《苗族龙船节》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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苗族龙船节

The Miao Dragon-Boat Festival
 
龙船节,是黔东南清水江上苗族人民最盛大的节日。
The Dragon-Boat Festival is the most important celebration of the Miao people, who live along the Qingshui River in southeastern Guizhou Province.
🎈celebration可指“庆祝活动”;the Miao people:people此处表示“民族、人民”;“黔”是贵州的别称。

 
节日里,聚会的苗族同胞,每年有三四万人。
Every year between 30,000 and 40,000 Miaos participate in the festivities.
🎈截至这句话,龙船节的“节”字出现三次。中文行文无可厚非,翻译时却不可仿效。译文中分别以festival, celebration, festivity来表达。

 
龙,在苗族人心目中是吉祥如意的象征。
In the eyes of the Miaos, the dragon is a symbol of good luck.
🎈在某人心中/眼中in the eyes of sb
在某人脑海中in one’s mind’s eye
例句
冰心《笑》
眼前浮现的三个笑容,一时融化在爱的调和里看不分明了。
In my mind’s eye, the three smiling faces now merged into a harmonious whole of love and became indistinguishable.
🔥“是吉祥如意的象征”也可按“象征着吉祥如意”来处理,译为symbolizes good luck。

 
苗家姑娘最爱将龙的变形图案打制成银饰装点在头上气或刺绣在衣裙中,编织于围腰上。
Girls like to adorn their hair with silver ornaments shaped like dragons and wear clothes embroidered or woven with dragon patterns.
🎈“苗家姑娘最爱将龙的变形 图案打制成银饰装点在头上”这类句子翻译时应抓住要点,简明扼要译出便可。这句话的实际意思是苗家姑娘爱戴龙形状的银首饰。因此“变形图案”、“打制”可省略或灵活处理。

 
苗族人民制作的龙船, 十分精巧、美观。龙身由一只母船和两只子船捆扎而成,叫做“子母船”。无论子船还是母船,皆为独木镂空。
The Miaos build exquisite “dragon boats”, which are in reality a body formed from three canoes—one large and two small—that are strung together. 
🎈翻译时“子船”、“母船”、“子母船”不必照原文重复数次。此处“船”字用canoe(独木舟)一词也就同时表达了“独木镂空”。

 
两米多长的龙头,用水柳木雕刻,装有一对一米多长的龙角。龙头以主色不同,分为赤龙、青龙、黄龙。
A carved head, painted red, blue, or yellow, is made from the trunk of a weeping willow tree. It is 2 meters long and sports a pair of horns.
🎈“用水柳木雕刻”处理为了A carved head is made from…。“雕刻”处理为前置定语,制作材料则在后面译出。又,be made from和be made of都表示“由……制成”,主语均为制成品。前者看不出原材料,后者能。龙头雕成后进行了漆染(原文提到“主色不同”),所以此处选用is made from。
🎈sports a pair of horns:sport熟词僻义,表示“得意地穿戴;故意显示”。
例句
People sported swastikas and walls were covered with inflammatory slogans.
人们佩戴着纳粹党的曲十字标志,墙上写满了煽动性口号。

 
从施秉县的平兆到台江县的六河,每个苗族寨子都建有“龙篷”,用来保护龙船。因龙船身长25米,“龙篷”建成七格,每格将近四米长,当地又称之为“七间房”。
A special shelter in seven parts, extending 25 meters, to house dragon boats has been built in every Miao village along the Qingshui River from Pingzhao in Shibing county to Liuhe in Taijiang county.
🎈本剧译文将原文整合成了一句话。细看双语文字,发现每部分原文都能分配到合适的位置,“龙篷”是主语,“从施秉县的平兆到台江县的六河”是状语,“建有‘龙篷’”是谓语部分,“用来保护龙船”是目的状语;为使句子结构紧密合理,剩下的部分“身长25米,‘龙篷’建成七格,每格将近四米长,当地又称之为‘七间房’”处理为了主语的定语。

 
每年农历5月24日至27日,几十个村寨相继举行龙船节。
The Miao Dragon-Boat Festival is celebrated from the 24th to the 27th of the fifth lunar month.
🎈农历the lunar month
阳历the solar/western calendar

