《铜 镜》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

朗读这篇文章

铜 镜

The Bronze Mirror
 
我们在参观博物馆时,常常看到各种古代铜镜。
Whenever we visit a museum, we see various types of ancient bronze mirrors.
🎈whenever引导时间状语从句时,表示“每当;一……就……”,与when用法相似,但whenever语气更强烈;whenever引导让步状语从句时,表示“无论何时”,相当于at whatever time, no matter when。
🎈辨析brass和bronze、copper(颜色上有区别):
1、copper是纯铜,俗称红铜或者紫铜,古时候用的铜钱就是copper。(cop这个词就是copper的简称,因为从前警察的制服用的是铜扣,copper button,所以人们就用copper来指代警察)
2、bronze,意为青铜,像古文物中的青铜器、青铜车马,就是bronze ware。
3、brass为黄铜,颜色为浅黄色。

 
它是我国古代人民用来整容的家庭日用品。这些铜镜大多是从古墓中出土的,也有少数是传世之物。
Used as a household necessity for dressing by the ancient Chinese people, these bronze mirrors were mostly unearthed from ancient tombs, while some are kept as heirlooms.
🎈家庭日用品a household necessity
🎈“整容”并非美容手术,而是指“(对着镜子)整理仪容”。
 

早在公元前11世纪,我国先民已经使用铜镜了。
Our ancestors started to use bronze mirrors in as early as the 11th century B.C.
🎈as early as the 11th century B.C:第二个 as 引导比较状语从句,从句经常省略成分,这是承前省略后的结果。补充完整为:Our ancestors started to use bronze mirrors as early as they use bronze mirrors in the 11th century B.C.

 
战国时期,铜镜在民间盛行。
During the Warring States Period, bronze mirrors prevailed among the populace.
🎈战时期国the Warring States Period
🎈“在民间盛行”不用专门去译“民间”,老百姓能用的东西,王公贵族必定能用,或者不屑于用,理解成广为流行即可。
 

镜的正面磨光发亮,背面有的饰单层或双层花纹,常见的有兽面纹、花叶纹、龙凤纹等。
The front side of the mirrors, after being polished, glistens while the backside is embellished with single-layered or double-layered patterns, among which the commonly seen are those of animal faces, flowers and leaves, dragons and phoenixes.
🎈while the backside is…:while含对比意味。
🎈among which the commonly seen are…:the +形容词/过去分词形式 表示一类人或事物,作主语时,谓语动词用复数。如: The injured were saved after the fire。
 

西汉时期,铜镜较厚重,纹饰多几何图案、神人和禽兽纹等。并有铸刻铭文,每句仅三至四字,例如:“长相思”、“毋相忘”、“常富贵”、“乐未央”等。
During the Western Han Period, the bronze mirrors used to be relatively thick and heavy. Most of the decorative patterns were of geometrical forms, supernatural figures, or fowls and animals, accompanied by inscriptions of only three or four characters with such meanings as “eternal love”, “never to forget”, “wealth for ever” and “everlasting happiness”.
🎈西汉时期the Western Han Period
🎈注意译文的衔接。这一句原文之间虽有句号切分,但整体都是在描述西汉时期铜镜的铸刻字/图,故译文合成一句译,用accompanied by将“纹饰”和“铭文”连接起来;“每句仅……”也未另起一句,而是直接以with复合结构补充附加信息。
🎈forever和for ever区别如下:forever可以放在句末做状语,也可以放在句中修饰动词;而for ever只可以放在句末做状语。
 

内容多是通俗的吉祥语。
The content frequently dealt with common well-wishings.
🎈dealt with理解为“与……相关;涉及”,也可替换为were (about)
🎈吉祥语→祝福语well-wishings
表示良好祝愿的人well-wishers
(投币)许愿井wishing well

 
宋、元时期出现了圆镜、长方镜、菱镜、八棱镜和带柄手镜等。
During the Song and Yuan Dynasties the bronze mirrors appeared in all shapes: round, rectangular, rhomboidal, octagonal, and those with a handle.
🎈对于“列举”的处理:1such as、for example等词;2、冒号;3、破折号;4、有时也可用小括号。
🎈四边形rectangle
五边形 pentagon
六边形 hexagon
七边形 heptagon
八边形octagon

 
清代以后,逐渐被玻璃镜所代替。
Since the Qing Dynasty, however, the bronze mirror has gradually given way to the glass mirror.
🎈此句也可译成:The bronze mirror has been gradually replaced by the glass mirror.或The glass mirror has been gradually substituted for the bronze mirror。注意replace与substitute的用法差异。

