《五台名刹画沧桑》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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五台名刹画沧桑

The Famous Monastery Witnesses Vicissitudes

常书鸿 李承仙

Chang Shuhong & Li Chengxian

 

🔥提示:标题《五台名刹画沧桑》,意义颇为含糊,可理解为“在五台名刹作画,画出人间沧桑”,也可理解为“五台名刹的画,表现了人间的沧桑”。但从原文内容看,是指两位作者在日本东京枣寺绘制五台山壁画,故上述两种理解均不合适。译文也只好含糊一下了,成了The Famous Monastery Witnesses Vicissitudes,意为“名刹历尽了人间沧桑”,倒也表现了原文的内容。我们在翻译类似“xx时间/xx地点(发生了什么事)”可套用类似表达,译作:“时间/地点+witness/see等……”。例如:“传统产业加快升级”可译作traditional industrials saw faster upgrading。

 

1985年7月24日至10月30 ,我和李承仙为完成日本东京枣寺前住持菅原惠庆长老之遗愿,应邀为该寺绘制《玄中寺组画》。

At the invitation of the Buddhist abbot of the Date Monastery in Tokyo, Japan, Li Chengxian and I did a set of mural paintings of the Xuanzhong Monastery—Monastery of Mystery for the Date Monastery from July 24 to October 30, 1985, thus carrying out the behest of Keikyo Sugehara, the late abbot of the well-known Japanese Buddhist temple.

🎈原文“应邀为该寺绘制《玄中寺组画》”未提应谁之邀,译文因行文需要补充了of the Buddhist abbot of the Date Monastery。

🎈玄中寺位于山西省交城县西北十公里的石壁山上,始创于北魏延兴二年(472年),建成于承明元年(476年)。因此地层峦叠嶂,山形如壁,故又改名“石壁寺”。//据记载,北魏孝庄帝永安年间,高僧昙鸾在玄中寺创立了佛教净土宗派。唐代时,日本高僧来中国学习了净土宗教义,从此中国佛教中的净土宗就传到了日本。以后,日本高僧开创了日本净土宗,其弟子又开创了净土真宗。这两个宗派的信徒、弟子把玄中寺视为祖庭。凡日本这两个宗派的佛教弟子来中国参观、访问,都要到玄中寺进香。因此,玄中寺又成了中日文化交流的纽带。//1983年3月,日本佛教净土宗菅原长老的部分遗骨安放在玄中寺,谱写了中日友好往来的又一佳话。1942年,他克服重重困难,突破封锁,从日本东京来到玄中寺,参加昙鸾大师1400年的纪念法会,并将玄中寺的枣带回东京运行寺种植,将寺改为“枣寺”,列为玄中寺的下院。//不用怀疑自己看错,“枣”确实是date这个单词。

🎈behest 的常用搭配是at the behest of…(在…命令下),“遗愿”可用dying/last wish表示,此外bucket list指“遗愿清单”。又, a set of指一套、一组、一系列…


 

玄中寺位于距山西省太原市60公里的吕梁山脉的石壁山中。

The Mystery Monastery is located in the Lüliang Mountains, 60km from Taiyuan in Shanxi Province, China.

🎈此句是地理位置的描写:…be located in…, …km from…已经成了套话了,下次见到类似的搬模板就行。


 

据记载,寺为北魏延兴二年(公元472年)由高僧昙鸾大师所建。

Records show that the temple was built by an eminent monk named Tanluan in the 2nd year of Yanxing(472) of the Northern Wei Dynasty (386— 534).

🎈“据记载”除了按译文所示那样处理,也可译作It’s recorded that…


 

昙鸾研究佛学,专修净土,先后撰写了《净土十二偈》、《续龙树偈》、《调气论》、《往生论注》等著作,得到北魏孝文帝的尊重,赐号《神昙》,故常推为净土教的始祖。

Master Tanluan was a Buddhist scholar, specializing in the Sukhavati Sect. He wrote The Twelve Gathas of the Sukhavati and some other important works. He won the respect of Emperor Xiaowen, who granted him the title of “Tan,the Immortal”. That is why Master Tanluan is commonly regarded as the founder of the Sukhavati Sect.

