《困水记——何为》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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困水记——何为

Stranded in a Flood ——He Wei
 
🔥背景知识:《困水记》是散文家何为写于2001年8月的一篇小品。作者年老多病,孤居闹市,住房累累水淹,倾诉苦楚,并鼓励广大老龄人加强自我保护意识,坚强生活下去。
 
🎈题目「困水记」可译为Stranded in a Flood或Stuck in a Flood。
 
本月上旬,相隔仅一天,我家老房子先后遭逢两次水灾。
Early last month, my old house was twice flooded within three days.
🎈欣赏本句是如何巧妙地把「本月上旬Early last month」、「相隔仅一天within three days」、「逢两次twice」放置在一个句子中的。
🎈在英语中,有不少表示时间的状语前是不加介词的:
①在today, tomorrow, yesterday, the day before yesterday等表示时间概念的名词前一般不用介词
例句
We have had six lessons today.
我们今天上了六节课。
②由this, that ,these, those 等用于表示时间概念的名词前,前面往往不加介词
例句
What are you busy with these days?
这几天你在忙些什么?
③由next, last, the next, the last 等用于表示时间概念的名词前时,前面不用介词修饰
例句
We planted many trees last spring.
去年春天我们栽了许多树。
④在each, any, every, some, all 等用于表示时间概念的名词前,一般不用介词来修饰
例句
We have to get up very early every day.
每天我们都必须早早起来。(有时候加on等,是因为是具体的某天上午或下午前)
 

旧筑地处繁华市区的低洼地,多年来常为积水所困,
Situated in a low-lying part of the busy downtown area, it has for years been subject to floods.
🎈「多年来常为积水所困」可按「多年来常被水淹」译为has for years been subject to floods或has been flooded time and again in recent years。

 
但水漫厨房乃至客厅,登堂入室,以今年这两次最为严重,尤其是第二次。
But the worst flood occurred this year, especially after the second rain, with our kitchen, sitting room and even bedrooms all covered with water.
🎈「尤其是第二次」译作after the second rain。译成especially the second one/flood是可以的。参考译文的处理方法是添加了一点并不改变原文意思的信息:下大雨发洪水。
 

是日,上午十点许,出门上街到对马路的医院治眼疾。
On the morning of that day, I went to the hospital on the other side of the street at about 10 o’clock to see an eye-doctor.
🎈「对马路的医院」即马路对面的医院,译作the hospital on the other side of the street。
 

不久就听到雨声雷声,顷刻间窗外白茫茫的雨水混沌一片。
Soon a fierce thunderstorm broke out and I saw a vast expanse of foamy floodwater outside the window.
🎈爆发、突如其来break out
🎈一片a vast expanse of
郑振铎《离别》
一片的金光
was a vast expanse of gold
郭沫若《水墨画》
天空一片灰暗
The sky was a sheet of murky grey.
 

百年罕见的特大暴雨,狂泻如瀑布,如山洪暴发。雨水的急骤猛烈,雨量之大,真是惊心动魄。
It was an exceptionally serious rainstorm, dashing down like a cataract or mountain torrents. What a scary scene!
🎈「百年罕见」实则从侧面烘托洪水来势凶猛,现译作exceptionally serious。
🎈百年难得一遇可译为is hard to come by even once in a century或once-in-a-lifetime。又,千载难逢为a blue moon.
🎈「真是惊心动魄」处理为what引导的感叹句。其中scary是「惊心动魄」所表现出来的核心:吓人。
 

治病购药完毕,只能在候诊大厅呆等,病人都被突如其来的狂风暴雨困住了。
The patients were stranded by the sudden downpour. All we could do was sit in the big hospital waiting room after having the prescriptions filled.
🎈「购药完毕」可按「配完药」译为after having the prescriptions filled (或made up)
🎈All we could do was sit…:之前见过好几次,口诀是前有do,后省to。
🎈bedroom卧室
the reception room接待室、客房
bathroom浴室、洗澡间
the waiting room of XX station指候车厅。
the changing room更衣室
the fitting room试衣间
the dining room餐厅
the guest room客厅
 

坐在我旁边的一位七十多岁病者,为坐困水城频频叹气。
Sitting by my side was a patient in his seventies. He kept sighing over the nasty weather.
🎈Sitting by my side was a patient:
英语中,有些倒装是出于语法上的需要,非用倒装语序不可,具有强制性;有些则是为了达到某种修辞效果,如强调、平衡、衔接等。
老舍《想北平》
面向着积水滩,背后是城墙……
while facing me lies Ji Shui Tan Pond and right behind me rises the high city wall同理。
🎈在其七十多岁的时候in his seventies
🎈sigh over…后接叹气的原因。
 