 
上海博物馆展出一件铜镜——“透光镜”,它是西汉时期的珍品,直径为 11.5厘米。
In Shanghai Museum, one finds a treasure of the Western Han Period, the “penetrative bronze mirror”, measuring 11.5 cm in diameter.
🎈这句也可译成In shanghai Museum, a treasure of the Western Han Period—the “penetrative bronze mirror”, measuring 11.5 cm in diameter—is shown.或主语修饰语用定语从句来表示。但无论采用何种译法,整个主语部分都显得累赘,整个句子看起来也就显得不协调。为了避免这一问题,这里最好使用主动语态,用不定代词one作主语似是最佳选择。
 

这面铜镜与普通铜镜一样,背面有图案,还有铭文。
Like ordinary bronze mirrors it bears patterns and inscriptions on the back.
🎈辨析ordinary和common
ordinary是强调一个东西毫无新意十分普通平凡。
common不带有感情色彩,单纯表示某种现象的出现频率高分布广。
🎈bears patterns and inscriptions:积累bear一词的用法。
吴冠中《哭》
……在霍去病墓前,在秦俑坑前,在碑林博物馆的汉唐石雕前……
… before the Chin Dynasty terra cotta warriors and horses and before the Han Tang upright stone tablets bearing ancient inscriptions.
冰心《生命从八十岁开始》
……旁边写着“冰心同志八十大寿”……
It bears the inscriptions “On the 80th birthday of Comrade Bing Xin”…

 
奇怪的是,当一束光线照到镜面,反射投影在墙壁上,墙上的光亮圈内竟出现铜镜背面的图案和文字,好像从镜背“透”过来的,故称“透光镜”。
But what amazes people is that when a bundle of rays is projected onto the surface of the mirror, which, in turn, reflects the light on the wall, the patterns and inscriptions on the backside are shown in the ring of the light, as if they had penetrated the whole thickness of the mirror. Hence the name of the mirror.
🎈when a bundle of rays is projected onto the surface of the mirror后引入了一个非限制性定语从句,因此which前用逗号;in turn是插人语,前后都用逗号。
🎈“奇怪的是”译作what amazes people is that,未译作what’s strange is…。此处“奇怪”更倾向于“惊奇”,表示人们见到从未见过的玩意儿时的心情。
🎈一束a bundle of
一口a mouthful of 
一皮箱a suitcaseful of 
🎈……投影到……sth be projected…
投影仪projector
🎈in turn是插入语。
in turn有多个意思:“依次”、“轮流”、 “反过来”。
例句
Let’s look at each of these in turn.
让我们依次看看这些。
All women would take turns to do cooking for one year.
妇女轮班煮饭,轮到就煮一年。
In turn, they exacerbate global warming.反过来它们加剧全球变暖。
🎈as if从句的两种用法:
一、 as if 从句用陈述语气(相对于虚拟语气而言),即你所表达的句子是真实的或极有可能发生或存在的事实时。设想语境:比方说你现在屋里看不到外面的情况,却听到了雨滴声,表达如下:It sounds as if it is raining. 听起来像是在下雨。
二、as if 从句用虚拟语气,当说话人认为句子所述的是不真实的或极少有可能发生或存在的情况时。从句虚拟语气动词时态的形式如下:
(1)如果从句表示与现在事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去时。
(2)从句表示与过去事实相反,谓语动词用“had+过去分词”。
(3)从句表示与将来事实相反,谓语动词用“would/could/might+动词原形。

 
对于这种现象,在过去很长的时间里,连科学家们都感到惊奇,人们把它称做“魔镜”。
For a long time in the past, even scientists were so puzzled at the phenomenon that it was called a “magic mirror”.
🎈此处的“惊奇”译作了puzzled,并无不妥。科学家是不断探索未知领域并进行解释的人群,因当时无法解释该种现象,故而puzzled(感到困惑)。

 
今天,我国已可仿制出售,作为旅游纪念品,很受外国游客的欢迎。
Today, reproductions of this mirror are being made and sold as souvenirs and they appeal very much to tourists.
🎈“很受外国游客的欢迎”除译作appeal very much to tourists外,也可译作are very/fairly popular with/among foreign tourists。
 

我国古代常把铜镜当做随葬品。
In ancient times, bronze mirrors were very often used as sacrificial objects.
🎈古代ancient times
🎈经常very often
🎈“当做”可译作were used as或served as。
 

在古墓中,往往发现铜镜放置在死者的头顶或胸侧。
In the ancient tombs, one can always expect to find bronze mirrors placed on top of the head or beside the chest of the dead. 
🎈expect to并不指“期待”,而是表示“估计”,指事情发生的一种可能性。one can always expect to find bronze mirrors placed on…可改写为bronze mirrors were expected to be found placed on…。
 

