叫
轮胎摩擦声
激动地叫了出来
当作…来使用
只须……就可以……
只需借助于……就可以……
在…发挥/扮演…作用/角色
借助,求助
在…(的)附近(地区)
反弹
反射
海底
因…而异
相对地
随着经验的积累
根据,按照
(动物)以…为食.
(食肉动物)以…为食;捕食
(人)以…为生
回声定位(能力)
 

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