此公听说多年前我住过的羁旅之地,顿时眉飞色舞提高嗓门,大说其福州话,原来他是福州人。
Learning that I had been a dweller of Fuzhou many years ago, he brightened up at once and began to speak the Fuzhou dialect loudly. He turned out to be a native of Fuzhou.
🎈羁旅
1、指的是长久寄居他乡
2、指客居异乡的人
🎈积累brighten up在此句语境中的用法。其英义为to start to look happy again(高兴)
例句
Oh, I know the answer!’ she said, brightening up.
冯骥才《富人区》
嫉妒?”他眉毛一扬,笑道,“何止嫉妒,恨不得把那小子宰了!
“Jealous?” he brightened up and said with a smile. “Not only jealous. We’re dying to finish off these rich guys.”
🎈证明是/原来是 turn out to be
 

说起当地的一连串风味小吃,两人都如数家,谈得津津有味。
We began to chat with relish about the typical local delicacies of Fuzhou like we were enumerating our family treasures.
🎈「如数家珍」可译为like we were enumerating our family treasures或as if we were examining one by one our family treasures with delight,或as if we were naming with delight each of our family valuables。

 
话一停,发现外面的陆地成了海洋,于是只能坐下来再谈榕城风情,借以消磨时间。
Then, during a break in the conversation, we found the streets submerged by water, so we had to sit down and resume chatting about Fuzhou so as to while away the time.
🎈found the streets submerged by water是find +宾语 +宾补结构
🎈「再谈榕城风情」指「继续刚刚的对话」,故选用resume一词。
🎈消磨时间while away the time
梁实秋《养成好习惯》
常听人讲过“消遣”二字,最是要不得,好像是时间太多无法打发的样子…
People often talk most improperly about “seeking relaxation” as if they had more than enough time for them to while away.
 

暴雨来势虽猛,其实时间并不太长,由于苦等心焦,感到这场雨像是没完没了。
The violent storm did not last long at all. But it seemed interminable due to my impatience.
🎈「暴雨来势虽猛,其实时间并不太长」译作The violent storm did not last long at all,讲「来势虽猛」处理为了storm的前置定语。此外,也可以译作the storm is violent but not lasting
 

终于有人试探地撑着伞向雨街走去,我也跟着起步踏上归程。
At last, as I saw someone venture into the wet street under an umbrella, I just followed suit.
🎈「试探地撑着」按「壮着胆子」之意译作venture into…
🎈「我也跟着起步踏上归程」可按「我也跟着这样做」译为I just followed suit,取其简洁。其中,follow suit是惯用搭配,指「跟着某人做,仿效某人,照着做」
 

医院的边门距我家不过一箭之遥,过马路不远就是我家的弄堂口。
It’s only a stone’s throw from the hospital to my home, which is situated at the entrance of a lane across the street.
🎈一箭之遥 a stone’s throw away
与……离得不远 are situated within a stone’s throw of
 

这一段路历年来不知翻修过多少次,无奈下大雨积水为患,始终没有解决。
The section of the street here has undergone repair I don’t know how many times, yet it still floods whenever there is a rain.
🎈「历年来不知翻修过多少次」译为has undergone repair I don’t know how many times in recent years,其中I don’t know how是英语常用插入语,作状语用。此句也可译为has in recent years been repeatedly repaired。
🎈whenever引导时间状语从句时,表示「每当,一……就……」,与when用法相似,但whenever语气更强烈;whenever引导让步状语从句时,表示「无论何时」,相当于at whatever time, no matter when。
 

这一天路面更是大水泛滥,水深及膝,
Now, on that day, it was flooded knee-deep because of an especially heavy rain.
🎈注意本文中对flood用法的变化,同一个词,不同的用法,相似的意思。
 

我别无选择,只能穿着皮鞋在泽国中小心翼翼地蹒跚而行。
All I could do was stagger along cautiously in the deep water in my leather shoes.
🎈「我别无选择」即「我只能」,译作All I could do was。反话正说。
 

偏偏最近又在修路,通行的只是一半马路,路上坑坑洼洼高高低低,
It happened that the street was under repair with only half of it for free passage, but full of bumps and hollows.
🎈正在维修中be under repair
🎈坑坑洼洼bumps and hollows(颠簸和凹陷)
🎈欣赏译者对于句子的理解,尤其是对but的选用:but前表示「好歹有一半路能走」,but后则是「能走却坑洼的要命」
 

过马路又必须从丁字路口绕道过去。
One had to make a detour at a T-juncture.
🎈绕道make a detour
🎈「丁字路口」译作a T-juncture,是因为汉字「丁」和字母T外观相似。同理,工业领域中的「工型钢」译作I steel,是因为汉字「工」和大写的i长得很像。
 

