徐迟《枯叶蝴蝶》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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枯叶蝴蝶

Lappet Butterflies

徐迟

Xu Chi

 

🔥提示:此篇短文运用比兴手法说明生活中一个深刻的道理,文字优美,描写细腻,说理透彻,译时应从整体上考虑到这些。

 

峨嵋山下,伏虎寺旁,有一种蝴蝶,比最美丽的蝴蝶可能还要美丽些,是峨嵋山最珍贵的特产之一。

At the foot of Mount Emei, around Fuhu Temple, there lives a species of butterfly—one of the rarest rarities of the mountain—that is probably even more beautiful than the most beautiful butterflies in the world.

🎈“XX山下”也就是“XX山脚”,统一译作At the foot of…

🎈there lives a species of butterfly是倒装结构,按a species of butterfly lives there理解。注意species是单复数同形的词。


 

当它阖起两张翅膀的时候,像生长在树枝上的一张干枯了的树叶。谁也不去注意它,谁也不会瞧它一眼。

With its wings closed it resembles a withered tree leaf hanging from a branch—scarcely noticeable to the human eye.

🎈“谁也不去注意它,谁也不会瞧它一眼”,应译成“枯叶蝴蝶不易引起人的注意”。如按字面译,容易产生“人明知枯叶蝴蝶在而不去看它一眼”的意思,这不是原文的本意。

🎈积累常用词汇resemble(与……相似)。例如:(梁实秋《骆驼》)地上是烂糟糟的泥。它卧在那里,老远一看,真像是大块的毛姜。Lying on the muddy ground, they <resembled> huge artichokes when looked at from afar.

Q: the human eye的human为什么不加’s?

🎈human是区分“人”与“动物”的用词,可作形容词。如:human history人类历史、the human body人体。


 

它收敛了它的花纹、图案,隐藏了它的粉墨、彩色,逸出了繁华的花丛,停止了它翱翔的姿态,变成了一张憔悴的,干枯了的,甚至不是枯黄的,而是枯槁的,如同死灰颜色的枯叶。

Gathering its wings with exquisite patterns, it conceals its beautiful colors. When it flutters out from a cluster of blooming flowers and alights somewhere in the middle of its graceful flight, it turns into a dried leaf, not even of a withering yellow, but of a deathly grey.

🎈原句较长,注意断句。

🎈注意词汇的选用:flutters out指振翅飞出;alight则专指鸟或昆虫飞落。

🎈“翱翔”译作graceful flight。我们常用翱翔描述高空飞翔的鸟,如按字面翻译译作soar或hover等来形容蝴蝶,则不太恰当。蝴蝶通常是翩翩起舞,姿态优美,故译graceful flight。

🎈of a withering yellow, but of a deathly grey:补充关于of+抽象名词的知识点:

1、of+某些抽象名词(如interest、use、importance、value、significance),相当于该名词相应的形容词含义,常在句中作表语、后置定语和宾补。可以修饰这些名词的词有some、much、any、great、no、not much、little等。

2、of+某些抽象名词可以表示“性质、质量、颜色、大小、类型、样式、出身、来源、年龄、长度、距离、重量”等,这类名词多数没有其相应的形容词。这一短语还常用来表示人或事物的“内在”特征。


 

它这样伪装,是为了保护自己。但是它还是逃不脱被捕捉的命运。不仅因为它的美丽,更因为它那用来隐蔽它的美丽的枯槁与憔悴。

It disguises its shape and colors in order to protect itself, but nevertheless it can’t help ending up in being captured, not only because of its beauty, but more because of the withered quality of its appearance that covers up its beauty.

Q:but和nevertheless可以连用吗?

🎈可以。but为并列连词,表示转折关系,译为“但是”。nevertheless则是副词,意为“尽管如此”。but和nevertheless合用,更加强调转折意义。E.g. ①Our defeat was expected but it is disappointing nevertheless. ②The old system had its flaws, but nevertheless it was preferable to the new one.我们可以用in spite of that替换nevertheless,例如The old system had its flaws, but in spite of that it was preferable to the new one.

🎈忍不住、不禁、无法避免cannot/can’t help doing sth

 


它以为它这样做可以保护自己,殊不知它这样做更教人去捜捕它。有一种生物比它还聪明,

It is misled to believe that by so doing it can keep itself out of danger. On the contrary it makes itself more attractive, because there is another creature—man—that is cleverer than this butterfly.

🎈“它以为……”,译成It is misled to believe(误以为)更明确,”殊不知它这样做更教人去搜捕它”,从枯叶蝶角度叙述译成On the contrary it makes itself more attractive…更恰当。


 

这种生物的特技之一是装假作伪,因此装假作伪这种行径是瞒不过这种生物——人的。

This creature is extremely skilled in masquerading himself; no masquerading whatsoever can slide by under his nose.

🎈特技→非常擅长,译作is extremely skilled in…

🎈whatsoever用于名词词组后,强调否定陈述,意为“丝毫,任何,无论什么”。

例句

My school did nothing whatsoever in the way of athletics.