 
当地习惯,从16日开始,只要全寨薅完秧,本寨的龙船便可下水。
But according to local custom, people are allowed to send their dragon boats down the river after the 16th, provided that they have finished weeding their fields.
🎈“当地习惯”实则为“按照/根据当地的习惯”,译时补充完整即可。
🎈积累be allowed to的用法。
🎈provided that they have finished…:provided that表示事实相符的真实语气时,意为“只要”,that不可省略;当表示与事实相反的虚拟语气时,意为“假如、假设”,that可以省略;作为固定搭配时,意为规定。又,provided that 和 providing that都是指“要是,以……为条件”的意思,相当于连词,用来连接句子。一般情况下这两个连接词是可以交互代替使用的,用法上没有区别。
例句
I will agree to go provided that/providing that my expenses are paid. 
如果帮我支付费用,我就同意去。(表示与事实相符的真实语气)
Provided it was fine we would have a pleasant holiday. 
如果天气好, 我们的假日真的有可能过得非常愉快。(表示与事实相反的虚拟语气,即天气实际上并不好)

 
因此,从龙船下水的早晚,可以看出各寨的农事生产进度。在勤劳的苗家人民心中,龙船节到了,地里的秧还未薄完,这是莫大的耻辱。
The earlier appearance of the boats on the river testifies to the villagers’ efficiency, and conscientious peasants consider it a shame not to finish weeding before the festivities begin.
🎈此处“农事生产进度”可用efficiency表达。这类提法一般都有所指。譬如,在这里是指薅秧工作进展情况。因此可根据上下文选用适当的词,不必死抠原文。
🎈consider it a shame not to finish weeding before the festivities begin:it是形式宾语,后面的not to do不定式才是正主儿。另,写作before the festivities或before the festivities begin均可。

 
节日期间,家家户户酿米酒,包粽粑,走亲访友,宴请宾朋。
During the festival, each family makes rice wine and zongba (a kind of dumpling made of glutinous rice) and calls on friends and relatives.
🎈“粽粑”译文可用拼音加解释。凡遇到中国特有的东西,这样处理较为合适。前不久,官方发布“白酒”英译应为Chinese Baijiu。
🎈要求,呼吁,号召call on/upon sb for sth或call on/upon sb to do sth。
此外,call on/upon sb可表示“(短暂)拜访,探访,看望”
冯骥才《富人区》
前不久,一位南方朋友来<看>我
……Not long ago, a friend of mine called on me on his arrival from southern China.

 
出嫁的姑娘必须携带粽粑、鹅鸭等礼物回娘家,同父母兄妹团聚。
Married women visit their parents’ homes bearing gifts—zongba, geese, and ducks.
🎈“出嫁的姑娘”中的“出嫁”不指“结婚当日”,而是指已婚状态。现按“已婚女子”之意译作Married women。
🎈bearing gifts—zongba, geese, and ducks作伴随状语。积累bear一词,此处表示“持有、携带”。
🎈我们之前见过的bear:
生孩子 bear a child
(覆着)糖霜 frostlike bloom(动词可搭配bear或cover)
轿夫bearer
开花、结果bear flowers/fruits
无法忍受 cannot bear to do
熊掌bear’s paw
将…记在心中、记住、考虑到bear/keep…in mind或bear/keep in mind that…
与…有关;对…有影响have a bearing on…

 
每只龙船都有一位鼓头。他是一切活动的主持者,由全寨推选出来的德高望重的老人担任。
In each boat, an old man rides straddling the dragon’s neck. He is the most respected man in the village, chosen by the villagers to be the coxswain.
🎈此句将下句中的“坐在龙颈上”提前译出,“都有一位鼓头”更为详细地处理为了an old man rides straddling the dragon’s neck,补充出了鼓头的姿态,更有画面感。本篇材料语序调整较为频繁,欣赏即可,译时按自己的节奏和习惯来。
🎈“德高望重的”译作(the most) respected。还记得《夜间来客》那篇吗?当日解析写道:“黄老”是对德髙望重的老者的尊称,在知识界比较流行,译成Respected Mr. Huang较合适。

 
鼓头身着长袍马褂,坐在龙颈上击鼓发令,男扮女装的鼓锣手,由十岁左右的孩童充任。
Wearing a gown and a mandarin jacket, the old man beats a drum to set the pace for the oarsmen, and several boys about 10 years of age, wearing dresses, beat drums and gongs.
🎈“马褂”统一译作a mandarin jacket。
【百科补充】清代初期,马褂为一般士兵穿着,至康熙时期富贵之家也有穿者。雍正后,马褂已甚为流行。并发展成单、夹、纱、皮、棉等服装,成为男式便衣,士庶都可穿着。之后更逐渐演变为一种礼仪性的服装,不论身份,都以马褂套在长袍之外,显得文雅大方。民国年间曾被列为礼服之一。新中国成立后,马褂逐步被摈弃,后经改良又以“唐装”的名称重新回到人们的视野中。
🎈此句译时对原文相关描写进行了补充,如“击鼓发令”补充出了“给谁发令(敲节奏)for the oarsmen”。