🎈此段原文为一长句,译文分为四个短句,简洁清楚。其次,句中的动词词组“研究佛学”,译成a Buddhist scholar,符合英语名词用得多的习惯。第三,原文列举了昙鸾大师撰写的四种著作,译文只举了《净土十二偈》,而译成 He wrote The Twelve Gathas of the Sukhavati and some other important works的省略译法。


 

至隋唐时代,高僧道绰、善导都先后在玄中寺住持,探讨、研究净土佛学, 讲经说法。

In the Sui (581-618)and Tang (618-907)Dynasties, eminent monks like Daochuo and Shandao became abbots of the temple successively, where they distinguished themselves in the study of the doctrine of the Sukhavati Sect.

🎈temple除了指寺庙,还可以指太阳穴,比如“鬓发斑斑”可译为grey-templed。

🎈使某人在…(方面)/以…(身份)出名distinguish sb in sth/distinguish sb as…


 

玄中寺成为我国佛教净土宗的祖庙和中国北方的主要道场,在中国佛教史上有十分重要的地位。

The Mystery Monastery is the first temple of the Sukhavati Sect and a principal Buddhist temple in Northern China. Obviously, the Monastery occupies an important position in the history of Buddhism in China.

🎈净土宗the Sukhavati Sect:中国佛教宗派,亦称“莲宗”。唐代善导创立。

🎈“玄中寺成为我国佛教净土宗的祖庙”句中的”祖庙”一词,译成 the first temple。


 

因此,唐代之后,虽迭遭兵燹,但屡毁屡建,以至保存到现在。

Although it was destroyed many times during dynastic wars, it was rebuilt time and again so that it is now preserved as before.

🎈一次又一次;一再;屡屡;总是time and again

巴金《朋友》

他们的友爱,他们的帮助,他们的鼓励,几次把我从深渊的边沿救回来。

Thanks to their fraternal love, assistance and encouragement, I have time and again been saved from falling into an abyss while on its verge.


 

从唐代以来,以昙鸾、道绰、善导所创立的净土法门体系传到日本后,日本高僧法然和亲鸾,先后以三位大师著作为依据,立教开宗,建立了日本佛教净土宗和净土真宗。

Since the Tang Dynasty, the doctrine of the Sukhavati Sect originated by Tanluan, Daochuo and Shandao has been passed on to Japan, where Japanese eminent monks like Horan and Qinluan founded the Sukhavati Sect in Japan on the basis of the Buddhist works by the above-mentioned three Chinese masters.

🎈find的过去式和过去分词是found,而原形即如此的found一词指“创建”,如中华人民共和国成立the founding of the PRC。

🎈base和basis的区别:

1、base的基本意思是“底座,基础”,一般指具体有形的事物的底部、基座等;也可用来比喻理论的基础或讨论的根据等。base还可作“基地”解,多指军事或工业基地。base是可数名词,其前可加a或the,在句中可作主语或宾语。

2、basis的基本意思是指人们采取某一行动的“原因;缘由”,也可指人们组织、安排和操作某事的“基准;准则;方式”,作此解时basis是单数名词。basis还可指事物的“主要成分,最重要的部分”,由此事物得以形成、开始和发展,作此解时basis是可数名词,常用于单数形式,有时也用作不可数名词。


 

自此,与玄中寺一脉相承的净土宗教义在日本广为流传。

That is how the doctrine of the Sukhavati Sect, which originated in the Mystery Monastery in China, has been wide spread in Japan.

🎈doctrine一词常表示“教义”等意。如季羡林的《容忍》一文中提到:我们几个中国留学生相约:如果外国人污辱了我们自身,我们要揣度形势,主要要容忍,以东方的恕道克制自己……

We pledged that in case of ourselves being insulted we should weigh the pros and cons and give precedence to patience in line with the Oriental doctrine of magnanimity


 

1920年12月27日,日本常盤大定博士历尽千辛万苦寻访了山西玄中寺,并著书立说,玄中寺即被尊为日本佛教净土宗的祖庭。

On December 27, 1920, Dr. Daitei Tokiwa, having gone through all kinds of hardships and difficulties, reached the Mystery Monastery in Shanxi Province. He wrote many books to confirm the fact that the Japanese Sukhavati Sect of Buddhism originated in the Mystery Monastery of China.