我的学校在体育方面无所作为。

🎈在某人眼皮底下逃过slide by under one’s nose


 

人把它捕捉,将它制成标本,作为一种商品去出售,价钱越来越高。

Man captures it, makes a specimen of it and sells it in the market at increasingly high prices.

🎈man 单独用通常指全人类。例如:Man will conquer nature.(人定胜天。)和 The garden seemed untouched by the hand of man. 有时指一切男子,跟 woman(一切女子)相对。

例句

Man is said to be stronger than woman.

虽然在指全人类或一切男子,但在语法上也被看作单数,它的代词是 he,him,his 等,不是 they,them,their 等。

🎈表示比较级含义,除去“比较级结构”,还可以考虑increasing、declining等词。


 

最后几乎把它捕捉得再也没有了。这一生物品种快要绝种了。

What happens as a result is that there is hardly any of the butterflies to be found—the species is dying out.

🎈as a result可用consequently、following it/that 代替。前半句可整体改写为What happens as a result is that the butterflies is nowhere to be found/seen。


 

到这时候,国家才下令禁止捕捉枯叶蝶。但是,已经来不及了。

The government has now decided to put a ban on its capture, but it’s too late.

🎈此处“国家”很明显需要下达行政命令,译作政府更为贴切。

 


国家的禁止更增加了它的身价。

The ban, instead, multiplies its price.

🎈增译instead(反而、相反)来强调情况的恶化。

 


枯叶蝶真是因此而要绝对的绝灭了°

The butterfly is on the verge of extinction.

🎈在……边缘,濒临on the verge of

 


我们既然有一对美丽的和真理的翅膀,我们永远也不愿意阖上它们。

Since we have got a pair of wings of beauty and truth, there is no reason to hide them.

🎈原句意思是“我们既然有一对美丽的和真理的翅膀,我们永远也不愿意阖上它们(那么我们为什么要阖上它们呢)”,存在因果的逻辑关系,主句直截了当指出“there is no reason to”,以表现“永远不愿意”的坚定决心。

 


做什么要装模作样,化为一只枯叶蝶,最后也还是被售,反而不如那翅膀两面都光彩夺目的蝴蝶到处飞翔,被捕捉而又生生不息。

Why do you have to turn yourself into a withered-leaf-like butterfly as you are bound to be netted and sold at the market? Isn’t it better to fly around freely on your flashing, colorful wings and keep up the line of your species though some of you have to meet their doom?

🎈此处“做什么”意同“为什么”。

🎈to be netted指被网起来,枯叶蝶装作枯叶就是为了隐藏自己不被发现、捕获,增译to be netted能更好地呼应文章。


 

我要我的翅膀两面都光彩夺目。我愿这自然界的一切都显出它们的真相。

I want both sides of my wings to shine. I hope everything in the world shows their true colors.

🎈此句为文章的点题句,告诫人们做好真实的自己,无需过度掩饰伪装,把真实的美展现出来!

 

🔥必背词汇

rarity         cn.罕见的人,奇物,珍品

英义

If someone or something is a rarity, they are interesting or valuable because they are so unusual.

例句

Sontag has always been that rarity, a glamorous intellectual.

桑塔格一直是那种兼具美貌与智慧的人中龙凤。

 

conceal         v.掩盖,隐藏

英义

If you conceal something, you cover it or hide it carefully.

例句

Five people were arrested for carrying concealed weapons.

5人因身上藏有武器被捕。

 

🔥重点表达

枯叶蝴蝶Lappet Butterflies/ a withered-leaf-like butterfly

峨嵋山下At the foot of Mount Emei

生长在树枝上的一张干枯了的树叶a withered tree leaf hanging from a branch

逸出了繁华的花丛flutters out from a cluster of blooming flowers

逃不脱被捕捉的命运can’t help ending up in being captured

某人眼皮底下逃过slide by under one’s nose

将它制成标本makes a specimen of it

价钱越来越高at increasingly high prices

绝种die out

下令禁止put a ban on…

增加了它的身价multiplies its price

在……边缘,濒临on the verge of

一对…的翅膀a pair of wings of

光彩夺目shine

真相/本色true colors

🔥复盘测试

枯叶蝴蝶

峨嵋山下

生长在树枝上的一张干枯了的树叶

逸出了繁华的花丛

逃不脱被捕捉的命运

某人眼皮底下逃过

将它制成标本

价钱越来越高

绝种

下令禁止

增加了它的身价

在……边缘,濒临

一对…的翅膀

光彩夺目

真相/本色

 

🔥表达对比

「最终、以……告终」有几种表达?

 

它这样伪装,是为了保护自己。但是它还是逃不脱被捕捉的(命运)。

It disguises its shape and colors in order to protect itself, but nevertheless it can’t help ending up in being captured.

 

做什么要装模作样,化为一只枯叶蝶,(最后)也还是被售…

Why do you have to turn yourself into a withered-leaf-like butterfly as you are bound to be netted and sold at the market?

 

反而不如那翅膀两面都光彩夺目的蝴蝶到处飞翔,(被捕捉)而又生生不息。

Isn’t it better to fly around freely on your flashing, colorful wings and keep up the line of your species though some of you have to meet their doom?

 

比赛以主队获胜(告终)。

The game terminated in a victory for the home team.

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