 
40位水手,身着青布上衣、士林蓝裤子,腰系银饰花带,手握五尺木桨,整齐划一,甚是威武。
The oarsmen, 40 in all, wield 5-foot-long wooden oars. These powerful-looking men wear horsetail-shaped hats, blue jackets and trousers, and embroidered waistbands pinned with silver ornaments.
🎈总共、总计in all
例句
There were twelve of us in all for dinner.
我们一共十二人吃饭。
🎈注意:5-foot-long中只能用foot,不能用feet。同样的例子还有:5-year-old(五岁大)。
🎈这一句的原文主语是“水手”,剩下部分全是对“水手”的描写,可处理为定语、表语、或谓语部分等。由于描写部分过长,参考译文分成了两句,但主语一致,只是指代时进行了表达替换(oarsmen、powerful-looking men),后接其他修饰成分。

 
水手头上的那特制的马尾斗笠,原是清水江上游苗族姑娘出嫁时的陪嫁品,却成了龙船节水手们必备的一件装饰物。
The hats, traditionally dowry gifts for girls from the upper reaches of the Qingshui River, have become an essential feature of the costumes worn by the dragon-boat oarsmen.
🎈from the upper reaches of the Qingshui River作girls的后置定语,(be) from表示来自…。
🎈“却成了……必备的一件装饰物”理解为“成了…必不可少的特色”,译作become an essential feature of…。

 
苗族龙船节,与汉族的端午节不同。
The Miao Dragon-Boat Festival differs from the Han celebration.
🎈differ from同be different from。
 

除时间不同外,一般不举行竞赛,主要活动是串寨子,走亲访友。
They are not celebrated on the same date (the Hans’ takes place on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month), and they follow different traditions. While the Hans only hold dragon-boat races during the festival, the Miaos take the opportunity to visit friends and relatives. 
🎈(the Hans’ takes place on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month)为增译成分,详细解释“时间不同”,向读者补充背景知识,输出文化。
🎈 While the Hans…, the Miao’s…:while暗含对比意味。又,此句的主语原文未点明,译时必须补充完整:苗族龙船节串寨子、走亲访友,汉族端午节怎样怎样。

 
龙船出发之前,一位歌师唱首吉祥歌,祝愿船只平安。
Before a dragon-boat sets out, somebody sings an auspicious song to the boatmen, wishing them a good voyage. 
🎈“龙船出发之前…祝愿船只平安。”这一句移到后面,插入一段文字中间。为使译文意思更完整,逻辑性更强,这类变动是常有的。(说明:因公众号排版问题,将该句原文移至此处,具体变动可自行查看纸质书籍。)

 
清晨,龙船开始在江水中游动,所到之处,亲友们纷纷到岸边“接龙”。
Young men set out in boats early in the morning. 
🎈此句和下段“龙船过寨,鸣放铁炮传告亲友,岸上以鞭炮声相呼应。亲友们上前……”翻译时在次序上做了重新安排,略去重复部分(也就是所到之处,亲友们纷纷到岸边“接龙”)。将主语dragon boat换成young men,因为鸣放铁炮告亲友者只能是船上的人,而不是船本身。在翻译过程中应随时考虑译文的逻辑性。
 

龙船过寨,鸣放铁炮传告亲友,岸上以鞭炮声相呼应。亲友们上前,向船上的人各敬两杯米酒,并将礼品——鹅鸭、彩绸挂于龙头。
When they approach a village, they fire guns to announce their arrival. The villagers set off firecrackers in response and then go to meet them. The hosts present two cups of rice wine to each oarsman and then tie gifts for their relatives—ducks, geese, and colored silks—onto the heads of the dragons.
🎈放铁炮fire guns
放鞭炮set off firecrackers
🎈作为回应 in response
例句
There’s a lot they can do in response.
美国有很多回应方法。
🎈“…岸上以鞭炮声相呼应。亲友们上前…”可以按处理为原文断句…, to which the villagers set off firecrackers in response. Then they go to meet…。但这样细读起来缺乏连贯性,原文的场景应为:船在铁炮声中逐渐approach,亲友们在鞭炮声中双向奔赴go to,最后汇合meet。参考译文对句子的安排较为合理。

 
如系女婿、姑舅等至亲,送上的礼物则是猪羊。
The traditional gifts for sons-in-law, uncles, and nephews are pigs or sheep.
🎈“女婿、姑舅等至亲”中“女婿”好翻,难的是“姑舅等至亲”。中国亲戚关系较为复杂,但至亲也就是比较亲近的“表X”,此处不用过于纠结,处理为uncles, and nephews即可。