🎈历尽千辛万苦go through all kinds of hardships and difficulties

🎈“被尊为日本佛教净土宗的祖庭”即“日本佛教净土宗起源于……(祖庭)”,现译作…originated in…


 

1942年秋,日本佛教界著名人士常盤大定博士、菅原惠庆长老等专程前来玄中寺举行了纪念昙鸾大师圆寂1,400年奉赞会。

In the fall of 1942, Dr. Daitei Tokiwa and Master Keikyo Sugehara made a special trip to the Mystery Monastery and held a ceremony there in commemoration of the 1,400th anniversary of the death of Master Tanluan.

🎈fall作名词时可指“秋天”

🎈(时间点)是xx周年 be/mark the xxth(序数词)anniversary of…

庆祝xx周年 celebrate the xx anniversary of…

补充:100周年可以是the 100th anniversary,也可以是centenary。

🎈以纪念、为了纪念in commemoration of

万全《搪瓷茶缸》

我的丈夫以他的全部零用钱买了一只米黄色茶缸赠我,作为胜利的纪念。

My husband used all his pocket money to buy me a creamy enamel mug in commemoration of the victory of the War of Liberation.


 

当时菅原惠庆长老怀着对祖师庭的崇高敬意,从寺中摘了一把枣子带回日本,经过精心培育,长成了一棵枣树。

Having a deep respect for the founder, Master Sugehara picked a handful of dates from the date tree in the Monastery and took them to Japan. He planted the seed in his monastery, where, with the meticulous care, it has grown into a big date tree.

🎈一把… a handful of。类似的“a xx-ful of”的表达还有:一口a mouthful of、一束a bundle of、一皮箱a suitcaseful of等。


 

长老遂把自己住持的寺院更名为枣寺。

So Master Sugehara named his temple “The Date Monastery”.

🎈name的相关表达:

命名name sth…

代表;以…的名义in the name of

以名字;指名道姓地by name

最重要的东西;实质the name of the game

例句

The name of the game is survival.

重要的是活下去。

 


日本佛教界朋友们在战后非常困难的情况下,为促进中日友谊做了大量工作。

After World War II, friends in the Japanese Buddhist world did a lot to promote the friendship between Japan and China under most difficult conditions.

🎈之前提过表示“促进”的一系列词,记得复习。


 

1953年大谷莹润、菅原惠庆等收集了战争中在日本殉难的七千余中国烈士之遗骨送还中国。

In 1953, Eijun Otani, Keikyo Sugehara and others gathered remains of over 7,000 Chinese prisoners of war who died in Japan during the war, and sent them back to China.

🎈“……战争中在日本殉难的七千余中国烈士之遗骨”这一词组译成英文时是值得细究的。若译成Chinese soldiers who died in Japan during the war,就让人觉得是中国士兵在日本国土上打仗而在那儿牺牲了,但这不符合历史事实。可以推测,在日本牺牲的中国烈士是指 the Chinese prisoners of war who died in Japan during the war。只有这样译才符合事实和逻辑。


 

周恩来总理生前曾以“饮水不忘掘井人”来赞扬日本朋友们,肯定了他们对中日关系正常化所起的作用。

In high praise of the Japanese friends for their contributions to the normalization of relationship between the two countries, the late Premier Zhou Enlai said: “Don’t forget the well-diggers when you drink from the well.”

🎈积累一些词汇,比如normalization、contribution、relationship等,注意contribution to后跟名词或者动名词形式,没有contribute/contribution to do这种用法。又,(高度)赞扬…in (high) praise of…

🎈饮水不忘掘井人/吃水不忘挖井人Don’t forget the well-diggers when you drink from the well.


 

1977年日本佛教界朋友成立了“日中友好净土宗协会”。

In 1977, friends in the Japanese Buddhist world set up the Japan-China Friendship Association of the Sukhavati Sect.

🎈创建、建立 set up

例句

The two sides agreed to set up a commission to investigate claims.

双方同意组建一个委员会来调查那些索赔要求。


 

菅原惠庆长老不遗余力,在他84岁高龄时,还创办了《玄中一派》的期刊,致力于日本中国友好的宣传。

Master Keikyo Sugehara in spite of his advanced age of 84, started the publication of the magazine True Disciples of the Mystery Monastery, thus making fresh efforts to promote the friendship between the Japanese and Chinese peoples.