有时把铜镜和木梳一起放在漆匣内或小荷包里。
Sometimes, bronze mirrors and combs were put together in lacquer boxes or small pouches.
🎈“墓”是tomb,“梳子”是comb,“爆炸”是bomb;“攀爬”是climb(b不发音)
 

在发掘古墓时,还发现有的铜镜放在墓顶上方,据说这是为了“辟邪”和“降妖”。
In unearthing ancient tombs, bronze mirrors were sometimes discovered on the inner topsides, in order to keep away evil spirits and subdue demons, so it was said.
🎈本文出现的-side: 
正面the front side  
背面the backside
旁边、侧面beside
上面topside
🎈不让接近某人(或某事物)keep … away (from …)
例句
Her illness kept her away from work for several weeks.
她病得好几周都上不了班。
🎈so it was said按it was said so(据说如此)理解即可。so只是一个副词,指(某一情况)就是这样,事实如此。例如:It is strange to think that he held strong views on many things, but it must have been so.现在想来,当时他在许多事情上的观点都非常强硬,真是不可思议——可情况确实如此。
 
🔥必背词汇 
bronze        un.青铜,铜锡合金
英义
Bronze is a yellowish-brown metal which is a mixture of copper and tin.
例句
bronze statue of Giorgi Dimitrov
乔治·季米特洛夫的青铜塑像
 
necessity         cn.必需品,必不可少的事物
英义
A necessity is something that you must have in order to live properly or do something.
例句
Water is a basic necessity of life.
生命离不开水。
 
unearth        v.发掘,挖掘埋藏物
英义
If someone unearths something that is buried, they find it by digging in the ground.
例句
Fossil hunters have unearthed the bones of an elephant believed to be 500,000 years old.
化石搜集者们发掘出了一具大象骨骼,据信距今已有50万年。
 
heirloom        cn.祖传遗物;传家宝
英义
An heirloom is an ornament or other object that has belonged to a family for a very long time and that has been handed down from one generation to another.
例句
a family heirloom
传家宝
 
prevail         v.情形、态度、风俗盛行,流行,普遍
英义
If a situation, attitude, or custom prevails in a particular place at a particular time, it is normal or most common in that place at that time.
例句
A similar situation prevails in America.
相似的情况在美国随处可见。
 
embellish        v. 美化,装饰,布置
英义
to make sth more beautiful by adding decorations to it.
例句
The door of the old church was embellished with decorations.
老教堂的门是用雕饰美化的。
 
🔥重点表达
各种古代铜镜various types of ancient bronze mirrors
家庭日用品a household necessity
出土 unearth
古墓ancient tombs
早在公元前11世纪in as early as the 11th century B.C
战时期国the Warring States Period
西汉时期the Western Han Period
正面the front side of
单层或双层花纹single-layered or double-layered patterns
纹饰the decorative patterns
长相思eternal love
毋相忘never to forget
常富贵wealth for ever
乐未央everlasting happiness
吉祥语well-wishings
铭文inscriptions
背面on the back
一束光线a bundle of rays
光亮圈the ring of the light
很受(外国)游客的欢迎appeal very much to tourists
随葬品sacrificial objects
漆匣lacquer boxes
小荷包small pouches
辟邪keep away evil spirits
降妖subdue demons
神人supernatural figures
 
🔥复盘测试
各种古代铜镜
家庭日用品
出土
古墓
早在公元前11世纪
战时期国
西汉时期
正面
单层或双层花纹
纹饰
长相思
毋相忘
常富贵
乐未央
吉祥语
铭文
背面
一束光线
光亮圈
很受(外国)游客的欢迎
随葬品
漆匣
小荷包
辟邪
降妖
神人
 
🔥表达对比
「各种、多种」有几种表达?
我们在参观博物馆时,常常看到(各种)古代铜镜。
Whenever we visit a museum, we see various types of ancient bronze mirrors.
 
回答(纷纭)的很 ……
The answers varied.
 
我们以(各种)方式获得设备。
We get equipment in a variety of ways.
 
这里没有车马,只有往来如织的(大小)汽艇,代替了公共汽车和小卧车;
There are no motor vehicles. In place of buses and motor cars, motorboats of various descriptions speed to and fro on the congested waterways.
 
客户的需求是(多种多样)。
Customers have a wide range of needs.
 
作为愤青一族,其观点通常(多种多样)。
As a group, “fenqing” are very diverse in their opinions.

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《铜 镜》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

赞 (0)