《鸲 鹆》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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鸲 鹆

The Story of a Myna
 
🔥提示:鸲鹆(qú yù),俗称八哥。文中的八哥没有现实生活中的人云亦云,却多了些许狡黠。这个故事来自于王汾滨的口述,由毕载积先生记录在册,蒲松龄先生誊写。本篇材料难度在原文为文言文,理解起来没有白话文容易。句子解析部分会提供一种版本的译文,仅供参考。备考内容有相关题型的同学,可以拿这篇练手。(本期活动内容不仅有常规的翻译材料,还穿插含两种译文的材料,并提供了几篇古文翻译,涵盖范围很广,大家珍惜练习机会。)
 
王汾滨言:其乡有养八哥者,教以语言,甚狎习,出游必与之俱,相将数年矣。
Wang Fenbin said that in his village there was a man who had a myna. He trained it to speak and they got attached to each other. Wherever he went he took it with him. They had been together for years.
🎈白话文:在乡里有一个喜欢养八哥的人,教八哥说话,八哥学得很熟练。饲者每每出游都带上它,相伴已经有好几年了。
🎈“甚狎习”未译出,个人看来,这一部分凸显八哥的机巧,不应该省译;got attached to each other指一人一鸟相互陪伴的状态,是增译成分。
 

一日,将过绛州,而资斧已罄,其人愁苦无策。
When he was arriving at Jiangzhou one day, he found that he had run out of money. He was upset, not knowing what to do.
🎈白话文:一天,这个人将要经过山西绛州的时候,盘费已经用光了。这人很愁闷,没有办法。
🎈用光run out of sth /use up sth/eat into sth
夏丏尊《我之于书》
“我的生活费中至少十分之一二是消耗在书上的”译为books have eaten into at least 10-20 percent of my pocket,其中成语 to eat into 作“耗尽”或“花费”解,意同to use up 或 to spend gradually;pocket 作“腰包”解。

 
鸟云:“何不售我?送我王邸,当得善价,不愁归路无资也。” 
The myna said, “Why not sell me? Take me to the prefect and you can sell me for a good price and traveling expenses will be no problem.”
🎈白话文:八哥说:“为什么不把我卖掉?送我到王府去,你会得到好价钱,就不用愁回去无路费啦。”
🎈to the prefect:别看错,是prefect(地方行政长官),而不是perfect(完美的)

 
其人云:“我安忍。”
The man said, “I can’t bear to sell you.”
🎈白话文:这人说:“我怎么忍心呢?”
🎈舍不得、无法忍受、不忍心can’t bear to
例句
can’t bear to think of you living in that horrible, filthy attic.
想到你要生活在那样一间肮脏可怕的阁楼里,我受不了。

 
鸟言:“不妨。主人得价疾行,待我城西二十里大树下。” 
The myna said, “That’s nothing. As soon as you get the money, get away from here quickly and wait for me under a big tree about twenty li west of town.”
🎈白话文:八哥说:“不妨!你得到钱就赶快走,在城西二十里地的大树下等我。”
🎈about twenty li west of town:其中west of和in the west of同义。
方位与地名(《武峰十二天》)
West Africa 西非(人为划分的行政区域)
Western Beijing 北京的西部(自然地里意义上的范围)
The west of Beijing 北京的西边(不在北京范围之内)
🎈吴冠中《绿衣姑娘》“墙外胡同里”译为from the small lane back of my house,其中back of和at the back of 同义。
 

其人从之。
The man took its advice.
🎈白话文:这人听从了八哥的话。
 

携至城,相问答,观者渐众。
He went to town with the bird, engaging it in brief conversations. Soon they attracted many onlookers.
🎈白话文:饲者带着八哥到城里,与八哥相互问答对话,围着看的人越来越多。
🎈使参与,使参加谈话engage sb in conversation/discussion
例句
We want to engage recognized leaders in discussion.
我们想和公认的领袖们进行讨论。