🎈“致力于日本中国友好的宣传”句中,“宣传”一词,在汉语中往往是褒义,在英语中往往具有贬义,故回避了 propaganda一词,译文中用thus making fresh efforts to promote the friendship between the Japanese and Chinese peoples。其中making fresh efforts to理解成“做出新贡献(也就是贡献出自己的一份力量)”,相当于do his part /bit(尽己所能)


 

早在1958年我们第一次在日本举办敦煌艺术展览时,菅原惠庆长老曾邀请我们为他的寺院绘制五台山壁画。

As early as 1958, the year when the Dunhuang Murals Exhibition was held for the first time in Japan, Master Keikyo Sugehara invited Li Chengxian and me to do paintings of Wutai Mountain for his monastery.

🎈绘制壁画do paintings/draw murals/draw paintings。根据故事所述,文中出现的“绘画”必然是指“绘制壁画”。


 

但因为当时敦煌百废待举,工作繁重,无法承担。

As that was the time when we were busy restoring the Dunhuang Murals, we could find no time for that task.

🎈“当时敦煌百废待举”句,较为笼统,译文变笼统为具体busy restoring the Dunhuang Murals。

🎈“find+宾语+宾语补足语”的结构中,宾补可以是:

①形容词I found the text difficult to understand.(课文很难理解)

②名词或代词I find it a boring film.(是部无聊的片子)

③副词Mary hurried there, only to find them/all out.(发现他们都出去了)

④介词短语When he woke up, he found him in hospital.(在医院里)

⑤不定式They find the Chinese people to be happy and cheerful.(发现中国人很幸福快乐)

⑥现在分词We found him waiting to receive us.(发现他正等着迎接我们)

⑦过去分词The old man found his hometown much changed.(发现故乡变化很大)


 

菅原惠庆长老于1982年2月仙逝。

In February, 1982, Master Sugehara passed away.

🎈仙逝意思指登仙而去,是人死的委婉语。

【补充】“死”的10种委婉表达

pass away 去世,与世长辞

breathe one’s last  咽气,断气

to go west 撒手归西

pay the debt of nature 了结尘缘

depart to the world of shadows  命丧黄泉

give up the ghost 见阎王

kick one’s bucket 翘辫子

kick up one’s heels 蹬腿

lay down one’s knife and fork 不吃饭(死亡之意)

close(end) one’s day 寿终就寝


 

枣寺继承人为完成菅原惠庆长老热心中日友好和文化交流的遗愿,正式邀请我和李承仙东渡日本在新落成的枣寺正殿绘制壁画。

To carry out his last wish and promote the friendship and cultural exchange between Japan and China, the present abbot of the Date Monastery sent us an official invitation to paint murals in the newly constructed Main Hall of his monastery.

🎈正式邀请sent sb an official invitation


 

我们受文化部和中国佛教协会的委派,于1985年绘制了《玄中寺组画》。

In 1985, the Chinese Ministry of Culture and the China Buddhist Association entrusted us with the responsibity for the work.

🎈“于1985年绘制了《玄中寺组画》”,因上文已有交待,故用 …entrusted us with the responsibility for the work代之,以免重复。其中,entrust表示“委托、交付”。

常用搭配

entrust B with A、entrust A (to) B

例如

He entrusted his nephew with the task.

He entrusted the task to his nephew.

他把这任务托付给了他的侄儿。


 

《玄中寺组画》的创作构思和绘制技法,是我们本着对敦煌艺术临摩和研究四十多年的经验,主要继承中华民族遗产的风度,吸取了敦煌唐宋时代壁画法华经《化城喻品》等艺术风格形成的。

As Li Chengxian and I had engaged in the study and copying of the Dunhuang Murals for 40-odd years, we did the set of mural paintings of the Mystery Monastery after the techniques and style of the Dunhuang art.