行人很少。
There were few pedestrians.
🎈如果有人在这里增益了so也是可以的,体现了自己理的逻辑。

 
我颤巍巍地涉水步行,忽然想起自己的年龄。
As I tottered through the water, I suddenly thought of my age.
🎈 本文中:
颤巍巍地tottered through
蹒跚 staggered
遇到这类形容不同种类的「走」的词语,记得积累。
🎈think单独使用时表示「思考」,接that宾语从句时意为「认为、觉得」。think of意为「考虑到、想到」,后常接代词、名词或动词-ing形式。
 

小时候,总感到年龄属于七老八十的长辈们,与自己无关。
When I was a kid, I used to think that age had nothing to do with me and associated it instead only with my elders in their sixties or eighties.
🎈过去常常…… used to do
习惯于…… be used to doing
被用来、将用于 be used to do
🎈has nothing to do with与……无关,表示否定意义。
🎈把A和B联系起来 associate A with B
associate有「联想」之意,即associate是在脑海中主动将物体之间建立connection,体现主观性(区分connect)
 

我的祖父六十岁时早已蓄须,不免显得老态,那时我只有十岁。
When I was ten, my grandpa, at sixty, looked quite old for his age because of the beard he was wearing.
🎈「不免显得老态」译作looked quite old for his age,即「对他的年纪来说,外形显得老态」
🎈wear的直接宾语包括的范围比「衣服」要大得多,可以包括头发发式、胡须、佩戴收拾、眼镜、助听器、耳机、临时脸上带上的小物件等等。还可以后接「表情、神态」
 

现在我年已八十,在浑浊的水中,有如滚滚浪潮中的一叶孤舟。
Now, as an octogenarian, I was like a solitary small boat drifting at the mercy of a large flow of muddy water.
🎈其中drifting at the mercy of是译文中的增译词,意为「在……(浊浪)支配下漂泊」
🎈任…处置、对…无能为力、任由…摆布、受…支配at the mercy of
例句
We were at the mercy of the weather.
我们受制于天气。
 

我闪避汽车开过的泥水飞溅,艰难地过马路,
I barely managed to cross the street, taking care to dodge the muddy water splashed over by cars.
🎈barely managed to指「堪堪(闪过)」,更凸显「过马路的艰难」
🎈splashed over by cars作muddy water的后置定语。
 

进弄堂,推入家门,厨房里满地积水,过道上也是积水,甚至地面较高的客堂后间也浸满大水。
At last I entered the lane and, pushing open the door of my house, I found the kitchen, the passageway and even the place behind the drawing room all flooded.
🎈pushing open the door of my house:push the door open或push open the door,均可。意为「推开门」
 

除了冰箱已提前移开,家具都被水淹,我只有望洋兴叹。
All furniture, except the fridge that had been previously moved elsewhere, was soaking wet. I felt simply helpless.
🎈「我只有望洋兴叹」可按「我只感无可奈何」译为I felt simply helpless,其中simply意同completely。
 

这次去医院不足三小时,大部分时间都在归途上荡漾的水中度过。
Altogether, it took me less than three hours to see the doctor, but a greater part of the time was spent in wading through the floodwater on my way home.
🎈文中:去医院/看病(眼疾)/看医生等译作see the doctor。
 

上了年纪,老年性疾病相继袭来,生活中不少时光都消耗在医院里。
People advanced in age are liable to various kinds of senile diseases. That’s why they spend a lot of time in going to hospital.
🎈上了年纪、上了岁数的advanced in age
🎈易于,容易…… be liable to (do) sth.
liable与likely相近,表示「很可能如何」。但是likely可以指很可能发生的正面和负面的事。liable则偏向于负面。A boy is liable to get run over if he darts out from between parked cars. 男孩子如果从停着的车子之间冲出去,就很可能被汽车压了
 

两个月前不慎伤脚,竟缠上石膏。
Two weeks ago, I had one of my legs in plaster after injuring it through carelessness. 
🎈「缠上石膏」意即「上了石膏」,译为in plaster。
 

“石膏长靴”刚除去,现在又遇水灾。
Now, with the plaster cast removed, I was harassed by a flood. 
🎈「石膏长靴」指「石膏绷带」可译为plaster cast或plaster bandage
 

一个目力不济的八十老翁,无人扶持,不用拐杖,摇摇晃晃在大水中跋涉,似乎有几分勇敢,也有几分悲壮。
It seemed a bit of an act of bravery for me, an 80-year-old man with impaired eyesight, to totter through the floodwater without a helping hand or a walking stick. And it’s something of a stirring tragedy too.
🎈a bit of+n 表示「有点…」
🎈援手a helping hand/a favor
🎈「也有几分悲壮」译为Yet, it’s something of a stirring tragedy too,其中something of作「有点儿」「有几分」解。
 