 
有中贵见之,闻诸王。
The steward of the prefect saw the bird and told the prefect about it.
🎈白话文:有个太监见到,告诉了王爷。
🎈“王爷”译作prefect,别看错,可不是perfect(完美的)。
 

王召入,欲买之。
The prefect summoned the man to his house and he wanted to buy the bird.
🎈白话文:王爷把这人召入王府,想买这只八哥。
 

其人曰:“小人相依为命,不愿卖。” 
The man said, “We depend on each other for survival. I cannot sell it to you.”
🎈白话文:这人说:“小人与八哥相依为命,不愿意把它卖掉。”
🎈“相依为命”说白了就是离了对方不能活,现译作depend on each other for survival。

 
王问鸟:“汝愿住否?”言:“愿住。”王喜。
The prefect asked the bird, “Do you like to stay with me?” The bird answered, “Yes, I do.” The prefect was delighted to hear it.
🎈白话文:爷问八哥说:“你愿意住下吗?”八哥说:“愿意。”王爷听了很是高兴。
🎈皮一下,Yes, I do.,得一良人(划掉)良鸟相伴的愿望成功实现,换我我也开心。

 
鸟又言:“给价十金,勿多予。” 
Then the bird said again, “Give him ten liang of silver and no more.” 
🎈白话文:八哥又说:“给十两银子,不要多给。”

 
王益喜,立畀十金。
The prefect was all the more delighted. He gave the man ten liang of silver.
🎈白话文:王爷更加高兴了,立刻给了十两银子。
🎈all the more的用法(摘自英语常用词疑难用法手册):中国人不习惯使用这个词组,因为译成中文是“更加”,似乎同英文的more或even more差不多。但其实all the more表示的“更加”,是前后文说出了原因或隐含不明言原因的,而简单的more或even more则不涉及原因。E.g. For this very reason, their recklessness is all the harder to forgive. 正是由于这个原因,他们的鲁莽就更难原谅。

 
其人故作懊恨状而去。
The man left, with a feigned look of dejection.
🎈白话文:这人故意作出很懊悔的样子走了。
🎈feigned adj假装的
feign sth/feign to do sth 假装,装作,佯装(有某种感觉或生病、疲倦等)
例句
He survived the massacre by feigning death.
他装死才在大屠杀中死里逃生。

 
王与鸟言,应对便捷。
The prefect asked the bird questions and the bird answered with great readiness.
🎈白话文:爷与八哥对话,八哥皆能对答如流。
🎈with great readiness和very readily都对,看你和哪个表达对眼,选一个就行。
 

呼肉啖之。
He ordered to give it meat to eat. 
🎈白话文:王爷命人拿肉给八哥吃。 
🎈之前提过猪肉、牛肉和羊肉(pork, beef and mutton)有专门对应的单词,不要笼统译成meat。但这里没有具体说明,模糊处理成meat就可以了。

 
食已,鸟曰:“臣要浴。”
The moment it finished the meat, the bird said, “I want to take a bath.”
🎈白话文:吃完,八哥说:“臣要洗澡。”
🎈the moment/instant/minute/second…(that) 表示“一……就……”,that经常可以省略。moment等词前可以用very修饰。
例句
I started the very moment I got your letter.
我一接到你的信就动身了。
🎈“吃光”用finish off,不建议使用finish。