 
下午四时左右,龙船靠岸休息,水手们将糯米饭团和肉类放置船帮上就餐。不用碗筷,双手捏出的糯米饭团格外清香可口。
At 4 p. m. the boats stop alongside the riverbank. The drummers and oarsmen on the boats eat glutinous rice balls and meat with their fingers.
🎈这句原文描写略有争议,并未交代“糯米饭团”是谁手工捏出的;参考译文给读者传递的信息是“水手们自行用双手捏出糯米饭团…后就餐”,姑且以译文阐释理解此处原文。
 

岸上的妇女和小孩纷纷前来“讨路边饭”。
Women and children on the shore ask the boatmen to share their food.
🎈注意表达替换:drummers and oarsmen、boatmen。
 

传说,吃了龙船上的食品,能消灾免难,百事如愿。
It is said that eating food from a dragon-boat protects one from disaster and gives good luck.
🎈保护…免受…protect…from…
 

岸上,还有苗家传统的赛马、斗牛、踩鼓等活动。
Horse races and bullfights are held during the festival.
🎈此处“踩鼓”一词可不译。下文“姑娘们身着节日盛装,应着木鼓鼓点翩翩起舞”实际上是对这一词的解释。译出后也就将这种娱乐形式表达清楚了。

 
酒姑娘们身着节日盛装,应着木鼓鼓点翩翩起舞。
Girls in holiday dress dance to the accompaniment of drums. 
🎈in holiday dress(身着节日盛装)作girls的后置定语。
🎈dance to…本身就表示“随着…起舞”了,参考译文中的accompaniment其实有些多余。
 

飞歌往来,昼夜不绝,青年男女通过对歌,互相了解,建立感情,增进团结和友谊,以致结成幸福家庭。
It is not unusual for young people to meet their future spouses at the songfests held on festival nights.
🎈此句译文基本是译者把原文打碎,自行理解,重新造句后进行双语转换的产物:青年男女们往往会在这节日晚间的歌舞盛宴中觅得一生的伴侣。无论中译英,还是英译中,都要学会自行消化理解产出,在这方面,汉译英的难度比英译汉稍大些。
🔥必背词汇
adorn        v. 装饰,装扮
英义
If something adorns a place or an object, it makes it look more beautiful.
例句
His watercolour designs adorn a wide range of books.
他的水彩设计使许多图书大为生色。
 
ornament       cn.首饰,饰物
英义
Pieces of jewellery are sometimes referred to as ornaments .
例句
I guessed he was the chief because he wore more gold ornaments than the others.
我估计他是酋长,因为他戴的金饰最多。
 
embroider       v.在…上刺绣,绣花
英义
If something such as clothing or cloth is embroidered with a design, the design is stitched into it.
例句
The collar was embroidered with very small red strawberries.
衣领上绣着非常小的红色草莓。
🔥重点表达
龙船节The Dragon-Boat Festival
苗族人民the Miao people
吉祥如意的象征a symbol of good luck
在某人心中/眼中in the eyes of sb
银饰silver ornaments
水柳木a weeping willow tree
农历the lunar month
薅完秧finished weeding their fields
勤劳的conscientious
走亲访友visit friends and relatives
携带礼物bearing gifts
坐在龙颈上straddling the dragon’s neck
德高望重的(the most)respected
男扮女装boys wearing dresses
总共、总计in all
陪嫁品dowry gifts
唱首吉祥歌sings an auspicious song
放铁炮fire guns
放鞭炮set off firecrackers
作为回应 in response
糯米饭团glutinous rice balls
消灾免难,百事如愿protects one from disaster and gives good luck
结成幸福家庭to meet their future spouses
 
🔥复盘测试
龙船节
苗族人民
吉祥如意的象征
在某人心中/眼中
银饰
水柳木
农历
薅完秧
勤劳的
走亲访友
携带礼物
坐在龙颈上
德高望重的
男扮女装
总共、总计
陪嫁品
唱首吉祥歌
放铁炮
放鞭炮
作为回应
糯米饭团
消灾免难,百事如愿
结成幸福家庭
 
🔥表达对比
「参与、参加」有几种表达?
participate: 正式用词,特指参加团体活动,暗示以一个积极的角色参加。
take part in: 侧重参加某项群众性、集体性的事业、工作或活动,突出参加者在其中发挥一定的作用。
attend: 侧重参加或出席会议或学术活动等。
join: 普通用词,指加入党派、团体或游戏活动等。
 
节日里,聚会的苗族同胞,每年有三四万人。
Every year between 30,000 and 40,000 Miaos participate in the festivities.
 
昨天你参与吵架了吗?
Did you take part in the brawl yesterday?
 
数千人(参加了)葬礼。
Thousands of people attended the funeral.
 
他5年前(参军)了。
He joined the Army five years ago.

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《苗族龙船节》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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