🎈“《玄中寺组画》的创作……等艺术风格形成的”这一长句,没有按词照译,而是采用了简约翻译法,用 after the techniques and style of the Dunhuang art 这一词组,概括了其艺术风格。


 

我们在画幅中按照其地理环境和内容,标出15个榜题,即:山西五台山、挂山古松、太原双塔、文水之渡、玄津石桥、秋容胜境、永宁禅寺、大玄中之寺、象离大和尚之塔、菅原惠庆长老之塔、中日友谊之树、大祖师之殿、俱会一处之冢、西方圣境、大千佛之阁。在画幅上部七身奏乐飞天配以随风飘动的七种乐器,以表现天上、人间、中日深厚的友情。

The murals are composed of 15 paintings, each presenting a different location or content: Wutai Mountain in Shanxi, Old Pines on Gua Hill, Twin Pagodas in Taiyuan, China-Japan Friendship trees, the Pure Land, to name just a few.

🎈“我们在画幅中……中日深厚的友情。”这一大段又采用了简约译法,原文所列举的15个榜题只选了五个,最后用to name just a few作结,简洁明了。这一段的最后一句也略去不译,因“中日友谊”或“日中友谊”全文重复多次。


 

这是我们在日本东京100个日日夜夜劳苦工作的结晶,用心血谱写出来的中日友情。

We worked hard day and night for over three months. The paintings symbolize our efforts to contribute to the friendship between the Chinese and Japanese peoples.

🎈“ 100个日日夜夜”译为 day and night for over three months、”这是……的结晶”,译为The paintings symbolize our efforts…这些短语或句子,均未直译,主要考虑译文的搭配和习惯,以使译文流畅通顺。


 

愿中日两国人民像飞翔在天上的香音神那样,世世代代友好,愿中日友好文化交流万古长青!

1986年8月15日写于北京

May the cultural exchange be everlasting between China and Japan.

Beijing, August 15, 1986

🎈区分wish和may的用法:

1、wish:wish sb/sth +n或wish that…(that从句要用虚拟语气,表示客观上比较难或不太可能实现的希望)

2、may:may sb/sth+v

🔥必背词汇

vicissitudes         n.变化,变迁

英义

You use vicissitudes to refer to changes, especially unpleasant ones, that happen to someone or something at different times in their life or development.

英义

Whatever the vicissitudes of her past life, Jill now seems to have come through.

不管过去经历了什么坎坷,吉尔现在似乎都已经挺过来了。

 

monastery       cn.寺院,隐修院

英义

A monastery is a building or collection of buildings in which monks live.

 

behest        v.按…的吩咐,应…的要求,遵照…的命令

英义

If something is done at someone’s behest, it is done because they have ordered or requested it.

英义

In 1970, at his new wife’s behest, they moved to Southampton.

1970年,应他新任妻子的要求,他们搬到了南安普敦。

 

abbot        cn.男修道院院长,大寺院男住持

英义

An abbot is the monk who is in charge of the other monks in a monastery or abbey.

 

 

🔥重点表达

一套、一组、一系列…a set of

位于is located in

高僧an eminent monk

始祖the founder

一次又一次;一再;屡屡;总是time and again

迭遭兵燹was destroyed many times during dynastic wars

作为依据on the basis of

广为流传be wide spread

历尽千辛万苦go through all kinds of hardships and difficulties

以纪念、为了纪念in commemoration of

一把… a handful of

战俘prisoners of war

饮水不忘掘井人/吃水不忘挖井人Don’t forget the well-diggers when you drink from the well.

创建、建立 set up

绘制壁画do paintings/draw murals/draw paintings

仙逝pass away

正式邀请sent sb an official invitation

把B托付给A entrust B with A、entrust A (to) B

文化部the Ministry of Culture

 

🔥复盘测试

一套、一组、一系列…

位于

高僧

始祖

一次又一次;一再;屡屡;总是

迭遭兵燹

作为依据

广为流传

历尽千辛万苦

以纪念、为了纪念

一把…

战俘

饮水不忘掘井人/吃水不忘挖井人

创建、建立

绘制壁画

仙逝

正式邀请

把B托付给A

文化部

 

🔥表达对比

「位于、坐落于」有几种译法?

 

The Mystery Monastery is located in the Liiliang Mountains, 60km from Taiyuan in Shanxi Province, China.

玄中寺(位于)距山西省太原市60公里的吕梁山脉的石壁山中。

 

The capital of Spain, Madrid, is situated in the centre of the country.

西班牙首都马德里(位于)西班牙中心。

 

The lake sits on a volcanic crater.

这座湖位于火山口。

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《五台名刹画沧桑》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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