 
王命金盆贮水,开笼令浴。
The prefect ordered to bring a gold basin, fill it with water, open the cage and let it bathe in it.
🎈白话文:王爷命府人用金盆盛上水,打开笼子叫它洗。
🎈bath和bathe的区别:
1. bath的用法
  (1) 用作名词,一般指在室内的浴室或浴缸里“洗澡”,是可数名词;英国英语和美国英语都用它,但搭配上稍有差别,英国英语多用have a bath,而美国英语多用take a bath。如:
  I shall have [take] a hot bath and go to bed. 我洗个热水澡就将上床睡觉了。
  (2) 用作动词,也指在室内的浴室或浴缸里“洗澡”,只用于英国英语中;在美国英语中一般不这样用,要表示类似用法美国人会用bathe。如:
  I bath(英)[bathe(美)] every night. 我每晚洗澡。
  She bathed in cold water winter and summer. 不论寒暑她都用凉水洗澡。
  但是,即使在英国英语中,bath用作动词是比较正式的用法,在非正式文体中,人们通常会用have a bath或take a bath。
  另外,在英国英语中,bath还可用作及物动词,后接宾语,但在美国中英语中则用bathe。如:It’s your turn to bath [bathe] the baby. 该你给孩子洗澡了。
2. bathe的用法
  (1) 用作名词,指到室外的河里或海里等“游泳”,主要用于英国英语中,属比较正式的用法。如:
  It’s a sunny day. Let’s go for a bathe. 今天天气晴朗,咱们游泳去吧。
  (2) 用作动词,也指到室外的河里或海里等“游泳”,也主要用于英国英语中。如:
  On hot days we often bathe [go bathing] in the river. 天热时我们常在河里[去河里]游泳。
  该用法属比较正式的用法,在非正式文体里,一般说have a swim, go for a swim, go swimming, 或者就说swim。如:
  Let’s go for a swim in the river. 咱们下河游泳吧。
  另外,在美国英语中,bathe经常用来表示“洗澡”,相当于英国英语中的bath。如:
  I always bathe(美)[bath(英)] before I go to bed. 我睡觉前总要洗个澡。
3. bathe无论在英国英语还是美国英语中,都可以表示用水冲洗身上疼痛的部位,此时为及物动词。如:
  The nurse bathed the wound. 护士冲洗伤口。
  The doctor told him to bathe his eyes twice a day. 医生叫他每天洗眼两次。
4. 汉语说“日光浴”,说成英语是sunbathe,不是sunbath。如:
  I like to sunbathe in the morning when the sun is not so hot. 我喜欢在早晨阳光不太强烈时沐日常浴。
 
浴已,飞檐间,梳翎抖羽,尚与王喋喋不休。
When the bath was over, the bird flew up to the eave where it shook off the water and trimmed its plumage, in the meantime, chattering away with the prefect.
🎈白话文:洗完后,八哥飞到屋檐间,梳理着羽毛,还和王爷喋喋不体地说着话。
🎈抖落、摆脱、甩掉shake off
🎈chattering away with the prefect是伴随状语。in the meantime是插入语,将其和伴随状语一起理解。
 

顷之,羽燥,翩跹而起,操晋声曰:“臣去呀!” 
In another moment its plumage was dried and the bird fluttered up, saying in the local accent, “I am going, sir.”
🎈白话文:一会儿,羽毛干了,便轻捷地飞起来,操着山西口音说:“臣去了!” 
🎈片刻之后、转瞬间In another moment
🎈be going to do和will的区别
be going to表示将要发生的事情,will表示的时间则较远一些;
be going to有计划、准备的意思,will没有;
be going to表示事先经过考虑的打算,will表示意愿、决心。

 
顾盼已失所在。
When they looked up to see, the bird was out of sight.
🎈白话文:就在王爷左顾右盼的时候,八哥已经飞得不见了踪影。
🎈某物消失/不见sth. vanish/be out of sight

 
王及内侍,仰面咨嗟。
The prefect and his servants could do nothing but sigh toward the sky.
🎈白话文:王爷和府上的侍从们,只能仰天叹息。
🎈do nothing but增强了表达效果。

 
急觅其人,则已渺矣。
When servants were sent to look for the birdman he was nowhere to be found.
🎈白话文:仆人们急忙去找那卖八哥的人,这人也早已渺无踪影了。
🎈无处可寻 be nowhere to be found/seen
例句
My wallet is nowhere to be found.
我的钱包哪儿也找不见。
The children were nowhere to be seen. 
孩子们都没影儿了。