被无情的岁月推入老龄社会的众多老者,过着凡夫俗子的生活,
Many who have been forced into the ageing society by inexorable time are now living the life of common people. 
🎈「被无情的岁月推入」译作been forced into the ageing society by inexorable time。其中,be forced和inexorable(不容改变的、不可阻挡的)相呼应,表现了「岁月的无情和自己的无可奈何」
🎈「凡夫俗子」按「普通人」之意理解译作common people。
 

惟有自勉自励,加强自我保护意识,坚强地在人生道路上向前走去,否则又如何?
They need more self-encouragement and more awareness of self-protection, and should live on with a strong will. What else can they do?
🎈self-
自勉自励self-encouragement
自我防卫 self-defense means
自暴自弃had no urge for self-improvement
沾沾自喜feel very self-satisfied (或smug)
🎈「否则又如何?」可译为What else can they do? What can they do otherwise?(不然还能干什么?)
 
🔥必背词汇
inexorable       adj.不可阻挡的,不容变更的
英义
You use inexorable to describe a process which cannot be prevented from continuing or progressing.
例句
Facts are inexorable.
事实是无情的。
 
plaster       v.打着石膏,上着筒形石膏夹
英义
If you have a leg or arm in plaster, you have a cover made of plaster of Paris around your leg or arm, in order to protect a broken bone and allow it to mend.
 
harass       v.骚扰,烦扰
英义
If someone harasses you, they trouble or annoy you, for example by attacking you repeatedly or by causing you as many problems as they can.
例句
We are almost routinely harassed by the police.
警方几乎隔三差五地就找我们的麻烦。
 
wade        v. (艰难地)涉,蹚,跋涉
英义
If you wade through something that makes it difficult to walk, usually water or mud, you walk through it.
例句
Rescuers had to wade across a river to reach them.
救援者必须蹚过一条河才能靠近他们。
 
dodge         v.闪开,躲开,避开
英义
If you dodge, you move suddenly, often to avoid being hit, caught, or seen.
例句
He dodged amongst the seething crowds of men.
他在川流不息的人群中东躲西闪。
 
octogenarian         cn.80至89岁的人,八旬老人
英义
An octogenarian is a person who is between eighty and eighty-nine years old.
 
🔥重点表达
先后遭逢两次水灾was twice flooded within three days
繁华市区the busy downtown area
多年来常为积水所困has for years been subject to floods
一片a vast expanse of
被突如其来的狂风暴雨困住了were stranded by the sudden downpour
候诊大厅the hospital waiting room
在其七十多岁的时候in his seventies
眉飞色舞brighten up
证明是/原来是 turn out to be
如数家珍like we were enumerating our family treasures或as if we were examining one by one our family treasures with delight,或as if we were naming with delight each of our family valuables
消磨时间while away the time
没完没了interminable
跟着某人做;仿效某人;照着做follow suit
一箭之遥 a stone’s throw away
及膝knee-deep
我别无选择All I could do was
正在维修中be under repair
坑坑洼洼bumps and hollows
从丁字路口绕道过去make a detour at a T-juncture
过去常常…… used to do
把A和B联系起来 associate A with B
任…处置、对…无能为力、任由…摆布、受…支配at the mercy of
推开门push the door open或push open the door 
易于,容易…… be liable to (do) sth
上了石膏in plaster
援手a helping hand/a favor
过着凡夫俗子的生活are living the life of common people
自勉自励self-encouragement
 
🔥复盘测试
先后遭逢两次水灾
繁华市区
多年来常为积水所困
一片
被突如其来的狂风暴雨困住了
候诊大厅
在其七十多岁的时候
眉飞色舞
证明是/原来是 
如数家珍
消磨时间
没完没了
跟着某人做;仿效某人;照着做
一箭之遥
及膝
我别无选择
正在维修中
坑坑洼洼
从丁字路口绕道过去
过去常常…… 
把A和B联系起来 
任…处置、对…无能为力、任由…摆布、受…支配
推开门
易于,容易…… 
上了石膏
援手
过着凡夫俗子的生活
自勉自励
🔥表达对比
「消磨时间」有几种表达?
话一停,发现外面的陆地成了海洋,于是只能坐下来再谈榕城风情,借以(消磨时间)。 
Then, during a break in the conversation, we found the streets submerged by water, so we had to sit down and resume chatting about Fuzhou so as to while away the time.
此外,越来越多的学生忽视他们的学业,(消磨时间),甚至犯下罪行的感谢协商小组。
In addition, the growing number of students neglect their studies, idle away their time and even commit crimes thanks to CG.
我们如何(消磨)掉这个星期天? 
How can we wear out this Sunday?
他们决定在等火车时去吃东西以(消磨时间) 
While they were waiting for the train they decided to kill some time by going to eat.

未经允许不得转载:帕布莉卡 » 《困水记——何为》 -英语翻译教程-中英双语赏析

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