 
后有往秦中者,见其人携鸟在西安市上。
Later someone, traveling to Shaanxi, saw the man with his bird in Xi’an.
🎈白话文:后来,有到陕西的人,见到那人带着那只八哥在西安市上(闲逛)
🎈traveling to Shaanxi是someone的非限制性定语。
 

毕载积先生记。
This story is told by Mr. Bi Zaiji.
🎈白话文:这个故事是毕载积先生记下来的。
🎈查阅背景知识,得知毕载积先生是记录此故事的人,所以可以把told换成recorded,更为准确。
 
🔥必背词汇
sigh        v.叹气,叹息,深呼气
英义
When you sigh, you let out a deep breath, as a way of expressing feelings such as disappointment, tiredness, or pleasure.
例句
Michael sighed wearily.
迈克尔疲惫地叹了口气。
 
onlooker        cn.旁观者
英义
An onlooker is someone who watches an event take place but does not take part in it.
例句
A handful of onlookers stand in the field watching.
少数几个旁观者站在现场观看。
 
trim         v.修剪,剪
英义
If you trim something, for example someone’s hair, you cut off small amounts of it in order to make it look neater and tidier.
例句
My friend trims my hair every eight weeks.
我朋友每 8 个星期为我修剪一次头发。
 
summon      v.召唤,传唤,召见
英义
If you summon someone, you order them to come to you.
例句
Howe summoned a doctor and hurried over.
豪叫了医生,然后匆忙赶了过来。
 
prefect         cn.地方行政长官,地方政府部门领导
英义
In some countries, a prefect is the head of the local government administration or of a local government department.
例句
the prefect of the city
该市的市长
 
plumage          un.鸟的全身羽毛
英义
A bird’s plumage is all the feathers on its body.
例句
The bright plumage of a parrot made it beloved by people.
鹦鹉的一身华丽羽毛使人们很爱它。
 
feign         v.装作,假装,冒充
英义
If someone feigns a particular feeling, attitude, or physical condition, they try to make other people think that they have it or are experiencing it, although this is not true.
例句
One morning, I didn’t want to go to school, and decided to feign illness.
有天早晨我不想上学,于是决定装病。
 
🔥重点表达
用光run out of sth /use up sth/eat into sth
舍不得、无法忍受、不忍心can’t bear to
使参与,使参加谈话engage sb in conversation/discussion
相依为命depend on each other for survival
假装,装作,佯装(有某种感觉或生病、疲倦等)feign sth/feign to do sth 
吃光、一饮而尽finish off
抖落、摆脱、甩掉shake off
片刻之后、转瞬间In another moment
某物消失/不见sth. vanish/be out of sight
无处可寻 be nowhere to be found/seen
🔥复盘测试
用光
舍不得、无法忍受、不忍心
使参与,使参加谈话
相依为命
假装,装作,佯装(有某种感觉或生病、疲倦等)
吃光、一饮而尽
抖落、摆脱、甩掉
片刻之后、转瞬间
某物消失/不见
无处可寻
🔥表达对比
「摆脱」有几种表达?
 
浴已,飞檐间,梳翎(抖)羽,尚与王喋喋不休。
When the bath was over, the bird flew up to the eave where it shook off the water and trimmed its plumage, in the meantime, chattering away with the prefect.
 
那是该国(摆脱)经济危机的最后一搏。
It represents a last ditch attempt by the country to extricate itself from its economic crisis.
 
老伴埋怨我不该(捉掉)了蟋蟀!
She blamed it on my having got rid of the cricket.
 
他巧妙地(摆脱)那场争吵。
He maneuvered himself out of the quarrel.
 
这个练习将帮助你(摆脱这些)。
This exercise will help free you of that.
 
有种充满希望和解脱的奇妙感觉,好似(卸下了)一副千斤重担。
There was an extraordinary feeling of hope and relief, as if a great burden had been cast off.

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